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1.
J Card Surg ; 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptive mutations of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virus have emerged throughout the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The characterization of outcomes in patients requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe respiratory distress from COVID-19 during the peak prevalence of different variants is not well known. METHODS: There were 131 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection supported by ECMO at two referral centers within a large healthcare system. Three predominant variant phase time windows (Pre-Alpha, Alpha, and Delta) were determined by a change-point analyzer based on random population sampling and viral genome sequencing. Patient demographics and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 46.9 ± 10.5 years and 70.2% (92/131) were male. Patients cannulated for ECMO during the Delta variant wave were younger compared to earlier Pre-Alpha (39.3 ± 7.8 vs. 48.0 ± 11.1 years) and Alpha phases (39.3 ± 7.8 vs. 47.2 ± 7.7 years) (p < .01). The predominantly affected race in the Pre-Alpha phase was Hispanic (52.2%; 47/90), while in Alpha (61.5%; 16/26) and Delta (40%; 6/15) variant waves, most patients were White (p < .01). Most patients received a tracheostomy (82.4%; 108/131) with a trend toward early intervention in later phases compared to Pre-Alpha (p < .01). There was no significant difference between the duration of ECMO, mechanical support, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), or hospital LOS over the three variant phases. The in-hospital mortality was overall 41.5% (54/131) and was also similar. Six-month survival of patients who survived to discharge was 92.2% (71/77). CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in survival or time on ECMO support in patients during the peak prevalence of the three variants.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged and excessive opioid use in the postoperative setting is associated with multiple complications. The use of regional analgesia may reduce postoperative opioid use. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial patients undergoing sternotomy were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a liposomal bupivacaine parasternal block or a normal saline parasternal injection. The primary endpoint was total morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) used in the immediate 72-hour postoperative period. Secondary endpoints were intraoperative opioid use, pain scores, time to reach recovery milestones, and incidence of postoperative complications. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients received a normal saline injection, and 27 patients received an anesthetic sternal block. Randomization achieved excellent balance in demographics and comorbidities between the groups. Total postoperative opioid requirements at 72 hours were similar between the treatment and control groups (25.8 ± 10.4 vs 29.4 ± 16.3 MMEs, P = .60). Intraoperative opioid requirements were also similar between the 2 groups (124.8 ± 222.5 vs 114.9 ± 148.0 MMEs, P = .86). Length of stay in the intensive care unit (3.4 ± 2.5 vs 3.5 ± 2.6 days, P = .86) and hospital (8.7 ± 5.0 vs 7.5 ± 3.0 days, P = .45), time until return of bowel function (3.7 ± 1.4 vs 3.3 ± 1.4 days, P = .42), incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (24% vs 22.2%, P = .88), and incidence of nausea (24% vs 33.3%, P = .46) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Preincisional sternal blockade with liposomal bupivacaine did not reduce the amount of opioid medication administered to patients in the first 72 hours after sternotomy.

3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA) are rare. Open surgery has traditionally been the treatment of choice, and endovascular management has recently been increasingly described. However, operative guidelines have not been defined. METHODS: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify articles related to the symptoms, treatments, and outcomes of ECAAs. Included studies were further evaluated to identify distribution of treatment strategy based on anatomical location by Attigah classification (Type I-V) and aneurysmal type (true versus pseudoaneurysm). RESULTS: Twenty-eight retrospective reviews were included. A total of 906 patients (63% male) with 959 ECAAS were identified. The most common presenting symptoms included neck mass (45%) and neurological deficits (26%), while 218 (23%) were asymptomatic. True aneurysms accounted for 52% and pseudoaneurysms for 45% of cases. Of the 959 ECAAs, 750 were treated with open surgery, 85 with an endovascular procedure, and 124 conservatively. Perioperative complications of open surgery included cranial nerve injuries (CNI) in 9% (68), strokes in 4% (27), and death in 2% (18) of cases. There were no CNI, perioperative stroke, or perioperative mortality associated with 85 endovascular procedures; however, there was 1 case of restenosis (1%). Of the 124 patients treated conservatively, 3% (4) died as a result of the aneurysm. Twenty-two of 28 studies (688 ECAAs) reported anatomical location according to Attigah classification. The distribution of ECAAs were Type I (296/688; 43%), Type II (19/688; 3%), Type III (195/688; 28%), Type IV (76/688: 11%), and Type V (102/688; 15%). Eleven of 28 studies (241 ECAAs) reported treatment choice according to Attigah classification and revealed that the majority of Type I (82%), Type II (81%), Type III (91%), and Type IV (100%) ECAAs were treated via open surgery, while Type V ECAAs were evenly treated by open surgery and endovascular surgery. Twenty-three of 28 studies (780 ECAAs) reported treatment choice stratified by aneurysmal type. Of 417 true ECAAs, 88% were treated open surgically, 4% were treated endovascularly, and 8% were treated conservatively. Of 357 pseudoaneurysms, 67% were treated open surgically, 14% were treated endovascularly, and 19% were treated conservatively. CONCLUSIONS: Most reported patients with ECAAs are symptomatic. Type I and III account for more than two-thirds of ECAAs, while true aneurysms account for roughly half. The vast majority of ECAAs have been treated surgically with results comparable to reoperative carotid endarterectomy. In selected patients, endovascular treatment has been very successful with no reported morbidity or mortality.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337788

RESUMO

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently proposed a substantial cut to reimbursement for surgical services, punctuating a steady decline in reimbursement for clinical services provided by cardiothoracic surgeons over the last several decades. Meanwhile, the costs of practicing cardiothoracic surgery continue to increase. In an effort to defect against diminishing control over patient care and further negative changes affecting reimbursement, cardiothoracic surgeons must be able to convincingly demonstrate their value to patients and the healthcare system. However, the overall contribution of a cardiothoracic surgeon can be difficult to measure objectively and varies widely depending on a host of factors including practice setting, experience, subspecialization, and the local market. To address these challenges, the STS Workforce on Practice Management has commissioned a Writing Task Force to raise awareness, concentrate knowledge, and organize information related to compensation as a comprehensive resource for cardiothoracic surgeons. The purpose of this initial report is to provide an overview of the major factors impacting compensation for cardiothoracic surgeons.

5.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 11(1): 37-45, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic coarctation in the adult is usually associated with chronic systemic hypertension, which leads to the sequelae of congestive heart failure, vascular dysfunction and decreased lifespan. Open and endovascular treatment modalities both provide excellent procedural outcomes with minimal mortality and morbidity, but a structured algorithm for workup and periprocedural decision making is not well established. We outline our heart team decision making approach along with our institution's experience treating this condition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed twenty-four consecutive adult patients treated for aortic coarctation since 2010 at a single center. Outcomes of interest included mortality, treatment approach, device used and post-procedure hypertension status. We describe our protocol for work-up and intervention decision making. We explain our rationale for recommending treatment and the approach, open or endovascular, using existing literature and our experience. RESULTS: Procedural success rate was 100%, and there were no 30-day, one-year or five-year mortalities, whether the approach was open or endovascular. At last contact, 32% of patients were normotensive and no longer taking blood pressure medications. Several patients presented with complex problems as a result of commonly described complications of prior open or endovascular repair, and we describe our approach to the management of these difficult cases. CONCLUSIONS: Even at a high-volume heart and vascular hospital, aortic coarctation is an uncommon presentation in adult patients. Our experience suggests that excellent outcomes are obtained by discussing each patient among a multidisciplinary heart team and developing a work-up and treatment protocol to guide selection of interventional modality.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of structural valve degeneration (SVD) following surgical aortic valve replacement associated with the Trifecta (TF) valve (St Jude Medical) versus other bioprosthetic valves. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for studies comparing durability of the TF prosthesis to other valve types, including Perimount (Edwards Lifesciences), Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna Ease (ME) (Edwards Lifesciences), and Mitroflow (LivaNova USA) after surgical aortic valve replacement. Random effect pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed to compare the incident rate ratio of the composite primary outcome of SVD or reintervention due to SVD. RESULTS: Ten studies with 31,029 patients were included, of whom 6832 received TF, 19,023 received Perimount, 3514 received ME, and 713 received Mitroflow. When compared with TF, ME was associated with lower rates of SVD or reintervention for SVD (incident rate ratio, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.92; P = .04). Similarly, at network meta-analysis, when compared with TF, only ME was associated with significantly lower rates of SVD or reintervention for SVD (incident rate ratio, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.97). ME (incident rate ratio, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.47) and PM (incident rate ratio, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12-0.98) were associated with significantly lower rate of all-cause reintervention when compared with TF. No differences in the other secondary outcomes were found. CONCLUSIONS: The TF valve is associated with significantly higher rates of SVD or reintervention for SVD than the ME valve, but not the Mitroflow valve. The TF valve was also associated with higher rates of all-cause reintervention than ME and Perimount valves. The underlying mechanism(s) of these findings warrant further investigation.

7.
J Vasc Surg ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularization has been recommended for patients undergoing elective thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with a proximal zone 2 landing requiring coverage of the LSA. The clinical standard of care remains surgical LSA revascularization. However, recently, the feasibility of using branched endografts has been demonstrated. We compared the perioperative and mid-term outcomes of these approaches. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent TEVAR with a proximal zone 2 landing at a single center from 2014 to 2020. The patients were divided into cohorts for comparison: those who underwent surgical revascularization (SR-TEVAR group) and those who underwent thoracic branched endografting with an investigational device (TBE group). Those patients who did not undergo LSA revascularization were excluded. Perioperative outcomes, including procedural success, death, stroke, limb ischemia, and length of stay, were compared. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. The cumulative incidence of device-related endoleak (types I and III) and device-related reintervention, accounting for death as a competing hazard, were compared using the Fine-Gray test. RESULTS: A total of 55 patients were included: 31 (56%) in the SR-TEVAR group and 24 (44%) in the TBE group. The preoperative demographics and comorbidities were similar between the two groups. Procedural success was 100% in both cohorts, with no periprocedural strokes or left upper extremity ischemic events. One operative or 30-day death (TBE, 4.2%; vs SR-TEVAR, 3.2%; P = .99) occurred in each cohort. The total operative time (TBE, 203 ± 79 minutes; vs SR-TEVAR, 250 ± 79 minutes; P = .03) and total length of stay (TBE, 5.2 ± 3.6 days; vs SR-TEVAR, 9.9 ± 7.2 minutes; P = .004) were both significantly shorter in the TBE group. No difference was found in mid-term survival (log-rank test, P = .50) nor the cumulative incidence of device-related endoleak (Fine-Gray test, P = .51) or reintervention (Fine-Gray test, P = .72). No occlusions of the TBE graft or surgical bypass or transpositions had occurred after a mean follow-up of 28 ± 16 and 34 ± 24 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TBE can be performed with procedural success rate and safety profile comparable to those of TEVAR with surgical revascularization, with a decreased total length of stay, for patients requiring proximal zone 2 coverage. The mid-term outcomes for each approach were also similar. Prospective, randomized comparisons of these techniques are warranted.

8.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(3): 1071-1079.e3, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe acute respiratory distress from coronavirus disease 2019 refractory to medical management and lung-protective mechanical ventilation has not been adequately determined. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical course of 37 patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection supported by venovenous ECMO at 4 ECMO referral centers within a large health care system. Patient characteristics, progression of hemodynamics and inflammatory markers, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: The patients had median age of 51 years (interquartile range, 40-59), and 73% were male. Peak plateau pressures, vasopressor requirements, and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide all improved with ECMO support. In our patient population, 24 of 37 patients (64.8%) survived to decannulation and 21 of 37 patients (56.8%) survived to discharge. Among patients discharged alive from the ECMO facility, 12 patients were discharged to a long-term acute care or rehabilitation facility, 2 were transferred back to the referring hospital for ventilatory weaning, and 7 were discharged directly home. For patients who were successfully decannulated, median length of time on ECMO was 17 days (interquartile range, 10-33.5). CONCLUSIONS: Venovenous ECMO represents a useful therapy for patients with refractory severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidade do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(2): 100537, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy has been used as a rescue therapy for patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19 who have failed conventional ventilatory strategies. Little is known about the outcome of pregnant and postpartum patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. OBJECTIVE: To describe the medical and surgical outcomes of pregnant and postpartum patients who were placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: A case series reviewing pregnant or postpartum patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was conducted within the Baylor Scott & White Healthcare system. The demographics and the medical and surgical outcomes were collected and reviewed. RESULTS: Between March 2020 and October 2021, 5 pregnant and 5 postpartum women were supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. The median age was 30 years (interquartile range, 26-33.5) and the median body mass index was 36.6 kg/m2 (interquartile range, 29.5-42.0). There was a median of 4.5 days (interquartile range, 1.5-6.8) from admission to any hospital to intubation and 9 days (interquartile range, 7-13) to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy cannulation. One patient had an ischemic stroke, 1 patient had a presumed hemorrhagic stroke, and 9 patients developed bleeding while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. Of the 5 pregnant women, 2 patients had intrauterine fetal demise and 3 underwent delivery for maternal hemodynamic instability. The 5 postpartum women were initiated on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy a median of 10 days (interquartile range, 3-11) after delivery. The median length of time on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy was 22 days (interquartile range, 11-31). At the time of the study, there were 2 inpatient mortalities, 6 patients survived to discharge from the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy hospital, and 2 patients were still admitted. CONCLUSION: There is limited information regarding the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy for COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome in obstetrical patients. This case series describes the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and survival in pregnant and postpartum patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(1): 279-285, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prediction of amputation wound healing is challenging due to the multifactorial nature of critical limb ischemia and lack of objective assessment tools. Up to one-third of amputations require revision to a more proximal level within 1 year. We tested a novel wound imaging system to predict amputation wound healing at initial evaluation. METHODS: Patients planned to undergo amputation due to critical limb ischemia were prospectively enrolled. Clinicians evaluated the patients in traditional fashion, and all clinical decisions for amputation level were determined by the clinician's judgement. Multispectral images of the lower extremity were obtained preoperatively using a novel wound imaging system. Clinicians were blinded to the machine analysis. A standardized wound healing assessment was performed on postoperative day 30 by physical exam to determine whether the amputation site achieved complete healing. If operative revision or higher level of amputation was required, this was undertaken based solely upon the provider's clinical judgement. A machine learning algorithm combining the multispectral imaging data with patient clinical risk factors was trained and tested using cross-validation to measure the wound imaging system's accuracy of predicting amputation wound healing. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients undergoing 25 amputations (10 toe, five transmetatarsal, eight below-knee, and two above-knee amputations) were enrolled. Eleven amputations (44%) were non-healing after 30 days. The machine learning algorithm had 91% sensitivity and 86% specificity for prediction of non-healing amputation sites (area under curve, 0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study suggests that a machine learning algorithm combining multispectral wound imaging with patient clinical risk factors may improve prediction of amputation wound healing and therefore decrease the need for reoperation and incidence of delayed healing. We propose that this, in turn, may offer significant cost savings to the patient and health system in addition to decreasing length of stay for patients.


Assuntos
Amputação/efeitos adversos , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 113(5): 1445-1451, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be effective for refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with influenza, but its utility in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain. We compared outcomes of patients with refractory ARDS from COVID-19 and influenza placed on ECMO. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 120 patients with refractory ARDS due to COVID-19 or influenza placed on ECMO at 2 referral centers from January 2013 to October 2020. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared. The primary endpoint was survival to discharge. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics and comorbidities were similar. During the study period, 53 patients with COVID-19 and 67 patients with influenza were supported. Venovenous ECMO was the predominant initial cannulation strategy in both groups (COVID 92.5% vs influenza 95.5%; P = .5). Survival to hospital discharge was 62.3% (33 of 53 patients) in the COVID-19 group and 64.2% (43 of 67 patients) in the influenza group (P = .8). In patients successfully decannulated, median length of time on ECMO was longer in COVID-19 patients (14 [interquartile range (IQR), 9-30] days vs influenza 10.5 [IQR, 6.8-14.3] days; P = .004). Among patients discharged alive, COVID-19 patients had longer overall length of stay (COVID-19 37 [IQR, 27-62] days vs influenza 13.5 [IQR, 9.3-24] days; P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with refractory ARDS from COVID-19 or influenza placed on ECMO, there was no significant difference in survival to hospital discharge. In patients surviving to decannulation, the duration of ECMO support and total length of stay were longer in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Influenza Humana , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent expert consensus statement proposed designation of comprehensive and primary valve centers, with a recommendation that comprehensive centers house surgical skill and resources to treat patients with infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to compare outcomes of patients who underwent valve surgery for IE at comprehensive versus primary valve centers within a large health care system. METHODS: We reviewed 513 consecutive patients who underwent IE surgery at 8 hospitals (2 comprehensive and 6 primary valve centers) from 2014 to 2020. Outcomes from comprehensive and primary valve centers were compared after propensity score matching on the basis of patient characteristics, valve involvement, valve type, and IE treatment status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for operative mortality. RESULTS: Propensity score matching generated comparable groups with similar mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons/Gaca IE risk scores among comprehensive and primary valve center cohorts. Comprehensive valve centers were more likely to perform the Bentall procedure (60.4% vs 21.7%; P < .01) when aortic root abscess was present and mitral valve repair (50.4% vs 26.3%; P < .01) in cases of mitral valve involvement. Operative mortality was significantly lower at comprehensive valve centers (6.2% vs 13.0%; P = .04), and multivariate logistic regression suggested that surgery at comprehensive valve centers was protective against operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.88; P = .02). Similar findings were present in a sensitivity analysis limited to patients with active IE only. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk for operative mortality was associated with surgery performed at primary valve centers compared with comprehensive valve centers. Referral or transfer of patients with IE and surgical indications to comprehensive valve centers should be considered.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1978-1991, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, mechanisms of failure, and outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) explantation. BACKGROUND: Surgical explantation following TAVR may be required for structural valve degeneration, paravalvular leak, infection, or other reasons. However, in-depth data on indications and outcomes are lacking. METHODS: Data from a multicenter, international registry (EXPLANT-TAVR) of patients who underwent TAVR explantation were reviewed retrospectively. Explantations performed during the same admission as initial TAVR were excluded. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were evaluated. Median follow-up duration was 6.7 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.0-18.8 months) after TAVR explantation and was 97.7% complete at 30 days and 86.1% complete at 1 year. RESULTS: From November 2009 to September 2020, 269 patients across 42 centers with a mean age of 72.7 ± 10.4 years underwent TAVR explantation. About one quarter (25.9%) were deemed low surgical risk at index TAVR, and median Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk at TAVR explantation was 5.6% (IQR: 3.2%-9.6%). The median time to explantation was 11.5 months (IQR: 4.0-32.4 months). Balloon-expandable and self-expanding or mechanically expandable valves accounted for 50.9% and 49.1%, respectively. Indications for explantation included endocarditis (43.1%), structural valve degeneration (20.1%), paravalvular leak (18.2%), and prosthesis-patient mismatch (10.8%). Redo TAVR was not feasible because of unfavorable anatomy in 26.8% of patients. Urgent or emergency cases were performed in 53.1% of patients, aortic root replacement in 13.4%, and 54.6% had concomitant cardiac procedures. Overall survival at last follow-up was 76.1%. In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates were 11.9%, 13.1%, and 28.5%, respectively, and stroke rates were 5.9%, 8.6%, and 18.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The EXPLANT-TAVR registry reveals that surgical risks associated with TAVR explantation are not negligible and should be taken into consideration in the lifetime management of aortic stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(4): 499-508, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal aortic valve replacement for young and middle-aged adults remains elusive. Although several high-volume international centers and surgeons have demonstrated excellent long-term results with the pulmonary autograft (Ross procedure) in adult patients, current guidelines from the United States do not favor this technique. We evaluated long-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes of adult patients undergoing the Ross procedure at our center. METHODS: A retrospective review of 225 consecutive adult patients undergoing the Ross procedure was completed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate overall survival, which was then compared to an age- and sex-matched general population with the log-rank test. Accounting for death as a competing hazard, the cumulative incidence of reintervention and autograft or homograft dysfunction were estimated over the long-term. RESULTS: Mean age was 42±11 years, and 62 (28%) patients were at least 50 years old. A bicuspid aortic valve was present in 179 (80%) patients. The most common indications for surgery were aortic insufficiency (n=94, 43%), aortic stenosis (n=81, 36%), and mixed etiology (n=46, 21%). In-hospital mortality was 0.9%. Overall survival (with 95% confidence intervals) at 1-, 10- and 20-year was 97.8% (95.9-99.7%), 94.2% (91.0-97.4%), and 81.3% (74.8-88.3%), respectively. Overall survival approximated that of the general population (log-rank P=0.32). The cumulative incidence (with 95% confidence intervals) of any autograft or homograft reintervention at 10-, 15-, and 20-year was 16% (12-20%), 28% (21-35%), and 45% (36-54%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Ross procedure restores a normal life expectancy to young and middle-aged adults with severe aortic valve disease. The need for reintervention increases steadily during the second decade after the Ross procedure, but less than half of patients require any reintervention for up to 20-year.

18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may be associated with increased hazard for long-term mortality as compared with on-pump CABG. We sought to evaluate risk-adjusted long-term survival after off-pump and on-pump CABG, particularly among high-volume and low-volume CABG surgeons. METHODS: We evaluated 1,235,089 isolated CABGs (off pump = 209,085; on pump = 1,026,004) performed in Medicare beneficiaries from 2001 to 2015. Long-term hazard for mortality after off-pump versus on-pump CABG was compared with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis among all CABG surgeons as well as among high-volume and low-volume CABG surgeons, before and after inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Among all surgeons, off-pump CABG was associated with a statistically significant hazard for mortality as compared with on-pump CABG before and after inverse probability of treatment weighting (median survival: off pump 9.8 years vs on pump 10.2 years; difference in median survival -134 days; log-rank P < .001). Cox regression analysis confirmed an interaction between surgeon volume and long-term mortality. The hazard for mortality associated with off-pump CABG was decreased among high-volume surgeons (difference in median survival -84 days; log-rank P < .001) and increased among low-volume surgeons (difference in median survival -240 days; long-rank P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Off-pump CABG was associated with a significant, but clinically modest, increased hazard for mortality as compared with on-pump CABG. The hazard was reduced when off-pump CABG was performed by high-volume CABG surgeons.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(4): 365-383, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294272

RESUMO

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was introduced in the 1960s as the first procedure for direct coronary artery revascularization and rapidly became one of the most common surgical procedures worldwide, with an overall total of more than 20 million operations performed. CABG continues to be the most common cardiac surgical procedure performed and has been one of the most carefully studied therapies. Best CABG techniques, optimal bypass conduits, and appropriate patient selection have been rigorously tested in landmark clinical trials, some of which have resolved controversy and most of which have stoked further debate and trials. The evolution of CABG cannot be properly portrayed without presenting it in the context of the parallel development of percutaneous coronary intervention. In this Historical Perspective, we a provide a broad overview of the history of coronary revascularization with a focus on the foundations, evolution, best evidence, and future directions of CABG.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/história , Revascularização Miocárdica/história , Seleção de Pacientes , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
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