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1.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684862

RESUMO

Iron fortifications are used for the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia; however, iron dosing may cause oxidative damage to the gut lumen. Thai Sinlek rice is abundant in iron and contains phytochemicals. We aimed at evaluating the effect of an iron-rice (IR) hydrolysate drink (100 mL/serving) on neurological function, red cell indices and iron status in elders. Healthy elderly subjects were divided into three non-anemic groups and one anemic group. The non-anemic groups consumed one WR (2 mg iron/serving) and two IR drinks (15 and 27 mg iron/serving) (groups A, B and D, respectively), while the anemic group consumed one IR drink (15 mg iron serving) (group C) every day for 30 days. There were no significant differences in the MMSE Thai 2002 and PHQ9 test scores for members of all groups, while the nutrition scores and body weight values of group D subjects were significantly increased. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations increased significantly only in group C. Serum iron and transferrin saturation levels tended to increase in group A, while these levels were decreased in members of group C. Serum antioxidant activity levels were increased in all groups, and were highest in group C. Thus, consumption of an IR drink for 15 days functioned to increase Hb and antioxidant capacity levels in anemic elders.

2.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571788

RESUMO

Iron is essential for all organisms including fast-dividing malarial parasites. Inversely, iron chelators can inhibit parasite growth through the inhibition of DNA synthesis and can ameliorate oxidative cell damage. Deferiprone (DFP)-resveratrol (RVT) hybrid (DFP-RVT) is a lipophilic anti-oxidative, iron-chelating agent that has displayed potent neuroprotective and anti-plasmodium activities in vitro. The goal of this work was to investigate the inhibitory effects of DFP-RVT on parasite growth and oxidative stress levels during malaria infections. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with P. berghei and orally administered with DFP, DFP-RVT and pyrimethamine for 4 d. The percentage of parasitemia was determined using Giemsa's staining/microscopic examination. Amounts of the lipid-peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), were determined in both plasma and liver tissue. In our findings, DFP-RVT exhibited a greater potent inhibitory effect and revealed an improvement in anemia and liver damage in infected mice than DFP. To this point, the anti-malarial activity was found to be associated with anti-RBC hemolysis and the liver weight index. In addition, plasma and liver TBARS levels in the DFP-RVT-treated mice were lower than those in DFP-treated mice. Thus, DFP-RVT could exert anti-plasmodium, anti-hemolysis and anti-lipid peroxidation activities to a better degree than DFP in P. berghei-infected mice.

3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443567

RESUMO

Redox-active iron generates reactive oxygen species that can cause oxidative organ dysfunction. Thus, the anti-oxidative systems in the body and certain dietary antioxidants, such as anthocyanins, are needed to control oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the effects of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology in the preparation of Riceberry™ rice flour (PRBF) on iron-induced oxidative stress in mice. PRBF using plasma technology was rich in anthocyanins, mainly cyanidine-3-glucoside and peonidine-3-glucoside. PRBF (5 mg AE/mg) lowered WBC numbers in iron dextran (FeDex)-loaded mice and served as evidence of the reversal of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, plasma total antioxidant capacity, and plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the loading mice. Consequently, the PRBF treatment was observed to be more effective than NAC treatment. PRBF would be a powerful supplementary and therapeutic antioxidant product that is understood to be more potent than NAC in ameliorating the effects of iron-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Farinha/análise , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Oryza/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases em Plasma/química , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Camundongos
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279413

RESUMO

Malaria i a serious health problem caused by Plasmodium spp. that can be treated by an anti-folate pyrimethamine (PYR) drug. Deferiprone (DFP) is an oral iron chelator used for the treatment of iron overload and has been recognized for its potential anti-malarial activity. Deferiprone-resveratrol hybrids (DFP-RVT) have been synthesized to present therapeutic efficacy at a level which is superior to DFP. We have focused on determining the lipophilicity, toxicity and inhibitory effects on P. falciparum growth and the iron-chelating activity of labile iron pools (LIPs) by DFP-RVT. According to our findings, DFP-RVT was more lipophilic than DFP (p < 0.05) and nontoxic to blood mononuclear cells. Potency for the inhibition of P. falciparum was PYR > DFP-RVT > DFP in the 3D7 strain (IC50 = 0.05, 16.82 and 47.67 µM, respectively) and DFP-RVT > DFP > PYR in the K1 strain (IC50 = 13.38, 42.02 and 105.61 µM, respectively). The combined treatment of DFP-RVT with PYR additionally enhanced the PYR activity in both strains. DFP-RVT dose-dependently lowered LIP levels in PRBCs and was observed to be more effective than DFP at equal concentrations. Thus, the DFP-RVT hybrid should be considered a candidate as an adjuvant anti-malarial drug through the deprivation of cellular iron.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Deferiprona/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia
5.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299444

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze the chemical compositions in Arabica coffee bean extracts, assess the relevant antioxidant and iron-chelating activities in coffee extracts and instant coffee, and evaluate the toxicity in roasted coffee. Coffee beans were extracted using boiling, drip-filtered and espresso brewing methods. Certain phenolics were investigated including trigonelline, caffeic acid and their derivatives, gallic acid, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid (CGA) and their derivatives, p-coumaroylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl glucoside, the rutin and syringic acid that exist in green and roasted coffee extracts, along with dimethoxycinnamic acid, caffeoylarbutin and cymaroside that may be present in green coffee bean extracts. Different phytochemicals were also detected in all of the coffee extracts. Roasted coffee extracts and instant coffees exhibited free-radical scavenging properties in a dose-dependent manner, for which drip coffee was observed to be the most effective (p < 0.05). All coffee extracts, instant coffee varieties and CGA could effectively bind ferric ion in a concentration-dependent manner resulting in an iron-bound complex. Roasted coffee extracts were neither toxic to normal mononuclear cells nor breast cancer cells. The findings indicate that phenolics, particularly CGA, could effectively contribute to the iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging properties observed in coffee brews. Thus, coffee may possess high pharmacological value and could be utilized as a health beverage.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/análise , Alcaloides , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Coffea/toxicidade , Café/química , Café/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
6.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2021: 5539666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986790

RESUMO

Iron is a crucial trace element and essential for many cellular processes; however, excessive iron accumulation can induce oxidative stress and cell damage. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, have been associated with altered iron homoeostasis causing altered iron distribution and accumulation in brain tissue. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) in combination with green tea extract (GTE) on iron-induced oxidative stress in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. Cells were cultured in medium with or without ferric chloride loading. Their viability and mitochondrial activity were assessed using MTT and JC-1 staining methods. Levels of the cellular labile iron pool (LIP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid-peroxidation products were determined using calcein acetoxymethyl ester, 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate, and TBARS-based assays, respectively. The viability of iron-loaded cells was found to be significantly increased after treatment with CM1 (10 µM) for 24 h. CM1 co-treatment with GTE resulted in a greater protective effect than their monotherapy. Combination of CM1 and GTE also reduced mitochondrial disruption and LIP content and ROS and TBARS production. In conclusion, the combination of CM1 and GTE exhibits protection against iron-induced oxidative stress in neuroblastoma cells.

7.
Biosci Rep ; 41(2)2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565577

RESUMO

Hepcidin is a key iron-regulatory hormone, the production of which is controlled by iron stores, inflammation, hypoxia and erythropoiesis. The regulation of iron by hepcidin is of clinical importance in thalassemia patients in which anemia occurs along with iron overload. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between serum hepcidin and ferritin levels in thalassemia patients. This cross-sectional study investigated 64 patients with thalassemia; 16 ß-thalassemia major (BTM), 31 ß-thalassemia/hemoglobin (Hb) E (BE), and 17 Hb H + AE Bart's disease (Hb H + AE Bart's). The levels of serum hepcidin and ferritin, and Hb of the three groups were measured. The median values of serum ferritin and Hb were significantly different among the three groups, whereas serum hepcidin values were not observed to be significantly different. The correlation of the serum hepcidin and ferritin levels was not statistically significant in any of the three groups of thalassemia patients with BTM, BE, or Hb H + AE Bart's (r = -0.141, 0.065 and -0.016, respectively). In conclusion, no statistically significant correlations were observed between serum hepcidin with any variables including serum ferritin, Hb, age, labile plasma iron (LPI), and number of blood transfusion units among the three groups of thalassemia patients. Likely, the regulation of hepcidin in thalassemia patients is affected more by erythropoietic activity than iron storage.

8.
Biosci Rep ; 41(1)2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399183

RESUMO

Perilla frutescens fruit oil (PFO) is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA) and exhibits biological activities. We aimed to investigate analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of PFO and PFO-supplemented soybean milk (PFO-SM) in animal models. Analgesic activity was assessed in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, while anti-inflammatory activity was performed in ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Anti-ulcer effects were conducted in water immersion stress, HCl/ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Distinctly, PFO, containing 6.96 mg ALA and 2.61 mg LA equivalence/g, did not induce acute toxicity (LD50 > 10 mL/kg) in mice. PFO (2.5 and 5 mL/kg) and PFO-SM (0.05 mL PFO equivalence/kg) inhibited incidences of writhing (16.8, 18.0 and 32.3%, respectively) in acetic acid-induced mice. In addition, topical applications of PFO (0.1 and 1 mL/ear) significantly inhibited EPP-induced ear edema (59.3 and 65.7%, respectively) in rats, while PFO-SM slightly inhibited ear edema (25.9%). However, PFO and PFO-SM did not inhibit carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Indeed, PFO (2.5 and 5 mL/kg) significantly inhibited gastric ulcers in rats that induced by water immersion stress (92.4 and 96.6%, respectively), HCl/ethanol (74.8 and 73.3%, respectively) and indomethacin (68.8 and 88.9%, respectively), while PFO-SM did not. PFO displayed potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties, while PFO-SM exerted only analgesic properties. Thus, Thai PFO and its functional drink offer potential benefits in treatment of analgesic, inflammatory diseases and gastric ulcer.

9.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(1): 91-98, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728990

RESUMO

Cardiac T2* MRI is used as a gold standard for cardiac iron quantification in patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). We hypothesized that left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction would reflect the severity of iron overload and can serve as an early detection of cardiac iron deposits. A study was conducted on all patients with TDT. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin and non-transferrin bound iron, together with a complete echocardiography and cardiac T2* MRI, were performed on all patients. Seventy-seven patients with TDT were enrolled (median age 14 years). In the patient group with a mean serum ferritin of > 2500 ng/mL during the past 12 months, there were more patients with severe cardiac iron deposits than in the group with a mean serum ferritin of ≤ 2500 ng/mL. Diastolic dysfunction was absent in all patients with a serum ferritin of < 1000 ng/mL. All patients with cardiac T2* ≤ 20 ms had grade III LV diastolic dysfunction. However, twenty-one percent of patients with cardiac T2* > 20 ms had LV diastolic dysfunction. The differences observed in pulmonary vein atrial reversal duration and mitral A-wave (PVAR-MVA) duration ≥ - 1 ms and an E/E' ratio ≥ 11 were proven to be the associated factors with the cardiac T2* ≤ 20 ms. Increased PVAR-MVA duration and increased E/E' ratio reliably reflected a severe iron overload, according to a cardiac T2* in patients with TDT. LV diastolic dysfunction can occur prior to severe cardiac iron deposition. Tissue Doppler echocardiography has the potential for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with TDT .


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler de Pulso , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Sobrecarga de Ferro/etiologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/sangue , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico
10.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375091

RESUMO

Coffee is rich in caffeine (CF), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and phenolics. Differing types of coffee beverages and brewing procedures may result in differences in total phenolic contents (TPC) and biological activities. Inflammation and increases of platelet activation and aggregation can lead to thrombosis. We focused on determining the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on agonist-induced platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase (COX) of coffee beverages in relation to their preparation method. We prepared instant coffee and brewed coffee beverages using drip, espresso, and boiling techniques. Coffee extracts were assayed for their CF and CGA contents using HPLC, TPC using colorimetry, platelet aggregation with an aggregometer, and COX activity using ELISA. The findings have shown all coffee extracts, except the decaffeinated types, contained nearly equal amounts of CF, CGA, and TPC. Inhibitory effects of coffee extracts on platelet aggregation differed depending on the activation pathways induced by different agonists. All espresso, drip and boiled coffee extracts caused dose dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, epinephrine, and arachidonic acid (ARA). The most marked inhibition was seen at low doses of collagen or ARA. Espresso and drip extracts inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation more than purified caffeine or CGA. Espresso, boiled and drip coffee extracts were also a more potent inhibitors of COX-1 and COX-2 than purified caffeine or CGA. We conclude that inhibition of platelet aggregation and COX-1 and COX-2 may contribute to anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects of espresso and drip coffee extracts.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Café/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/química , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008640, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569299

RESUMO

Ubiquitylation is a common post translational modification of eukaryotic proteins and in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) overall ubiquitylation increases in the transition from intracellular schizont to extracellular merozoite stages in the asexual blood stage cycle. Here, we identify specific ubiquitylation sites of protein substrates in three intraerythrocytic parasite stages and extracellular merozoites; a total of 1464 sites in 546 proteins were identified (data available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD014998). 469 ubiquitylated proteins were identified in merozoites compared with only 160 in the preceding intracellular schizont stage, suggesting a large increase in protein ubiquitylation associated with merozoite maturation. Following merozoite invasion of erythrocytes, few ubiquitylated proteins were detected in the first intracellular ring stage but as parasites matured through trophozoite to schizont stages the apparent extent of ubiquitylation increased. We identified commonly used ubiquitylation motifs and groups of ubiquitylated proteins in specific areas of cellular function, for example merozoite pellicle proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion, exported proteins, and histones. To investigate the importance of ubiquitylation we screened ubiquitin pathway inhibitors in a parasite growth assay and identified the ubiquitin activating enzyme (UBA1 or E1) inhibitor MLN7243 (TAK-243) to be particularly effective. This small molecule was shown to be a potent inhibitor of recombinant PfUBA1, and a structural homology model of MLN7243 bound to the parasite enzyme highlights avenues for the development of P. falciparum specific inhibitors. We created a genetically modified parasite with a rapamycin-inducible functional deletion of uba1; addition of either MLN7243 or rapamycin to the recombinant parasite line resulted in the same phenotype, with parasite development blocked at the schizont stage. Nuclear division and formation of intracellular structures was interrupted. These results indicate that the intracellular target of MLN7243 is UBA1, and this activity is essential for the final differentiation of schizonts to merozoites.


Assuntos
Merozoítos/metabolismo , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Ubiquitina/genética
12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(10): 129670, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms produce siderophores in order to scavenge iron from the environment and this study focuses on the characterization of the two siderophores secreted by Bacillus megaterium. The general biological properties and pharmacokinetics following oral application of these compounds are reported. METHODS: Under optimized culture conditions, the siderophores were harvested, purified by chromatography and identified using LC-MS and NMR. Two dihydroxamate siderophores were isolated, schizokinen (MW = 420) and schizokinen imide (MW = 402). RESULTS: Both compounds demonstrate strong antioxidant activity and were found to be relatively nontoxic to both human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh7) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The siderophores possess a strong affinity for iron(III) and decrease the levels of the labile iron pool (LIP) in iron-loaded cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Schizokinen, was detected as both the free siderophore and the iron complex in the plasma and urine of rats after oral gavage. CONCLUSIONS: However, the bioavailability was low and thus schizokinen, like deferoxamine, has no potential as an orally active iron chelator for the treatment of systemic iron overload. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: By virtue of the high affinity of schizokinen for tribasic metals, this siderophore does have considerable potential for the chelation of gallium(III) and the development of clinical diagnostic reagents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bacillus megaterium/química , Sideróforos/química , Sideróforos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/química , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacocinética , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacocinética , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sideróforos/farmacocinética
13.
Molecules ; 25(11)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471050

RESUMO

Plant seeds have been found to contain bioactive compounds that have potential nutraceutical benefits. Guava seeds (Psidium guajava) are by-products in the beverage and juice industry; however, they can be utilized for a variety of commercial purposes. This study was designed to analyze the phytochemicals of the n-hexane extract of guava seed oil (GSO), to study its free-radical scavenging activity, and to monitor the changes in serum lipids and fatty acid profiles in rats that were fed GSO. The GSO was analyzed for phytochemicals using chromatographic methods. It was also tested for free-radical scavenging activity in hepatoma and neuroblastoma cells, and analyzed in terms of serum lipids and fatty acids. GSO was found to contain phenolic compounds (e.g., chlorogenic acid and its derivatives) and phytosterols (e.g., stimasterol, ß-sitosterol and campesterol), and exerted radical-scavenging activity in cell cultures in a concentration-dependent manner. Long-term consumption of GSO did not increase cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rat serum, but it tended to decrease serum fatty acid levels in a concentration-dependent manner. This is the first study to report on the lipid, phytosterol and phenolic compositions, antioxidant activity, and the hepato- and neuro-protection of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress levels in the GSO extract.


Assuntos
Fenóis/sangue , Fitosteróis/sangue , Óleos Vegetais/química , Psidium/química , Sementes/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Hexanos/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Sitosteroides/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Biosci Rep ; 40(5)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32426811

RESUMO

Elevation of endothelial microparticles (EMPs) play an important role in the progression of inflammation-related vascular diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Thai perilla (Perilla frutescens) nutlets are rich in phenolic compounds and flavonoids that exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We found that the ethyl acetate (EA) and ethanol (Eth) extracts of Thai perilla nutlets contain phenolic compounds such as luteolin, apigenin, chryseoriol and their glycosides, which exhibit antioxidant activity. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of the extracts on endothelial activation and EMPs generation in tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced EA.hy926 cells. We found that TNF-α (10 ng/ml) activated EA.hy926 cells and subsequently generated EMPs. Pre-treatment with the extracts significantly attenuated endothelial activation by decreasing the expression of the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Only the Eth extract showed protective effects against overproduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the activated cells. Furthermore, the extracts significantly reduced TNF-α-enhanced EMPs generation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, Thai perilla nutlet extracts, especially the Eth extract, may have potential to protect endothelium against vascular inflammation through the inhibition of endothelial activation and the generation of endothelial microparticles (EMPs).


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilla frutescens/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 932-943, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950948

RESUMO

The most important cause of death in ß-thalassemia major patients is organ dysfunction due to iron deposits. Non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), labile plasma iron (LPI) and labile iron pool are redox-active forms of iron found in thalassemia. Iron chelation therapy is adopted to counteract the resulting iron overload. Extracts of green tea (GTE) and curcumin exhibit iron-chelating and antioxidant activities in iron-loaded cells and ß-thalassemic mice. We have used our GTE-CUR drink to investigate the potential amelioration of iron overload and oxidative stress in transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia (TDT) patients. The patients were enrolled for a control group without and with GTE-CUR treatments (17.3 and 35.5 mg EGCG equivalent). Along with regular chelation therapy, they were daily administered the drink for 60 d. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study and after 30 d and 60 d for biochemical and hematological tests. Interestingly, we found a decrease of blood urea nitrogen levels (P < 0.05), along with a tendency for a decrease of NTBI and LPI, and a delay in increasing lipid-peroxidation product levels in the GTE-CUR groups. The findings suggest that GTE-CUR could increase kidney function and diminish redox-active iron in iron overloaded ß-thalassemia patients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Sobrecarga de Ferro/tratamento farmacológico , Chá , Talassemia beta/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Dalton Trans ; 48(46): 17395-17401, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742278

RESUMO

The iron(iii) affinity constants for schizokinen and its imide derivative are reported for the first time. Surprisingly, schizokinen possesses a higher affinity for iron(iii) than desferrioxamine B; log KFeIII (FeL), 36.2 and 30.6, respectively. This increase in value is associated with the substitution of one hydroxamate function by an α-hydroxycarboxylate grouping. By virtue of the similarity of siderophore-iron(iii) complexes and siderophore-gallium(iii) complexes, schizokinen (which is a Gram positive siderophore) has potential for 68Ga PET-based imaging.

17.
Life Sci ; 239: 116878, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669736

RESUMO

AIMS: We previously demonstrated that iron-overload in non-thalassemic rats induced neurotoxicity and cognitive decline. However, the effect of iron-overload on the brain of thalassemic condition has never been investigated. An iron chelator (deferiprone) provides neuroprotective effects against metal toxicity. Furthermore, a T-type calcium channels blocker (efonidipine) effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction in thalassemic mice with iron-overload. However, the effects of both drugs on brain of iron-overload thalassemia has not been determined. We hypothesize that iron-overload induces neurotoxicity in Thalassemic and wild-type mice, and not only deferiprone, but also efonidipine, provides neuroprotection against iron-overload condition. MAIN METHODS: Mice from both wild-type (WT) and ß-thalassemic type (HT) groups were assigned to be fed with a standard-diet or high-iron diet containing 0.2% ferrocene/kg of diet (HFe) for 4 months consecutively. After three months of HFe, 75-mg/kg/d deferiprone or 4-mg/kg/d efonidipine were administered to the HFe-fed WT and HT mice for 1 month. KEY FINDINGS: HFe consumption caused an equal impact on circulating iron-overload, oxidative stress, and inflammation in WT and HT mice. Brain iron-overload and iron-mediated neurotoxicity, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, glial activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Alzheimer's like pathologies, were observed to an equal degree in HFe fed WT and HT mice. These pathological conditions were mitigated by both deferiprone and efonidipine. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that iron-overload itself caused neurotoxicity, and T-type calcium channels may play a role in this condition.


Assuntos
Deferiprona/farmacologia , Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Ferro/toxicidade , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/efeitos dos fármacos , Deferiprona/metabolismo , Di-Hidropiridinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ferro/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Talassemia/patologia
18.
Phytother Res ; 33(10): 2749-2764, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328343

RESUMO

Guava (Psidium guajava) is a widely consumed fruit and has been commercialized in markets. The seeds are by-products of the processing procedures performed by the commercial guava juice industry. They are considered a nutritional resource that has been poorly utilized as they contain essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) and phenolics in abundance. In the study, guava seed oil (GSO) was used, which was obtained by hexane extraction of guava seeds to determine composition and test toxicity, cell migration, cancer cell viability, and plasmodium growth. GSO was found to be relatively nontoxic to normal hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with mice for 14 days showing median lethal dose (LD50 ) > 10 mg/kg and rats for up to 90 days. Surprisingly, the oil inhibited the proliferation of the human erythroleukemic cells in a dose-dependent manner with the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 155 and 137 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Importantly, GSO at 500 µg/ml was found to increase the degree of migration of keratinocytes (HaCaT). These observations suggest that edible P. guajava seed oil, which is abundant with linoleic acid and antioxidants, can promote skin wound healing and inhibit the proliferation of leukemic cells.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Psidium , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Psidium/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química
19.
Pancreas ; 48(5): 636-643, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We have investigated the efficacy of mono- and combined therapy with green tea extract (GTE) in mobilizing redox iron, scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), and improving insulin production in iron-loaded pancreatic cells. METHODS: Rat insulinoma pancreatic ß-cells were iron-loaded using culture medium supplemented with either fetal bovine serum or ferric ammonium citrate and treated with various doses of GTE for epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) equivalence and in combination with iron chelators. Cellular iron, ROS, and secretory insulin were measured. RESULTS: The rat insulinoma pancreatic cells took up iron from fetal bovine serum more rapidly than ferric ammonium citrate. After treatment with GTE (0.23-2.29 µg EGCG equivalent), cellular levels of iron and ROS were dose dependently decreased. Importantly, secretory insulin levels were increased nearly 2.5-fold with 2.29 µg of EGCG equivalent GTE, indicating a recovery in insulin production. CONCLUSIONS: Green tea EGCG ameliorated oxidative damage of iron-loaded ß-cells by removing redox iron and free radicals and attenuating insulin production. The impact can result in the restoration of pancreatic functions and an increase in insulin production. Green tea extract exerts iron-chelating, free-radical scavenging, and pancreato-protective effects in the restoration of ß-cell functions, all of which we believe can increase insulin production in diabetic ß-thalassemia patients.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Chá/química , Animais , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Talassemia beta/complicações , Talassemia beta/metabolismo
20.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2064-2074, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141248

RESUMO

Perilla frutescens is cultivated in East Asian countries including Thailand, and the nutlets (single-seeded fruits) are used as traditional and medicinal food. Perilla nutlets extracted by ethyl acetate (EA), 80% ethanol (Eth), and hot water (HW) sequentially were chemically characterized using high-resolution accurate liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with the main compounds detected assigned as rosmarinic acid and derivatives of the flavones apigenin and luteolin, with the more diverse chemical composition observed with the Eth extract. All extracts showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, with the Eth extract the most potent (IC50  = 3.43 mg/ml for ABTS• scavenging and 0.27 mg/ml for DPPH• scavenging). The Eth extract also inhibited AAPH-induced hemolysis (IC50  = 0.07 mg/ml) more potently than did the HW (IC50  = 0.38 mg/ml) and EA extracts (IC50  = 1.63 mg/ml). An MTT test revealed all the extracts were noncytotoxic at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Only the Eth and EA extracts showed protective effects against the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in FeCl3 -induced HuH7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest the Eth extract of Thai perilla nutlets, containing rosmarinic acid and flavones and their derivatives, may have potential to provide protection against oxidative stress in hepatic disorders.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilla frutescens/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia
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