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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282019


N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal messenger RNA (mRNA) modification, contributing to the processing, stability, and function of methylated RNAs. Methylation occurs in the nucleus during pre-mRNA synthesis and requires a core methyltransferase complex consisting of METTL3, METTL14, and WTAP. During herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection, cellular gene expression is profoundly suppressed, allowing the virus to monopolize the host transcription and translation apparatus and antagonize antiviral responses. The extent to which HSV-1 uses or manipulates the m6A pathway is not known. Here, we show that, in primary fibroblasts, HSV-1 orchestrates a striking redistribution of the nuclear m6A machinery that progresses through the infection cycle. METTL3 and METTL14 are dispersed into the cytoplasm, whereas WTAP remains nuclear. Other regulatory subunits of the methyltransferase complex, along with the nuclear m6A-modified RNA binding protein YTHDC1 and nuclear demethylase ALKBH5, are similarly redistributed. These changes require ICP27, a viral regulator of host mRNA processing that mediates the nucleocytoplasmic export of viral late mRNAs. Viral gene expression is initially reduced by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inactivation of the m6A methyltransferase but becomes less impacted as the infection advances. Redistribution of the nuclear m6A machinery is accompanied by a wide-scale reduction in the installation of m6A and other RNA modifications on both host and viral mRNAs. These results reveal a far-reaching mechanism by which HSV-1 subverts host gene expression to favor viral replication.

Genes Dev ; 35(13-14): 1005-1019, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168039


N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal RNA modification, influencing transcript fate and function in uninfected and virus-infected cells. Installation of m6A by the nuclear RNA methyltransferase METTL3 occurs cotranscriptionally; however, the genomes of some cytoplasmic RNA viruses are also m6A-modified. How the cellular m6A modification machinery impacts coronavirus replication, which occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm, is unknown. Here we show that replication of SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and a seasonal human ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43, can be suppressed by depletion of METTL3 or cytoplasmic m6A reader proteins YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 and by a highly specific small molecule METTL3 inhibitor. Reduction of infectious titer correlates with decreased synthesis of viral RNAs and the essential nucleocapsid (N) protein. Sites of m6A modification on genomic and subgenomic RNAs of both viruses were mapped by methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (meRIP-seq). Levels of host factors involved in m6A installation, removal, and recognition were unchanged by HCoV-OC43 infection; however, nuclear localization of METTL3 and cytoplasmic m6A readers YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 increased. This establishes that coronavirus RNAs are m6A-modified and host m6A pathway components control ß-coronavirus replication. Moreover, it illustrates the therapeutic potential of targeting the m6A pathway to restrict coronavirus reproduction.

Coronavirus Humano OC43/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
Methods Mol Biol ; 2060: 263-277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617183


We describe a primary neuronal culture system suitable for molecular characterization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, latency, and reactivation. While several alternative models are available, including infections of live animal or explanted ganglia, these are complicated by the presence of multiple cell types, including immune cells, and difficulties in manipulating the neuronal environment. The highly pure neuron culture system described here can be readily manipulated and is ideal for molecular studies that focus exclusively on the relationship between the virus and host neuron, the fundamental unit of latency. As such this model allows for detailed investigations of both viral and neuronal factors involved in the establishment and maintenance of HSV-1 latency and in viral reactivation induced by defined stimuli.

Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Neurônios , Ativação Viral/fisiologia , Latência Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 754, 2019 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765700


Characterizing complex viral transcriptomes by conventional RNA sequencing approaches is complicated by high gene density, overlapping reading frames, and complex splicing patterns. Direct RNA sequencing (direct RNA-seq) using nanopore arrays offers an exciting alternative whereby individual polyadenylated RNAs are sequenced directly, without the recoding and amplification biases inherent to other sequencing methodologies. Here we use direct RNA-seq to profile the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) transcriptome during productive infection of primary cells. We show how direct RNA-seq data can be used to define transcription initiation and RNA cleavage sites associated with all polyadenylated viral RNAs and demonstrate that low level read-through transcription produces a novel class of chimeric HSV-1 transcripts, including a functional mRNA encoding a fusion of the viral E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 and viral membrane glycoprotein L. Thus, direct RNA-seq offers a powerful method to characterize the changing transcriptional landscape of viruses with complex genomes.

Genes Virais/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Nanoporos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 2810, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434241


In cervical cancer, the association between HPV infection and dysregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway) places mTOR as an attractive therapeutic target. The failure of current treatment modalities in advanced stages of this cancer and drawbacks of already available mTOR inhibitors demand for novel drug candidates. In the present study we identified the presence of a mTOR inhibitor in an active fraction of the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp OA293. The metabolites(s) in the active fraction completely inhibited mTORC1 and thereby suppressed activation of both of its downstream targets, 4E-BP1 and P70S6k, in cervical cancer cells. In addition, it also stalled Akt activation via inhibition of mTORC2. The mechanism of mTOR inhibition detailed in our study overcomes significant drawbacks of well known mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin and rapalogs. The active fraction induced autophagy and Bax mediated apoptosis suggesting that mTOR inhibition resulted in programmed cell death of cancer cells. The molecular weight determination of the components in active fraction confirmed the absence of any previously known natural mTOR inhibitor. This is the first report of complete mTOR complex inhibition by a product derived from microbial source.

Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Streptomyces/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
Oncotarget ; 7(17): 24154-71, 2016 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992219


DEPTOR is an endogenous inhibitor of mTOR complexes, de-regulated in cancers. The present study reveals a vital role for DEPTOR in survival of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). DEPTOR was found to be overexpressed in both cervical SCC cells and tissues and it's silencing in cervical SCC cells induced apoptosis, mainly by up-regulation of p38 MAPK and by inhibiting PI3K/AKT pathway via a feed-back inhibition from mTORC1-S6K. DEPTOR silencing resulted in reduced expression of the nitric oxide synthases iNOS and eNOS, as well as increased activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinases. Activation of AKT signaling by overexpression of constitutively active-AKT (CA-AKT) failed to overcome the apoptosis caused by DEPTOR silencing. Similarly pharmacological inhibition of ERK also failed to control apoptosis. However pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK rescued the cells from apoptosis, indicating the major role of p38 MAPK in cell death induced by DEPTOR silencing. DEPTOR was also found to regulate ERK1/2 in an AKT dependent manner. DEPTOR knockdown induced cell death in SiHa cells overexpressing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, indicating strong survival role of DEPTOR in these cells. DEPTOR overexpression activated PI3K/AKT by relieving the negative feed-back inhibition from mTORC1-S6K. DEPTOR regulation was also observed to be independent of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins, but it might be a molecular co-factor contributing to cervical carcinogenesis. In summary, DEPTOR is found to promote survival of cervical SCC cells and its reduction induced apoptosis via differential effects on PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK and can be a potential target in cervical SCC.

Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Apoptose , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo