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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141118, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771781

RESUMO

Evaluating runoff and sediment responses to human activities and climate variability is crucial for prioritizing erosion hotspots and implementing appropriate land management interventions. This study evaluated the separate and combined impacts of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices, land use/land cover, and climate variability, on runoff and sediment yield (SY) using two approaches in drought-prone watersheds of northwestern Ethiopia. In the first (paired watershed) approach, runoff and SY outputs of Kecha (treated) and Laguna (untreated) watersheds were compared. In the second approach, we compared data before and after the implementation of SWC practices in the Kecha watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was adopted for both untreated and treated watersheds and used to evaluate runoff and SY responses in the two approaches. Paired watershed approach results revealed that the SWC practices reduced the surface runoff in Kecha by about 28-36% and SY by about 51-68% as compared to those in Laguna. Similarly, compared with the baseline data at Kecha, the SWC practices reduced the surface runoff and SY by about 40% and 43%, respectively, corresponding to about 65-78% of the total changes brought by changes in land use/land cover and climate variability. Hence, combining the two approaches helped reasonably estimate the reduction of surface runoff and SY due to SWC practices by about 28-40% and about 43-68%, respectively, implying that SWC practices had a considerably greater effect on SY than surface runoff. The study further revealed that the untreated Laguna watershed, where >86% of the total area is categorized as the very high soil erosion severity class, should be an immediate conservation priority. The findings of this study will be vital to devise future alternative land management scenarios in these watersheds and similar agro-ecological areas elsewhere.

2.
Front Environ Sci ; 82020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355660

RESUMO

The Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) is biologically diverse, economically important, and home to about 65 million people. The region has undergone extensive environmental changes since the 1990s due to such factors as agricultural expansion and intensification, deforestation, more river damming, increased urbanization, growing human populations, expansion of industrial forest plantations, plus frequent natural disasters from flooding and drought. The Mekong river is also heavily used for human transportation, fishing, drinking water, and irrigation. This paper discusses use of pre-existing LULC maps from 1997 and 2010 to derive a LMB regional LULC change map for 9 classes per date using GIS overlay techniques. The change map was derived to aid SWAT hydrologic modeling applications in the LMB, given the 2010 map is currently used in multiple LMB SWAT models, whereas the 1997 map was previously used. The 2010 LULC map was constructed from Landsat and MODIS satellite data, while the 1997 map was from before the MODIS era and therefore based on available Landsat data. The 1997-2010 LULC change map showed multiple trends. Permanent agriculture had expanded in certain sub-basins into previously forested areas. Some agricultural areas were converted to industrial forest plantations. Extensive forest changes also occurred in some locations, such as areas changed to shifting cultivation or permanent crops. Also, the 1997 map under classified some urban areas, whereas the 2010 LULC map showed improved identification of such areas. LULC map accuracy were assessed for 213 randomly sampled locations. The 1997 and 2010 LULC maps showed high overall agreements with reference data exceeding 87%. The LULC change map yielded a moderately high level of overall agreement (78%) that improved to ~83% once LULC classification scheme specificity was reduced (forests and agriculture were each mapped as singular classes). The change map regionally showed a 4% decrease in agriculture and a 4 % increase in deciduous and evergreen forests combined, though deforestation hot spot areas also were evident. The project yielded LULC map data sets that are now available for aiding additional studies that assess LMB LULC change and the impacts such change may pose to water, agriculture, forestry, and disaster management efforts. More work is needed to map, quantify and assess LULC change since 2010 and to further update the 2010 LULC map currently used in the LMB SWAT models.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137562, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325579

RESUMO

This study reports the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) within the Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) on-line platform, for the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). The UMRB is an important ecosystem located in the north central U.S. that is experiencing a range of ecological stresses. Specifically, testing of SWAT was performed for: (1) Hargreaves (HG) and Penman-Monteith (PM) PET methods, and (2) Livneh, National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) climate datasets. The Livneh-PM combination resulted in the highest average annual water yield of 380.6 mm versus the lowest estimated water yield of 193.9 mm for the Livneh-HG combination, in response to 23-year uncalibrated simulations. Higher annual ET and PET values were predicted with HG method versus the PM method for all three weather datasets in response to the uncalibrated simulations, due primarily to higher HG-based estimates during the growing season. Based on these results, it was found that the HG method is the preferred PET option for the UMRB. Initial calibration of SWAT was performed using the Livneh data and HG method for three Mississippi River main stem gauge sites, which was followed by spatial validation at 10 other gauge sites located within the UMRB stream network. Overall satisfactory results were found for the calibration and validation gauge sites, with the majority of R2 values ranging between 0.61 and 0.82, Nash-Sutcliffe modeling efficiency (NSE) values ranging between 0.50 and 0.79, and Kling-Gupta efficiency (KGE) values ranging between 0.61 and 0.84. The results of an additional experimental suite of six scenarios, which represented different combinations of climate data sets and calibrated parameters, revealed that suggested statistical criteria were again satisfied by the different scenario combinations. Overall, the PRISM data exhibited the strongest reliability for the UMRB.

4.
Environ Model Softw ; 1202019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534434

RESUMO

The current influx of climate related information required scientists to communicate their findings to decision makers in governments, disaster preparedness organizations, and the general public. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a powerful modelling tool that allows scientists to simulate many of the physical processes involved in the water cycle. This article presents the design, methods and development efforts to overcome some of the limitations of the previously developed SWAT visualization software programs by creating a set of modular web applications that can be duplicated, customized, and run. Moreover, this article features a web application development tool for climate data retrieval. The NASAaccess fetches, extracts and reformats climate data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration servers and outputs data compatible with hydrological models. This work has the potential to increase the SWAT's model impact on non-technically trained stakeholders and decision makers charged with water and climate management.

5.
Data Brief ; 21: 2020-2027, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510987

RESUMO

In 'Satellite observations and modeling to understand the Lower Mekong River Basin streamflow variability' [1] hydrological fluxes, meteorological variables, land cover land use maps, and soil characteristics and parameters data were compiled and processed for the Lower Mekong River Basin. In this work, daily streamflow time series data at nine gauges located at five different countries in the Mekong region (Thailand, Laos People׳s Democratic Republic (PDR), Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam) is presented. Satellite-based daily precipitation and air temperature (minimum & maximum) data is processed and provided over the entire basin as part of the dataset provided in this work. Moreover, land cover land use raster data that contains 18 classes that cover agriculture, urban, range and forests land cover land use classes for the basin is offered. In addition, a soil data that contains physical and chemical characteristics needed by physically based hydrological models to simulate the cycling of water and air is also provided.

6.
J Hydrol (Amst) ; 564: 559-573, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100623

RESUMO

In this work, we have used the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to examine streamflow variability of the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMRB) associated with changes in the Upper Mekong River Basin (UMRB) inflows. Two hypothetical experiments were formulated and evaluated for the LMRB, where we conducted runoff simulations with multiple inflow changes that include upstream runoff yield increase and decrease scenarios. Streamflow variability of the LMRB was quantified by two streamflow metrics that explain flow variability and predictability, and high flow disturbance. The model experiments were performed for the Lower Mekong River Basin with identical climate, soil, and other watershed characteristics data. Remote sensing precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, TRMM, and Global Precipitation Measurement mission, GPM), meteorological data as well as spatial data that include a digital elevation model, newly developed soil information (Harmonized World Soil Database, HWSD), and land use and land cover were processed as input to the LMRB model simulations. Observed daily streamflow data along the Lower Mekong River from Chiang Sean, Thailand to Kratie, Cambodia were used for calibration and validation. Our work results suggest that the Lower Mekong River streamflow is highly variable and has a low predictability (Colwell index of about 32%). We found that releasing more water from upstream Mekong during rainfall months by 30% would result in a reduction in the Lower Mekong streamflow predictability by about 21%. This reduction in predictability is mainly attributed to a decrease in the Contingency index. Our work shows that the ability to predict floods/droughts at the Lower Mekong River would be reduced if there is any anticipated change (i.e., increase/decrease) from UMRB releases. Our results also show that releasing more flows from the upstream Mekong would also affect flood duration and the frequency of flood occurrences downstream. The results of this work thus help to quantify the sensitivity of streamflow variability at the Lower Mekong River Basin to upstream anthropogenic changes.

7.
Remote Sens (Basel) ; 10(6): 885, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938116

RESUMO

Multiple satellite-based earth observations and traditional station data along with the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model were employed to enhance the Lower Mekong River Basin region's hydrological decision support system. A nearest neighbor approximation methodology was introduced to fill the Integrated Multi-satellite Retrieval for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission (IMERG) grid points from 2001 to 2014, together with the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data points for continuous precipitation forcing for our hydrological decision support system. A software tool to access and format satellite-based earth observation systems of precipitation and minimum and maximum air temperatures was developed and is presented. Our results suggest that the model-simulated streamflow utilizing TRMM and IMERG forcing data was able to capture the variability of the observed streamflow patterns in the Lower Mekong better than model-simulated streamflow with in-situ precipitation station data. We also present satellite-based and in-situ precipitation adjustment maps that can serve to correct precipitation data for the Lower Mekong region for use in other applications. The inconsistency, scarcity, poor spatial representation, difficult access and incompleteness of the available in-situ precipitation data for the Mekong region make it imperative to adopt satellite-based earth observations to pursue hydrologic modeling.

8.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 6(1): 192-209, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic to 54 districts in 4 states of India. Poor awareness of the disease and inappropriate health-seeking behavior are major challenges to eliminating the disease. Between February 2016 and March 2017, we implemented a behavior change communication (BCC) intervention in 33 districts of Bihar, 4 districts of Jharkhand, and 3 districts of West Bengal using a mix of channels, including group and interpersonal communication, to improve knowledge, attitudes, and practices of communities, frontline health workers, and opinion leaders. We conducted an impact assessment in October 2016, after the second indoor residual spraying (IRS) round, in Bihar and Jharkhand to evaluate the effect of the BCC intervention. METHODS: Villages in 10 districts of Bihar and 4 districts in Jharkhand were selected for inclusion in the assessment. Selected villages were categorized as either intervention or control based on where project activities were conducted. Households were randomly selected proportional to caste composition, and interviewers surveyed the head of the household on whether the house was sprayed during the last IRS round and on knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to VL. We interviewed 700 households in intervention villages and 350 households in control villages and conducted correlation analysis to explore the association between IRS refusal and socioeconomic variables, and tested for association between IRS refusal and exposure to BCC activities. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. RESULTS: We reached an estimated 3.3 million contacts in Bihar and Jharkhand through the intervention's BCC activities. IRS refusal rates were significantly lower in intervention households than control households (mean=7.95% vs. 24.45%, respectively; OR, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11 to 0.62; P<.001). Households in intervention villages were more aware than those in control villages that VL is spread by sand flies (68.4% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P<.001) and of IRS as an effective control measure (82.3% vs. 41.7%, respectively; P<.001). A greater percentage of households in intervention villages than control villages indicated they would encourage a patient to go to primary health centers for diagnosis and treatment of VL (77.0% vs. 39.4%, respectively) and to encourage others to accept IRS (78.6% vs. 44.6%, respectively; P<.001). CONCLUSION: Households that were exposed to community-based BCC activities largely using group and interpersonal communication had better knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to VL, including acceptance of IRS as a preventive measure, than households not exposed. BCC activities are thus an important component of VL elimination strategies.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 613-614: 724-735, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938215

RESUMO

Large quantities of biofuel production are expected from bioenergy crops at a national scale to meet US biofuel goals. It is important to study biomass production of bioenergy crops and the impacts of these crops on water quantity and quality to identify environment-friendly and productive biofeedstock systems. SWAT2012 with a new tile drainage routine and improved perennial grass and tree growth simulation was used to model long-term annual biomass yields, streamflow, tile flow, sediment load, and nutrient losses under various bioenergy scenarios in an extensively agricultural watershed in the Midwestern US. Simulated results from bioenergy crop scenarios were compared with those from the baseline. The results showed that simulated annual crop yields were similar to observed county level values for corn and soybeans, and were reasonable for Miscanthus, switchgrass and hybrid poplar. Removal of 38% of corn stover (3.74Mg/ha/yr) with Miscanthus production on highly erodible areas and marginal land (17.49Mg/ha/yr) provided the highest biofeedstock production (279,000Mg/yr). Streamflow, tile flow, erosion and nutrient losses were reduced under bioenergy crop scenarios of bioenergy crops on highly erodible areas and marginal land. Corn stover removal did not result in significant water quality changes. The increase in sediment and nutrient losses under corn stover removal could be offset with the combination of other bioenergy crops. Potential areas for bioenergy crop production when meeting the criteria above were small (10.88km2), thus the ability to produce biomass and improve water quality was not substantial. The study showed that corn stover removal with bioenergy crops both on highly erodible areas and marginal land could provide more biofuel production relative to the baseline, and was beneficial to water quality at the watershed scale, providing guidance for further research on evaluation of bioenergy crop scenarios in a typical extensively tile-drained watershed in the Midwestern U.S.

10.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 14(3): 358-368, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193759

RESUMO

Recent national regulatory assessments of potential pesticide exposure of threatened and endangered species in aquatic habitats have led to increased need for watershed-scale predictions of pesticide concentrations in flowing water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the ability of the uncalibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations in the flowing water bodies of highly vulnerable small- to medium-sized watersheds. The SWAT was applied to 27 watersheds, largely within the midwest corn belt of the United States, ranging from 20 to 386 km2 , and evaluated using consistent input data sets and an uncalibrated parameterization approach. The watersheds were selected from the Atrazine Ecological Exposure Monitoring Program and the Heidelberg Tributary Loading Program, both of which contain high temporal resolution atrazine sampling data from watersheds with exceptionally high vulnerability to atrazine exposure. The model performance was assessed based upon predictions of annual maximum atrazine concentrations in 1-d and 60-d durations, predictions critical in pesticide-threatened and endangered species risk assessments when evaluating potential acute and chronic exposure to aquatic organisms. The simulation results showed that for nearly half of the watersheds simulated, the uncalibrated SWAT model was able to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations within a narrow range of uncertainty resulting from atrazine application timing patterns. An uncalibrated model's predictive performance is essential for the assessment of pesticide exposure in flowing water bodies, the majority of which have insufficient monitoring data for direct calibration, even in data-rich countries. In situations in which SWAT over- or underpredicted the annual maximum concentrations, the magnitude of the over- or underprediction was commonly less than a factor of 2, indicating that the model and uncalibrated parameterization approach provide a capable method for predicting the aquatic exposure required to support pesticide regulatory decision making. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:358-368. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Praguicidas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Atrazina/química , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Método de Monte Carlo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Biogeosciences ; 15: 7059-7076, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320910

RESUMO

This study describes and implements an integrated, multimedia, process-based system-level approach to estimating nitrogen (N) fate and transport in large river basins. The modeling system includes the following components: (1) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ),(2) Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), (3) Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC), and (4) Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The previously developed Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for CMAQ (FEST-C), an advanced user interface, integrated EPIC with the WRF model and CMAQ. The FEST-C system, driven by process-based WRF weather simulations, includes atmospheric N additions to agricultural cropland and agricultural cropland contributions to ammonia emissions. This study focuses on integrating the watershed hydrology and water quality model with FEST-C system so that a full multimedia assessment on water quality in large river basins to address impacts of fertilization, meteorology, and atmospheric N deposition on water quality can be achieved. Objectives of this paper are to describe how to expand the previous effort by integrating the SWAT model with the FEST-C (CMAQ/WRF/EPIC) modeling system, as well as to demonstrate application of the Integrated Modeling System (IMS) to the Mississippi River basin (MRB) to simulate streamflow and dissolved N loadings to the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). IMS simulation results generally agree with US Geological Survey (USGS) observations/estimations; the annual simulated streamflow is 218.9 mm and USGS observation is 211.1 mm and the annual simulated dissolved N is 2.1 kg ha-1 and the USGS estimation is 2.8 kg ha-1. Integrating SWAT with the CMAQ/WRF/EPIC modeling system allows for its use within large river basins without losing EPIC's more detailed biogeochemistry processes, which will strengthen the assessment of impacts of future climate scenarios, regulatory and voluntary programs for N oxide air emissions, and land use and land management on N transport and transformation in large river basins.

12.
Agric Water Manag ; 180(Pt B): 267-279, 2017 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154450

RESUMO

This study investigates multi-dimensional impacts of adopting new technology in agriculture at the farm/village and watershed scale in sub-Saharan Africa using the Integrated Decision Support System (IDSS). Application of IDSS as an integrated modeling tool helps solve complex issues in agricultural systems by simultaneously assessing production, environmental, economic, and nutritional consequences of adopting agricultural technologies for sustainable increases in food production and use of scarce natural resources. The IDSS approach was applied to the Amhara region of Ethiopia, where the scarcity of resources and agro-environmental consequences are critical to agricultural productivity of small farm, to analyze the impacts of alternative agricultural technology interventions. Results show significant improvements in family income and nutrition, achieved through the adoption of irrigation technologies, proper use of fertilizer, and improved seed varieties while preserving environmental indicators in terms of soil erosion and sediment loadings. These pilot studies demonstrate the usefulness of the IDSS approach as a tool that can be used to predict and evaluate the economic and environmental consequences of adopting new agricultural technologies that aim to improve the livelihoods of subsistence farmers.

13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(2): 50, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28058613

RESUMO

Tigris and Euphrates river basin (TERB) is one of the largest river basins in the Middle East, and the precipitation (in the form of snowfall) is a major source of streamflow. This study investigates the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and streamflow in TERB to better understand the hydroclimatic variables and how they varied over time. The precipitation shows a decreasing trend with 1980s being wetter and 2000s being drier. A total of 55 and 40% reduction in high flows in Tigris and Euphrates rivers at T20 and E3 was seen in post-reservoir period. A lag time of 3 to 4 and 5 to 6 months was estimated between peak snowfall and runoff time periods. Decreasing precipitation and streamflow along with several planned dams could hamper the sustainability of several Mesopotamian marshlands that completely depend on the water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.


Assuntos
Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Neve , Movimentos da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Mesopotâmia , Oriente Médio , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 580: 832-845, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012653

RESUMO

The Hawizeh marsh, a unique wetland which is part of the Mesopotamian marshes, is recognized as a wetland of international importance. The marsh has been shrinking and there has been little research into its degradation. This study aims to reconstruct historical water regimes in the contributing basins (Tigris and Karkheh river Basins, TKRB) to investigate factors that have affected the wellbeing of the marsh. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for this study. The model was calibrated and validated using nine river gauging stations. Results indicated that inflows to the marsh decreased by 65% and 80% in the '90s and 2000s, respectively, compared to the '80s. The reductions in streamflow were caused by decrease in precipitation and water abstraction. The annual precipitation decreased by 14% and 38% in the '90s and 2000s, respectively, compared to the '80s. Highest water abstraction was seen in Karkheh dam which caused a reduction of 45% in the annual streamflows. Average annual evaporative losses from Tharthar lake (2700km2) were very high (2260hm3 [cubic hectometer]). Although the Hawizeh marsh has been shrinking for the last three decades, recent satellite images (2013) have shown that the marsh has been reviving, mainly due to increased precipitation from 2011 to 2013. The revival of the marsh is promising; however, if the planned dams on TKRB are implemented, the future of the marsh remains uncertain. The sustainability of the Hawizeh marsh will require integrated water resources management among the riparian countries to rehabilitate and maintain this unique wetland.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 569-570: 1265-1281, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387796

RESUMO

Complex watershed simulation models are powerful tools that can help scientists and policy-makers address challenging topics, such as land use management and water security. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), complex hydrological models have been applied at various scales to help describe relationships between land use and water, nutrient, and sediment dynamics. This manuscript evaluated the capacity of the current Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict hydrological and water quality processes within WLEB at the finest resolution watershed boundary unit (NHDPlus) along with the current conditions and conservation scenarios. The process based SWAT model was capable of the fine-scale computation and complex routing used in this project, as indicated by measured data at five gaging stations. The level of detail required for fine-scale spatial simulation made the use of both hard and soft data necessary in model calibration, alongside other model adaptations. Limitations to the model's predictive capacity were due to a paucity of data in the region at the NHDPlus scale rather than due to SWAT functionality. Results of treatment scenarios demonstrate variable effects of structural practices and nutrient management on sediment and nutrient loss dynamics. Targeting treatment to acres with critical outstanding conservation needs provides the largest return on investment in terms of nutrient loss reduction per dollar spent, relative to treating acres with lower inherent nutrient loss vulnerabilities. Importantly, this research raises considerations about use of models to guide land management decisions at very fine spatial scales. Decision makers using these results should be aware of data limitations that hinder fine-scale model interpretation.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 542(Pt A): 22-35, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26519564

RESUMO

Water harvesting systems have improved productivity in various regions in sub-Saharan Africa. Similarly, they can help retain water in landscapes, build resilience against droughts and dry spells, and thereby contribute to sustainable agricultural intensification. However, there is no strong empirical evidence that shows the effects of intensification of water harvesting on upstream-downstream social-ecological systems at a landscape scale. In this paper we develop a decision support system (DSS) for locating and sizing water harvesting ponds in a hydrological model, which enables assessments of water harvesting intensification on upstream-downstream ecosystem services in meso-scale watersheds. The DSS was used with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for a case-study area located in the Lake Tana basin, Ethiopia. We found that supplementary irrigation in combination with nutrient application increased simulated teff (Eragrostis tef, staple crop in Ethiopia) production up to three times, compared to the current practice. Moreover, after supplemental irrigation of teff, the excess water was used for dry season onion production of 7.66 t/ha (median). Water harvesting, therefore, can play an important role in increasing local- to regional-scale food security through increased and more stable food production and generation of extra income from the sale of cash crops. The annual total irrigation water consumption was ~4%-30% of the annual water yield from the entire watershed. In general, water harvesting resulted in a reduction in peak flows and an increase in low flows. Water harvesting substantially reduced sediment yield leaving the watershed. The beneficiaries of water harvesting ponds may benefit from increases in agricultural production. The downstream social-ecological systems may benefit from reduced food prices, reduced flooding damages, and reduced sediment influxes, as well as enhancements in low flows and water quality. The benefits of water harvesting warrant economic feasibility studies and detailed analyses of its ecological impacts.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 505: 149-53, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461017

RESUMO

A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool using observed daily weather to simulate the reduction in nitrogen loading in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) that would result from enrolling all row crop acreage in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Nitrogen loadings at the outlet of the UMRB are used to predict Gulf hypoxic area, and net cash farm rent is used as the price for participation in the CRP. Over the course of the 42 year simulation, direct CRP costs total more than $388 billion, and the Inter-Governmental Task Force goal of hypoxic area less than 5000 square kilometers is met in only two years.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Eutrofização , Poluição Química da Água/prevenção & controle , Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Golfo do México , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Água do Mar/química , Poluição Química da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Environ Qual ; 43(1): 1-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602534

RESUMO

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has emerged as one of the most widely used water quality watershed- and river basin-scale models worldwide, applied extensively for a broad range of hydrologic and/or environmental problems. The international use of SWAT can be attributed to its flexibility in addressing water resource problems, extensive networking via dozens of training workshops and the several international conferences that have been held during the past decade, comprehensive online documentation and supporting software, and an open source code that can be adapted by model users for specific application needs. The catalyst for this special collection of papers was the 2011 International SWAT Conference & Workshops held in Toledo, Spain, which featured over 160 scientific presentations representing SWAT applications in 37 countries. This special collection presents 22 specific SWAT-related studies, most of which were presented at the 2011 SWAT Conference; it represents SWAT applications on five different continents, with the majority of studies being conducted in Europe and North America. The papers cover a variety of topics, including hydrologic testing at a wide range of watershed scales, transport of pollutants in northern European lowland watersheds, data input and routing method effects on sediment transport, development and testing of potential new model algorithms, and description and testing of supporting software. In this introduction to the special section, we provide a synthesis of these studies within four main categories: (i) hydrologic foundations, (ii) sediment transport and routing analyses, (iii) nutrient and pesticide transport, and (iv) scenario analyses. We conclude with a brief summary of key SWAT research and development needs.

19.
J Environ Qual ; 43(1): 46-54, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602539

RESUMO

High nitrate concentrations in streams have become a widespread problem throughout Europe in recent decades, damaging surface water and groundwater quality. The European Nitrate Directive fixed a potability threshold of 50 mg L for European rivers. The performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was assessed in the 1110-km Save catchment in southwestern France for predicting water discharge and nitrate loads and concentrations at the catchment outlet, considering observed data set uncertainty. Simulated values were compared with intensive and extensive measurement data sets. Daily discharge fitted observations (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient = 0.61, = 0.7, and PBIAS = -22%). Nitrate simulation (1998-2010) was within the observed range (PBIAS = 10-21%, considering observed data set uncertainty). Annual nitrate load at the catchment outlet was correlated to the annual water yield at the outlet ( = 0.63). Simulated annual catchment nitrate exportation ranged from 21 to 49 kg ha depending on annual hydrological conditions (average, 36 kg ha). Exportation rates ranged from 3 to 8% of nitrogen inputs. During floods, 34% of the nitrate load was exported, which represented 18% of the 1998-2010 period. Average daily nitrate concentration at the outlet was 29 mg L (1998-2010), ranging from 0 to 270 mg L. Nitrate concentration exceeded the European 50 mg L potability threshold during 244 d between 1998 and 2010. A 20% reduction of nitrogen input reduced crop yield by between 5 and 9% and reduced by 62% the days when the 50 mg L threshold was exceeded.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 463-464: 810-22, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23859899

RESUMO

Climate change is one of the most compelling modern issues and has important implications for almost every aspect of natural and human systems. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been applied worldwide to support sustainable land and water management in a changing climate. However, the inadequacies of the existing carbon algorithm in SWAT limit its application in assessing impacts of human activities on CO2 emission, one important source of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) that traps heat in the earth system and results in global warming. In this research, we incorporate a revised version of the CENTURY carbon model into SWAT to describe dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM)-residue and simulate land-atmosphere carbon exchange. We test this new SWAT-C model with daily eddy covariance (EC) observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) and annual crop yield at six sites across the U.S. Midwest. Results show that SWAT-C simulates well multi-year average NEE and ET across the spatially distributed sites and capture the majority of temporal variation of these two variables at a daily time scale at each site. Our analyses also reveal that performance of SWAT-C is influenced by multiple factors, such as crop management practices (irrigated vs. rainfed), completeness and accuracy of input data, crop species, and initialization of state variables. Overall, the new SWAT-C demonstrates favorable performance for simulating land-atmosphere carbon exchange across agricultural sites with different soils, climate, and management practices. SWAT-C is expected to serve as a useful tool for including carbon flux into consideration in sustainable watershed management under a changing climate. We also note that extensive assessment of SWAT-C with field observations is required for further improving the model and understanding potential uncertainties of applying it across large regions with complex landscapes.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ciclo do Carbono , Solo , Qualidade da Água , Biomassa , Clima , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Modelos Teóricos , Solo/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas
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