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Front Physiol ; 9: 1222, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271349


A number of clinical findings suggested HDL-raising as a plausible approach to treat residual risk of CVD. However, lack of CVD risk reduction by elevated HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) through cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition and enhanced risk reduction in apolipoprotein A-I Milano (apoAI-M) individuals with low HDL-C shifted the focus from HDL-C level to HDL function. In the present study, we investigated correlations between HDL-C, HDL function, fecal cholesterol excretion, and ex vivo plasma cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) in animal models using two HDL modulators, LXR and PPAR-α agonists. In C57Bl mice, LXR agonist, T1317, raised HDL-C by 30%, while PPAR-α agonist, fenofibrate, reduced HDL-C by 30%, but fecal cholesterol showed twofold increase in both cases. CEC showed a 30-40% increase. Combination of LXR and PPAR-α agonists showed no changes in HDL-C, but, interestingly, fecal cholesterol increased by 4.5-fold, and CEC by 40%, suggesting existence of additional pathway for fecal cholesterol excretion. Regression analysis showed a lack of correlation between HDL-C and fecal cholesterol and CEC, while fecal cholesterol showed significant correlation with CEC, a measure of HDL function. ABCA1 and G1, the two important players in RCT showed greater induction with LXR agonist than PPAR-α agonist. HDL-C increased by 40 and 80% in LXR and PPAR-α treated apoA-I transgenic mice, respectively, with 80% increase in fecal cholesterol. A fivefold increase in fecal cholesterol with no correlation with either plasma HDL-C or CEC following co-treatment with LXR and PPAR-α agonists suggested existence of an HDL-independent pathway for body cholesterol elimination. In hyperlipidemic diabetic ob/ob mice also combination of LXR and PPAR-α agonists showed marked increases in fecal cholesterol content (10-20-fold), while HDL-C rise was only 40%, further suggesting HDL-independent elimination of body cholesterol in mice treated with combination of LXR and PPAR-α agonists. Atherosclerosis attenuation by LXR and PPAR-α agonists in LDLr-deficient mice was associated with increased fecal cholesterol, but not HDL-C. However, fecal cholesterol counts showed inverse correlation with aortic cholesteryl ester content. These data suggest: (a) lack of correlation between HDL-C and fecal or aortic cholesterol content; (b) HDL function (CEC) correlated with fecal cholesterol content; (c) association of reduced aortic lipids in LDLr-/- mice with increased fecal cholesterol, but not with HDL-C, and (d) existence of an HDL-independent pathway for fecal cholesterol excretion following co-treatment with LXR and PPAR-α agonists.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 398(4): 665-70, 2010 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20609357


To study the mechanism of low levels of full length and truncated apoB in individuals heterozygous for apoB truncation, a non-sense mutation was introduced in one of the three alleles of apob gene of HepG2 cells by homologous recombination. Despite very low levels of apoB-82 (1-2%) in the media, a prominent N-terminal apoB protein of 85 kDa (apoB-15) was secreted that fractionated at d>1.065 in density gradient ultracentrifugation. The mechanism of production of this short protein was studied by (35)S-methionine pulse-chase experiment. Oleate prevented presecretory degradation of apoB-100 in the cell and resulted in increased secretion of newly synthesized apoB-100 with decreases in the apoB-15, suggesting that rescue of pre-secretary intracellular degradation of apoB restricted the production and secretion of apoB-15. Further investigation on the degradation of transmembrane forms of apoB, in the presence and absence of a cysteine protease inhibitor, N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN), showed appearance of detectable levels of newly synthesized apoB-82 in the cell and the media together with increased apoB-100 secretion, and reduction in the secretion of apoB-15. Compared to ER membrane, the levels of apoB were higher in the luminal content, and presence of both oleate and ALLN had additive effect on apoB secretion. These results suggest that the presence of improper folding of apoB during translocation led to the cleavage of both apoB-100 and apoB-82 by ALLN-sensitive protease and generation of 85 kDa N-terminal fragment of apoB.

Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Hipobetalipoproteinemia Familiar por Apolipoproteína B/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas B/química , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipobetalipoproteinemia Familiar por Apolipoproteína B/genética , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Dobramento de Proteína , Transporte Proteico
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 45(6): 410-5, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19239128


Apolipoprotein (apo) E plays an important role in the whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that it may also be involved in the local cholesterol transport in the brain, and influence the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by interacting with the beta-amyloid protein and brain lipoprotein receptors. Since apoE expression is highest in the brain, next only to the liver and associated with the pathogenesis of AD, we hypothesized that dietary and hormonal intervention, known to regulate hepatic apoE expression may also regulate brain apoE and thereby influence local cholesterol transport. To test this hypothesis, groups of male C57BL mice were fed either regular rodent chow or high fat (HF) and high cholesterol enriched diet for 3 weeks. In a separate study, groups of male mice were administered pharmacological doses of 17-beta estradiol for 5 consecutive days and sacrificed on the 6th day. As expected, HF diet elevated liver apoE mRNA and apoE synthesis. Similar to liver, brain apoE mRNA and synthesis also increased, following HF feeding. Estradiol administration increased liver apoE synthesis without affecting apoE mRNA. Interestingly, estradiol administration also increased the brain apoE synthesis, but without altering the brain apoE mRNA. These studies suggested that dietary cholesterol and estrogen administration elevated the brain apoE by different mechanisms.

Apolipoproteínas E/biossíntese , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Colesterol/biossíntese , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 102(17): 6027-32, 2005 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15837931


Recent studies suggest that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) LPA(1), LPA(2), or LPA(3) may play a role in the development of several types of cancers, including colorectal cancer. However, the specific receptor subtype(s) and their signal-transduction pathways responsible for LPA-induced cancer cell proliferation have not been fully elucidated. We show by specific RNA interference (RNAi) that LPA(2) and LPA(3) but not LPA(1) are targets for LPA-induced proliferation of HCT116 and LS174T colon cancer cells. We determined that LPA-induced colon cancer cell proliferation requires the beta-catenin signaling pathway, because knockdown of beta-catenin by RNAi abolished LPA-induced proliferation of HCT116 cells. Moreover, LPA activates the main signaling events in the beta-catenin pathway: phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta), nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, transcriptional activation of T cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid-enhancer factor (Lef), and expression of target genes. Inhibition of conventional protein kinase C (cPKC) blocked the effects, suggesting its involvement in LPA-induced activation of the beta-catenin pathway. Thus, LPA(2) and LPA(3) signal the proliferation of colon cancer cells through cPKC-mediated activation of the beta-catenin pathway. These results link LPA and its GPCRs to cancer through a major oncogenic signaling pathway.

Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Lisofosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos/fisiologia , Transativadores/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção , beta Catenina
Mol Cell Biochem ; 237(1-2): 155-64, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12236582


ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) was recently recognized as the mutant molecule responsible for Tangier disease with low HDL levels, accumulation of cholesteryl esters in tissues, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Extensive studies for the past 2 years have recognized the critical role of ABCA1 in cholesterol and phospholipid trafficking. Since the removal of cholesterol from tissues is a key step in the prevention of atherosclerosis, significant attention has been focused on this molecule. Natural ABCA1 mutations in Tangier disease (TD) patients and WHAM chickens together with induced mutation in ABCA1 knock-out mice unequivocally established the important role of ABCA1 in maintaining circulating HDL levels and promoting cholesterol efflux from the arterial wall. Mice lacking ABCA1 showed similar phenotypes observed in Tangier disease patients with low levels of HDL. Further understanding of the roles of ABCA1 in lipid transport and atherosclerosis became clear from studies with ABCA1 transgenic mice. These mice showed enhanced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation. The promoter of the ABCA1 gene has been mapped to a large extent, with the exception of cAMP response element. The present review summarizes recent developments on the role of ABCA1 in cholesterol efflux and prevention of atherosclerosis. Given the antiatherogenic properties of ABCA1, this molecule can serve as an appropriate target for developing drugs to treat individuals with low levels of HDL.

Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/fisiologia , Arteriosclerose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas