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1.
Med Phys ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment planning system (TPS) performance of the ZAP-X stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) system through nondosimetric, dosimetric, and end-to-end (E2E) tests. METHODS: A comprehensive set of TPS commissioning and validation tests were developed using published guidelines. Nondosimetric validation tests included information transfer, computed tomography-magnetic resonance (CT-MR) image registration, structure/contouring, geometry, dose tools, and CT density. Dosimetric validation included comparisons between TPS and water tank/Solid Water measurements for various geometries and beam arrangements and end-to-end (E2E) tests. Patient-specific quality assurance was performed with an ion chamber in the Lucy phantom and with Gafchromic EBT3 film in the CyberKnife head phantom. RadCalc was used for independent verification of monitor units. Additional E2E tests were performed using the RPC Gamma Knife thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) phantom, MD Anderson SRS head phantom, and PseudoPatient gel phantom for independent absolute dose verification. RESULTS: CT-MR image registrations with known translational and rotational offsets were within tolerance (< 0.5 × maximum voxel dimension). Slice thickness and distance accuracy were within 0.1 mm, and volume accuracy was within 0 to 0.11 cm3 . TPS volume measurement uncertainty was within 0.1 to 0.4 cm3 . Ion chamber point-dose measurements for a single beam in a water phantom agreed to TPS-calculated values within ±4% for collimator diameters 10 to 25 mm, and ±6% for 7.5 mm, for all measured depths (7, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mm). In homogeneous Solid Water, point-dose measurements agreed to within ±4% for cones sizes 7.5 to 25 mm. With 1-cm high/low density inserts, measurements were within ±4.2% for cone sizes 10 to 25 mm. Film-based E2E using 4-mm/5-mm cones resulted in a gamma passing rate (%GP) of 99.8% (2%/1.5 mm). Point-dose measurements in a Lucy phantom with an ion chamber using 36 beams distributed along three noncoplanar arcs agreed to within ±4% for cone sizes 10 to 25 mm. The RPC Gamma Knife TLD phantom yielded passing results with a measured-to-expected TLD dose ratio of 1.02. The MD Anderson SRS head phantom yielded passing results, with 4% TLD agreement and %GP of 95%/93% (5%/3 mm) for coronal/sagittal film planes. The RTsafe gel phantom gave %GP of > 95% (5%/2 mm) for all four targets. For our first 58 patients, film-based patient-specific quality assurance has resulted in an average %GP of 98.7% (range, 94-100%) at 2%/2 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Core ZAP-X features were found to be functional. On the basis of our results, point-dose and planar measurements were in agreement with TPS calculations using multiple phantoms and setup geometries, validating the ZAP-X TPS beam model for clinical use.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

3.
Pathology ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967771

RESUMO

ANXA2 (Annexin A2 or Annexin II) is a calcium dependent phospholipid binding protein with diverse cellular functions. While ANXA2 is either absent or expressed focally in the prostate epithelium of well and moderately differentiated tumours, it is highly expressed in a subset of poorly differentiated tumours. Here we examined the association between ANXA2 expression and tumour progression, with consideration of ERG expression status and patient race (Caucasian American and African American). We evaluated ANXA2 and ERG expression in index tumours by immunohistochemistry of whole mounted prostate sections and tissue microarrays derived from radical prostatectomies of 176 patients, matched for long term post-radical prostatectomy follow-up of up to 22 years (median 12.6 years), race and pathological stage. Expression of ERG and ANXA2 was analysed for correlation with grade group (GG), and pathological T (pT) stage. Kaplan-Meier estimation curves were used to examine associations between ANXA2 or ERG expression and biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival, and distant metastasis free survival. Significant associations were found between ANXA2(+) index tumours and poorest grade groups (GG 4-5, p=0.0037), and worse pathological stage (pT 3-4, p=0.0142). Patients with ANXA2(+) prostate tumours showed trends towards earlier BCR and metastatic progression. ANXA2(+)/ERG(-) tumours were found to be associated with GG 4-5; ANXA2(-)/ERG(+) tumours, with GG 1-2 (p=0.0036). ANXA2 expression was not associated with patient race. The association between high ANXA2 expression and prostate tumours of higher grade (GG 4-5) and stage (pT 3-4) suggests a potential use for ANXA2 as a prognostic biomarker of aggressive prostate cancer.

4.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001374, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945736

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is predominantly indolent at diagnosis with a small fraction (15-25%) representing aggressive subtype [Gleason score (GS) 7-10], which is prone to metastatic progression. It is critical to explore non-invasive assays for the early detection of this aggressive subtype, when it still can be treated effectively. Additionally, there is an emerging need to develop markers that perform equally well across races, as racial differences in the prevalence and mortality of prostate cancer has become evident. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First-catch, non-DRE urine specimens were collected from patients undergoing diagnostic biopsy. Total RNA was extracted from urinary exosomes and a quantitative expression assay protocol using droplet digital PCR was developed for detection of candidate genes in exosomal mRNAs from urine. Clinical performance for the gene expression assay was evaluated to predict high grade cancer (GS 7-10) from low grade cancer (GS 6) and cancer negative cases at biopsy. Assay performance was examined in combination with standard of care (SOC) to determine improvement in model prediction. RESULTS: In a racially diverse patient cohort a two-gene panel (PCA3, PCGEM1), in combination with SOC variables, significantly improved the prediction of high-grade cancer at diagnosis compared to SOC variables alone (AUC=0.88 versus AUC=0.80, respectively, p= 0.016). Decision curve analysis showed that there is a benefit of adopting the gene panel for detection of high-grade cancer compared to SOC alone. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the potential for developing broadly applicable CaP diagnostic biomarker panels for aggressive prostate cancer using our novel gene expression assay platform.

5.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842649

RESUMO

The identification of prostate transmembrane protein androgen induced 1 (PMEPA1), an androgen responsive gene, came initially from the studies of androgen regulatory gene networks in prostate cancer. It was soon followed by the documentation of the expression and functional analysis of transmembrane prostate androgen-induced protein (TMEPAI)/PMEPA1 in other solid tumors including renal, colon, breast, lung, and ovarian cancers. Further elucidation of PMEPA1 gene expression and sequence analysis revealed the presence of five isoforms with distinct extracellular domains (isoforms a, b, c, d, and e). Notably, the predicted amino acid sequences of PMEPA1 isoforms show differences at the N-termini, a conserved membrane spanning and cytoplasmic domains. PMEPA1 serves as an essential regulator of multiple signaling pathways including androgen and TGF-ß signaling in solid tumors. Structure-function studies indicate that specific motifs present in the cytoplasmic domain (PY, SIM, SH3, and WW binding domains) are utilized to mediate isoform-specific functions through interactions with other proteins. The understanding of the "division of labor" paradigm exhibited by PMEPA1 isoforms further expands our knowledge of gene's multiple functions in tumorigenesis. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent advances in understanding of PMEPA1 isoform-specific functions and their associations with prostate cancer progression, highlighting the potentials as biomarker and therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1665-1672, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 85% of the U.S. military active duty population is male and less than 50 years of age, with elevated levels of known risk factors for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), including smoking, excessive use of alcohol, and greater numbers of sexual partners, and elevated prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV). Given the recent rise in incidence of OPSCC related to the HPV, the Department of Defense Serum Repository provides an unparalleled resource for longitudinal studies of OPSCC in the military for the identification of early detection biomarkers. METHODS: We identified 175 patients diagnosed with OPSCC with 175 matched healthy controls and retrieved a total of 978 serum samples drawn at the time of diagnosis, 2 and 4 years prior to diagnosis, and 2 years after diagnosis. Following immunoaffinity depletion, serum samples were analyzed by targeted proteomics assays for multiplexed quantification of a panel of 146 candidate protein biomarkers from the curated literature. RESULTS: Using a Random Forest machine learning approach, we derived a 13-protein signature that distinguishes cases versus controls based on longitudinal changes in serum protein concentration. The abundances of each of the 13 proteins remain constant over time in control subjects. The AUC for the derived Random Forest classifier was 0.90. CONCLUSIONS: This 13-protein classifier is highly promising for detection of OPSCC prior to overt symptoms. IMPACT: Use of longitudinal samples has significant potential to identify biomarkers for detection and risk stratification.

7.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429558

RESUMO

Although ~40% of screen-detected prostate cancers (PCa) are indolent, advanced-stage PCa is a lethal disease with 5-year survival rates around 29%. Identification of biomarkers for early detection of aggressive disease is a key challenge. Starting with 52 candidate biomarkers, selected from existing PCa genomics datasets and known PCa driver genes, we used targeted mass spectrometry to quantify proteins that significantly differed in primary tumors from PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) across three study outcomes: (i) metastasis ≥1-year post-RP, (ii) biochemical recurrence ≥1-year post-RP, and (iii) no progression after ≥10 years post-RP. Sixteen proteins that differed significantly in an initial set of 105 samples were evaluated in the entire cohort (n = 338). A five-protein classifier which combined FOLH1, KLK3, TGFB1, SPARC, and CAMKK2 with existing clinical and pathological standard of care variables demonstrated significant improvement in predicting distant metastasis, achieving an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.92 (0.86, 0.99, p = 0.001) and a negative predictive value of 92% in the training/testing analysis. This classifier has the potential to stratify patients based on risk of aggressive, metastatic PCa that will require early intervention compared to low risk patients who could be managed through active surveillance.

9.
Oncotarget ; 11(15): 1321-1333, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oncogenic activation of ERG resulting from TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is a key molecular genetic alteration in prostate cancer (CaP). The frequency of ERG fusion is variable by race; however, there are limited data available on germline polymorphisms associating with ERG fusion status. The goal of this study is to identify the inherited risk variants associating with ERG status of CaP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SNP genotyping was performed on the Illumina platform using Infinium Oncoarray SNP chip on blood derived genomic DNA samples from 400 patients treated by radical prostatectomy at a single military institution. ERG status was determined in whole mounted prostate specimens by immuno-histochemistry (IHC) for ERG protein expression. Data analysis approaches included association analyses based on EMMAX and imputation by IMPUTE2. Imputed SNPs were validated by ddPCR. RESULTS: SNP genotyping analysis using imputation identified rs34349373 (p 4.68 × 10 -8 ) and rs2055272 (p 5.62 × 10-8) in TBC1D22B to be significantly associated with ERG fusion status in index tumor and non-index tumor foci. Imputed SNP rs2055272 was further experimentally validated by ddPCR with 98.04% (100/102) concordance. Initial discovery analysis based on SNPs on Oncoarray SNP chip, showed significant (p 10-5) association for SNPs (rs6698333, rs1889877, rs3798999, rs10215144, rs3818136, rs9380660 and rs1792695) with ERG fusion status. The study also replicated two previously known ERG fusion associated SNPs (rs11704416 in chromsome 22; rs16901979 in chromosome 8). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified SNPs associated with ERG status of CaP. IMPACT: The findings may contribute towards defining the underlying genetics of ERG positive and ERG negative CaP patients.

10.
Oncotarget ; 11(4): 362-377, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064040

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a disease with heterogeneity of multiple gene transcriptomes and biological signaling pathways involved in tumor development. The prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced 1 (PMEPA1), a multifunctional protein played critical roles in prostate tumorigenesis. The pleiotropic nature of PMEPA1 in modulating androgen and TGF-ß signaling as well as splice variants mechanisms for functional regulations of cancer-associated genes prompted us to investigate the biological roles of PMEPA1 isoforms in prostate cancer. In addition to 4 reported PMEPA1 isoforms (a, b, c and d), one novel isoform PMEPA1-e was identified with RNA Seq analysis of hormone responsive VCaP, LNCaP cells and human prostate cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. We analyzed the structures, expressions, biological functions and clinical relevance of PMEPA1-e isoform and less characterized isoforms c and d in the context of prostate cancer and AR/TGF-ß signaling. The expression of PMEPA1-e was induced by androgen and AR. In contrast, PMEPA1-d was responsive to TGF-ß and inhibited TGF-ß signaling. Both PMEPA1-d and PMPEA1-e promoted the growth of androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Although PMEPA1-c was responsive to TGF-ß, it was found to have no impacts on cell growth and androgen/TGF-ß signaling. The TCGA data analysis from 499 patients showed higher expression ratios of PMEAP1-b versus -d or -e strongly associated with enhanced Gleason score. Taken together, our findings first time defined the prostate tumorigenesis mediated by PMEPA1-d and -e isoforms, providing novel insights into the new strategies for prognostic evaluation and therapeutics of prostate tumor.

11.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 10, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical course of prostate cancer is challenging due to the wide biological spectrum of the disease. The objective of our study was to identify prostate cancer prognostic markers in patients 'sera using a multi-omics discovery platform. METHODS: Pre-surgical serum samples collected from a longitudinal, racially diverse, prostate cancer patient cohort (N = 382) were examined. Linear Regression and Bayesian computational approaches integrated with multi-omics, were used to select markers to predict biochemical recurrence (BCR). BCR-free survival was modeled using unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimation curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, adjusted for key pathologic variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics were used to examine the predictive value of markers in discriminating BCR events from non-events. The findings were further validated by creating a training set (N = 267) and testing set (N = 115) from the cohort. RESULTS: Among 382 patients, 72 (19%) experienced a BCR event in a median follow-up time of 6.9 years. Two proteins-Tenascin C (TNC) and Apolipoprotein A1V (Apo-AIV), one metabolite-1-Methyladenosine (1-MA) and one phospholipid molecular species phosphatidic acid (PA) 18:0-22:0 showed a cumulative predictive performance of AUC = 0.78 [OR (95% CI) = 6.56 (2.98-14.40), P < 0.05], in differentiating patients with and without BCR event. In the validation set all four metabolites consistently reproduced an equivalent performance with high negative predictive value (NPV; > 80%) for BCR. The combination of pTstage and Gleason score with the analytes, further increased the sensitivity [AUC = 0.89, 95% (CI) = 4.45-32.05, P < 0.05], with an increased NPV (0.96) and OR (12.4) for BCR. The panel of markers combined with the pathological parameters demonstrated a more accurate prediction of BCR than the pathological parameters alone in prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a panel of serum analytes were identified that complemented pathologic patient features in predicting prostate cancer progression. This panel offers a new opportunity to complement current prognostic markers and to monitor the potential impact of primary treatment versus surveillance on patient oncological outcome.

12.
Genes Cancer ; 10(5-6): 134-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798766

RESUMO

Screening of several TNBC cell lines showed altered Smad2 and Smad3 protein levels compared to normal mammary epithelial cells, suggesting the possibility that it could play an important role in the escape of cancer cells from TGF-ß mediated growth inhibition. To assess the functional relevance of these endogenous molecules, Smad2 or Smad3 expression was knocked down individually and assessed their effects on pro-oncogenic properties of TGF-ß. Smad3 deficiency reduced growth and invasion capacity of breast cancer cells in comparison to Smad2 which had no effect. Smad3 deficiency was also found to be associated with a reduction in the expressions of TMEPAI/PMEPA1 and EMT inducing transcription factors, E-Cadherin and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors and Vimentin. On the other hand, Smad2 deficiency had opposite effect on these regulators. Interestingly, the decreased growth, invasion and associated gene expressions were largely reversed by overexpressing TMEPAI in Smad3 knockdown cells, suggesting that Smad3-TMEPAI axis may be involved in subverting growth suppressive effects of TGF-ß into growth promotion. Similarly, altered levels of Smad proteins and TMEPAI were also noted in primary TNBC tumor tissues. Analysis of the existing databases provided additional support in terms of TMEPAI and Smad2 expression impacting the survival of TNBC patients. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel role for Smad3 in cancer transformation and cancer progression through TMEPAI and further suggest that selective targeting of TGF-ß-Smad3-TMEPAI axis may be beneficial in triple negative breast cancer therapy and prevention.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842254

RESUMO

Dysfunctions of androgen/TGF-ß signaling play important roles in prostate tumorigenesis. Prostate Transmembrane Protein Androgen Induced 1 (PMEPA1) inhibits androgen and TGF-ß signaling via a negative feedback loop. The loss of PMEPA1 confers resistance to androgen signaling inhibitors and promotes bone metastasis. Conflicting reports on the expression and biological functions of PMEPA1 in prostate and other cancers propelled us to investigate isoform specific functions in prostate cancer (PCa). One hundred and twenty laser capture micro-dissection matched normal prostate and prostate tumor tissues were analyzed for correlations between quantitative expression of PMEPA1 isoforms and clinical outcomes with Q-RT-PCR, and further validated with a The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-Seq dataset of 499 PCa. Cell proliferation was assessed with cell counting, plating efficiency and soft agar assay in androgen responsive LNCaP and TGF-ß responsive PC3 cells. TGF-ß signaling was measured by SMAD dual-luciferase reporter assay. Higher PMEPA1-a mRNA levels indicated biochemical recurrence (p = 0.0183) and lower PMEPA1-b expression associated with metastasis (p = 0.0173). Further, lower PMEPA1-b and a higher ratio of PMEPA1-a vs. -b were correlated to higher Gleason scores and lower progression free survival rate (p < 0.01). TGF-ß-responsive PMEPA1-a promoted PCa cell growth, and androgen-responsive PMEPA1-b inhibited cancer cell proliferation. PMEPA1 isoforms -a and -b were shown to be promising candidate biomarkers indicating PCa aggressiveness including earlier biochemical relapse and lower disease specific life expectancy via interrupting androgen/TGF-ß signaling.

14.
Oncotarget ; 10(60): 6466-6483, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a major cause of morbidity and mortality among men, prostate cancer is a heterogenous disease, with a vast heterogeneity in the biology of the disease and in clinical outcome. While it often runs an indolent course, local progression or metastasis may eventually develop, even among patients considered "low risk" at diagnosis. Therefore, biomarkers that can discriminate aggressive from indolent disease at an early stage would greatly benefit patients. We hypothesized that tissue specimens from early stage prostate cancers may harbor predictive signatures for disease progression. METHODS: We used a cohort of radical prostatectomy patients with longitudinal follow-up, who had tumors with low grade and stage that revealed no signs of future disease progression at surgery. During the follow-up period, some patients either remained indolent (non-BCR) or progressed to biochemical recurrence (BCR). Total RNA was extracted from tumor, and adjacent normal epithelium of formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Differential gene expression in tumors, and in tumor versus normal tissues between BCR and non-BCR patients were analyzed by NanoString using a customized CodeSet of 151 probes. RESULTS: After controlling for false discovery rates, we identified a panel of eight genes (ERG, GGT1, HDAC1, KLK2, MYO6, PLA2G7, BICD1 and CACNAID) that distinguished BCR from non-BCR patients. We found a clear association of ERG expression with non-BCR, which was further corroborated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified ERG as the strongest predictor for BCR and showed that potential prognostic prostate cancer biomarkers can be identified from FFPE tumor specimens.

15.
J Cancer ; 10(9): 1991-1996, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205559

RESUMO

Background: The incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been rapidly increasing among Chinese men. This alarming trend prompted evaluations of early causal genomic alterations known to drive prostate tumorigenesis. Recurrent activation of the ETS-Related Gene (ERG) by genomic rearrangements is the most recognized early event in prostate cancer. Following the initial detection of ERG rearrangement at gene expression and genomic and levels, development of diagnostic quality antibodies against ERG oncoprotein have streamlined the rapid assessment of ERG frequencies world-wide. Unexpectedly, these studies revealed highest frequencies of ERG among Caucasian descents, lower frequencies among African Americans and even lower prevalence of ERG among Asian men. Objective: To asses in a prospective study ERG frequencies, clinico-pathological and prognostic associations of ERG among prostate cancer patients of the Dalian region of Northeast China, by an established immunohistochemical procedure that have been used in studies world-wide. Methods: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded specimens donated by patients (N=50) diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated for ERG by immunohistochemistry. Results: Of the 50 cases, 13/50 (26.0%) tumors were positive for ERG. In all cases, normal prostatic epithelial were ERG negative. ERG was more frequently detected in the lower Gleason score (≤7) and low T-stage. Consistent with reports from Asian countries the results of our study shows lower overall frequencies of ERG positive tumors when compared to reports from Western countries. Conclusion: The intriguing association of even lower ERG frequencies with high Gleason scores and higher T-stages provides impetus for current driver gene discoveries focused on the predominantly ERG negative prostate cancers of Asian men.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013716

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most prevalent non-skin cancer in men and is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Early detection of prostate cancer is largely determined by a widely used prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test and biopsy is performed for definitive diagnosis. Prostate cancer is asymptomatic in the early stage of the disease, comprises of diverse clinico-pathologic and progression features, and is characterized by a large subset of the indolent cancer type. Therefore, it is critical to develop an individualized approach for early detection, disease stratification (indolent vs. aggressive), and prediction of treatment response for prostate cancer. There has been remarkable progress in prostate cancer biomarker discovery, largely through advancements in genomic technologies. A rich array of prostate cancer diagnostic and prognostic tests has emerged for serum (4K, phi), urine (Progensa, T2-ERG, ExoDx, SelectMDx), and tumor tissue (ConfirmMDx, Prolaris, Oncoytype DX, Decipher). The development of these assays has created new opportunities for improving prostate cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decisions. While opening exciting opportunities, these developments also pose unique challenges in terms of selecting and incorporating these assays into the continuum of prostate cancer patient care.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Análise em Microsséries , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
17.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 22(3): 406-410, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in BRCA2 have been linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and high frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) gene alterations was recently reported in metastatic castration-resistant PCa specimens. Mutations in BRCA2 vary in racial and ethnic groups including African-American (AA) and Caucasian-American (CA) populations. METHODS: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were sequenced (Ion AmpliSeq targeted sequencing) in archived blood DNA specimens in 1240 PCa patients, including 30% AA patients, in three different cohorts: localized early stage (T2) PCa (N = 935); advanced PCa (50% T3-4) (N = 189); and metastatic PCa (N = 116). The sequences were analyzed for known and novel mutations in BRCA1/2. Statistical analyses were performed to determine associations of the mutations with clinico-pathological parameters. RESULTS: BRCA2 mutations with known pathogenic annotation were significantly more prevalent in men with advanced and metastatic PCa (3.1%) compared to patients with an organ-confined disease (0.7%). AA patients carried more frequently BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) when compared to Caucasian Americans (4.6 vs. 1.6%, respectively). Significantly, pathogenic BRCA2 mutations in men with localized early stage PCa increased the risk of distant metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Germline variants of unknown significance in BRCA1/2 are more frequent in AA than CA PCa patients; however, the prevalence of pathogenic mutations were similar across the races. Patients carrying BRCA2 pathogenic mutations are more likely to progress to metastasis.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Seguimentos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12868, 2018 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150711

RESUMO

The TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion is the most prevalent early driver gene activation in prostate cancers of European ancestry, while the fusion frequency is much lower in Africans and Asians. The genomic characteristics and mechanisms for patients lacking ERG fusion are still unclear. In this study, we systematically compared the characteristics of gene fusions, somatic mutations, copy number alterations and gene expression signatures between 201 ERG fusion positive and 296 ERG fusion negative prostate cancer samples. Both common and group-specific genomic alterations were observed, suggesting shared and different mechanisms of carcinogenesis in prostate cancer samples with or without ERG fusion. The genomic alteration patterns detected in ERG-negative group showed similarities with 77.5% of tumor samples of African American patients. These results emphasize that genomic and gene expression features of the ERG-negative group may provide a reference for populations with lower ERG fusion frequency. While the overall expression patterns were comparable between ERG-negative and ERG-positive tumors, we found that genomic alterations could affect the same pathway through distinct genes in the same pathway in both groups of tumor types. Altogether, the genomic and molecular characteristics revealed in our study may provide new opportunities for molecular stratification of ERG-negative prostate cancers.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Metilação de DNA , Deleção de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
19.
Cancer Res ; 78(13): 3659-3671, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712692

RESUMO

Oncogenic activation of the ETS-related gene (ERG) by recurrent gene fusions (predominantly TMPRSS2-ERG) is one of the most validated and prevalent genomic alterations present in early stages of prostate cancer. In this study, we screened small-molecule libraries for inhibition of ERG protein in TMPRSS2-ERG harboring VCaP prostate cancer cells using an In-Cell Western Assay with the highly specific ERG-MAb (9FY). Among a subset of promising candidates, 1-[2-Thiazolylazo]-2-naphthol (NSC139021, hereafter ERGi-USU) was identified and further characterized. ERGi-USU selectively inhibited growth of ERG-positive cancer cell lines with minimal effect on normal prostate or endothelial cells or ERG-negative tumor cell lines. Combination of ERGi-USU with enzalutamide showed additive effects in inhibiting growth of VCaP cells. A screen of kinases revealed that ERGi-USU directly bound the ribosomal biogenesis regulator atypical kinase RIOK2 and induced ribosomal stress signature. In vivo, ERGi-USU treatment inhibited growth of ERG-positive VCaP tumor xenografts with no apparent toxicity. Structure-activity-based derivatives of ERGi-USU recapitulated the ERG-selective activity of the parental compound. Taken together, ERGi-USU acts as a highly selective inhibitor for the growth of ERG-positive cancer cells and has potential for further development of ERG-targeted therapy of prostate cancer and other malignancies.Significance: A highly selective small-molecule inhibitor of ERG, a critical driver of early stages of prostate cancer, will be imperative for prostate cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 78(13); 3659-71. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azo/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Regulador Transcricional ERG/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(4)2018 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690565

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. Among African American (AA) men, CaP is the most prevalent malignancy, with disproportionately higher incidence and mortality rates. Even after discounting the influence of socioeconomic factors, the effect of molecular and genetic factors on racial disparity of CaP is evident. Earlier studies on the molecular basis for CaP disparity have focused on the influence of heritable mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Most CaP susceptibility alleles identified based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were common, low-penetrance variants. Germline CaP-associated mutations that are highly penetrant, such as those found in HOXB13 and BRCA2, are usually rare. More recently, genomic studies enabled by Next-Gen Sequencing (NGS) technologies have focused on the identification of somatic mutations that contribute to CaP tumorigenesis. These studies confirmed the high prevalence of ERG gene fusions and PTEN deletions among Caucasian Americans and identified novel somatic alterations in SPOP and FOXA1 genes in early stages of CaP. Individuals with African ancestry and other minorities are often underrepresented in these large-scale genomic studies, which are performed primarily using tumors from men of European ancestry. The insufficient number of specimens from AA men and other minority populations, together with the heterogeneity in the molecular etiology of CaP across populations, challenge the generalizability of findings from these projects. Efforts to close this gap by sequencing larger numbers of tumor specimens from more diverse populations, although still at an early stage, have discovered distinct genomic alterations. These research findings can have a direct impact on the diagnosis of CaP, the stratification of patients for treatment, and can help to address the disparity in incidence and mortality of CaP. This review examines the progress of understanding in CaP genetics and genomics and highlight the need to increase the representation from minority populations.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia
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