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2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(3): 680-681, May-June 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154513

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: To demonstrate the entire surgeon's point of view of a prone split-leg (PSL) endoscopic guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (ePCNL) recorded with a GoPro® camera for standardization of the essential technical steps towards a successful procedure (1). Materials and methods: A 40y.o female patient presented with right flank pain for three years. She had previously been submitted to shock wave lithotripsy without success. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) revealed a 2cm stone in the renal pelvis with 1400HU and stone-to-skin distance of 11cm (Guy's Stone Score 1). PCNL approach was chosen for providing higher chances of stone-free after a single procedure. Informed consent was obtained. The PSL ePCNL was uneventful with a single access in a mid-pole. The surgeon had a Full HD GoPro Hero 4® camera mounted on his head, controlled by the surgical staff with a remote control. All essential surgical steps were recorded. Results: Operative time was 90 minutes. Hemoglobin drop was 0.7g/dL. The post-operative NCCT scan was stone-free. The patient was discharged 24h after surgery. Kidney stent was left with a string and removed after 5days. The camera worked properly and didn't cause any kind of discomfort to the surgeon. The quality of the recorded movie was excellent. Conclusion: By recording the surgeon's perspective of an endoscopic urological procedure, we were able to provide a comprehensive understanding of the surgical technique by assembling the endoscopic, fluoroscopic, and operative field views. The GoPro® camera proved to be an interesting tool to document surgical procedures without compromising outcomes and has great potential for educational purposes.

3.
Int J Biol Markers ; : 1724600821997461, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has a high incidence in men and is the second cause of cancer death among americans male. microRNA (miR) is becoming a potential new prognostic factor for prostate cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are common polymorphisms, characterized by a single exchange of nitrogen based in the DNA. This polymorphism is present in the miRs, altering their function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of SNP rs1834306 of miR100 and rs2910164 of miR146a in the development and prognosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: One hundred patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and 68 controls were selected. The identification of SNP was rated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction from blood samples, and the analysis was performed within the presence of SNP and the prognostic variables. RESULTS: In the SNP rs1834306 (miR100), a smaller presence of the polymorphic homozygous genotype was identified in patients with PSA >10 ng/mL, (P=0.03); when evaluating only the presence of the polymorphic allele G (P=0.09) it was compared to the presence of the wild type allele A. Among the patients with prostate cancer, SNP rs2910164 (miR146A), the polymorphic allele was more frequent in patients with a Gleason score ⩾7 than in patients with a Gleason score <7, (P=0.043). In patients with prostate cancer, miR100 was overexpressed in those with pT3 staging compared to pT2 and among those who had biochemical recurrence (P = 0.004 and P = 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: SNP of miR146a acts as a poor prognostic factor (Gleason ⩾7), and the SNP of miR100 is linked to better prognostic data (PSA <10). MiR100 was overexpressed in prostate cancer with worse prognostic factors.

4.
Urology ; 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically summarize the available evidence concerning the impact of pyeloplasty on symptoms and differential renal function (DRF) in adults with unilateral UPJO in poorly functioning kidneys (PFKs), and to identify potential predictors of kidney function recovery that could help clinicians select candidates for pyeloplasty. METHODS: A literature search (MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry) and systematic review were performed up to September 2020 according to the PRISMA guidelines. PFKs were defined as a baseline DRF ≤30% on renal scintigraphy. The primary endpoints were symptom relief and postoperative scintigraphic DRF. Predictors of kidney function recovery were evaluated and compared among studies. RESULTS: Nine studies comprising 731 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included for evidence synthesis. A DRF increase >5% occurred in 13.3% to 53.8% of 160 patients with a pre- and postoperative renal scan. Symptoms improved in 73.3% to 93.3% of 141 adults after pyeloplasty. Neither patient's age, baseline DFR, comorbidities, degree of hydronephrosis, kidney parenchymal thickness, nor kidney biopsy findings consistently predicted a significant DRF increase among 375 patients undergoing pyeloplasty. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a low level of evidence, pyeloplasty may relieve symptoms and stabilize kidney function in adults with UPJO in PFKs. A significant number of patients showed a DRF increase >5%, yet no consistent predictor of kidney function recovery was identified. Until more evidence becomes available, pyeloplasty could be considered for selected cases after accounting for the risks of a failure requiring a future nephrectomy.

7.
Physiol Rep ; 9(7): e14792, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of physical activity in functional and molecular bladder alterations in an obese and insulin-resistant murine model. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomized into 1. physical activity and standard diet; 2. physical activity and high-fat diet; 3. no physical activity and standard diet; and 4. no physical activity and high-fat diet. Groups 1 and 2 were subjected to a 10-week swimming protocol. Urodynamic study (UDS) was performed, and the expression of genes in the bladder tissue related to the insulin pathway (IRS1/IRS2/PI3K/AKT/eNOS) was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Groups 1 and 2 presented lower body weight gains than groups 3 (213.89 ± 13.77 vs 261.63 ± 34.20 grams (g), p = 0.04) and 4 (209.84 ± 27.40 vs 257.57 ± 32.95 g, p = 0.04), respectively. Group 4 had higher insulin level (6.05 ± 1.79 vs 4.14 ± 1.14 ng/ml, p = 0.038) and higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (1.95 ± 0.73 vs 1.09 ± 0.37, p = 0.006) than group 1. On UDS, group 4 had greater number of micturition (13.6 ± 4.21 vs 6.0 ± 1.82, p = 0.04), higher postvoid pressure (8.06 ± 2.24 vs 5.08 ± 1.23, p = 0.04), lower capacity (0.29 ± 0.18 vs 0.91 ± 0.41 ml, p = 0.008), and lower bladder compliance (0.027 ± 0.014 vs 0.091 ± 0.034 ml/mmHg, p = 0.016) versus group 1. High-fat diet was related to an underexpression throughout insulin signaling pathway, and physical activity was related to an overexpression of the pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The insulin signaling pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of bladder dysfunction related to a high-fat diet. Physical activity may help to prevent bladder disfunction induced by a high-fat diet through the insulin pathway.

8.
Med Hypotheses ; 150: 110566, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799157

RESUMO

Currently, the biggest challenge for prostate cancer (PCa) is to understand the mechanism by which the disease acquires the castration-resistant phenotype and progresses to a fatal disease. PCa has a high genetic heterogeneity, and cannot be separated into well-defined molecular subtypes. Despite this, there is consensus about the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in all stages of the disease, including the transition to the castration-resistant phenotype. Since AR is a transcription factor, we investigated the possibility of PCa presenting a pattern of global gene expression during disease progression. By analyzing the TCGA and CCLE datasets, we were able to find a pattern of waves of genes being expressed during each stage of disease progression. This phenomenon suggests the existence of a mechanism that globally regulates gene expression, being AR, telomeres, and zinc finger proteins (ZNF), three important players. The AR modulates the telomere biology, and its transcription is regulated by ZNF. Recently, a study suggested that the telomere length might influence the expression of ZNF. Thus, we hypothesized that changes in the triad AR, telomeres, and ZNF control gene expression during the progression of PCa.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Receptores Androgênicos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 251-262, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154446

RESUMO

ABSTRACT COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly spreading virus that is changing the World and the way doctors are practicing medicine. The huge number of patients searching for medical care and needing intensive care beds led the health care system to a burnout status especially in places where the care system was already overloaded. In this setting, and also due to the absence of a specific treatment for the disease, health authorities had to opt for recommending or imposing social distancing to relieve the health system and reduce deaths. All other medical specialties nondirectly related to the treatment of COVID-19 had to interrupt or strongly reduce their activities in order to give room to seriously ill patients, since no one knows so far the real extent of the virus damage on human body and the consequences of doing non deferrable procedures in this pandemic era. Despite not been a urological disease, the urologist needs to be updated on how to deal with these patients and how to take care of himself and of the medical team he works with. The aim of this article is to review briefly some practical aspects of COVID-19 and its implications in the urological practice in our country.

12.
BJU Int ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of single-dose tranexamic acid on the blood transfusion rate and outcomes of patients with complex kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 192 patients with complex kidney stone (Guy's Stone Scores III-IV) were prospectively enrolled and randomised (1:1 ratio) to receive either one dose of tranexamic acid (1 g) or a placebo at the time of anaesthetic induction for PCNL. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence rate of perioperative blood transfusion. The secondary outcome measures included blood loss, operative time, stone-free rate (SFR), and complications. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02966236. RESULTS: The overall risk of receiving a blood transfusion was reduced in the tranexamic acid group (2.2% vs 10.4%; relative risk, 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.76, P = 0.033; number-needed-to-treat: 12). Patients randomised to the tranexamic acid group had a higher immediate and 3-month SFR compared with those in the placebo group (29% vs 14.7%, odds ratio [OR] 2.37, 95% CI 1.15-4.87, P = 0.019, and 46.2% vs 28.1%, OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.20-4.02, P = 0.011, respectively). Faster haemoglobin recovery occurred in patients in the tranexamic acid group (mean, 21.3 days; P = 0.001). No statistical differences were found in operative time and complications between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Tranexamic acid administration is safe and reduces the need for blood transfusion by five-times in patients with complex kidney stones undergoing PCNL. Moreover, tranexamic acid may contribute to better stone clearance rate and faster haemoglobin recovery without increasing complications. A single dose of tranexamic acid at the time of anaesthetic induction could be considered standard clinical practice for patients with complex kidney stones undergoing PCNL.

13.
J Bras Nefrol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones (MAP), also known as struvite stones, are associated with urinary infection and impairment of renal unit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the urinary metabolic risk factors for recurrence of renal calculi in patients submitted to nephrectomy due to MAP stones. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients > 18 years old submitted to total nephrectomy due to pure MAP stones and pure calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones from July 2006 to July 2016. Urinary metabolic parameters were assessed through 24-hour urine exams ≥ 3 months after nephrectomy. Urinary metabolic parameters and new event related to lithiasis were compared. RESULTS: Twenty-eight and 39 patients were included in MAP and CaOx group, respectively. Abnormalities in 24-hour urine samples were similar between groups. Hypercalciuria occurred in 7.1 and 10.3% of patients in MAP and CaOx group, respectively (p = 0.66), whereas hypocitraturia was present in 65.2 and 59.0% of patients with MAP and CaOx group, respectively (p = 0.41). No significant difference in new events was found between MAP and CaOx groups (17.9 vs. 23.1%, respectively; p = 0.60). CONCLUSION: A 24-hour urine evaluation should be offered to patients submitted to nephrectomy due to pure MAP stones in order to detect metabolic risk, improve treatment, and prevent stone recurrence.

15.
Scand J Urol ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare symptom resolution and short-term renal function after pyeloplasty or nephrectomy in adults with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in poorly functioning renal units (PFRU). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of adult patients with UPJO and differential renal function (DRF) ≤ 15% who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty or nephrectomy. Primary endpoints included symptom resolution and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 12 months. Surgical complications were compared between groups. A secondary analysis was performed comparing baseline and postoperative DRF to evaluate the PFRU recovery potential after pyeloplasty. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included; 19 underwent pyeloplasty and 44 underwent nephrectomy. The mean age of the cohort was 39.5 ± 13.8 years. Nephrectomy was associated with significantly higher intra-operative blood loss (p = 0.02). Operative time and length of hospital stay were not significantly different between groups. There were three complications in the nephrectomy group, and none in the pyeloplasty group (p = 0.34). Symptom resolution rates were equivalent between groups (73% vs. 76%; p = 0.78). The eGFR variation was not statistically different after pyeloplasty or nephrectomy (+6.2 vs. +0.1 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively; p = 0.18). Patients undergoing pyeloplasty had no significant change in the mean DRF (baseline 9.5 vs. 10%; p = 0.99). CONCLUSION: Pyeloplasty can be considered for selected patients with UPJO in PFRU as an organ-sparing alternative to nephrectomy. Although there was no significant gain in mean DRF, pyeloplasty prevented further functional loss and relieved symptoms in most cases in the short-term with at least the same complication rates of nephrectomy.

16.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the local tumour progression-free survival (LTPFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) of healthy surgical candidates who underwent percutaneous thermoablation (TA) as a first-line therapy for small renal masses (T1a). METHODS: The institutional review board approved this bi-institutional retrospective study of 85 consecutive surgical candidates with 97 biopsy-proven malignant renal masses (T1a) treated with percutaneous TA from 2008 to 2016. The LTPFS, MFS, CSS and OS rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Descriptive analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The median tumour size was 2.3 cm (range, 0.7-3.9 cm). The minimal and mean follow-up periods were 24 and 56 months, respectively. Local recurrence was detected in four patients (4.7%) at 8.5, 13.8, 58.0 and 64.0 months of follow-up and retreated successfully with percutaneous TA. No patient developed metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and none died due to renal oncologic complications. One patient died of heart attack. The 5-year LTPFS, OS, MFS and CSS rates were 93.0%, 98.4%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Only two patients (2.3%) had major complications (Clavien-Dindo grade > II), including ureteropelvic junction stenosis and urinary obstruction due to ureteral blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that percutaneous TA is a feasible and effective first-line therapy for healthy surgical candidates with small renal masses (T1a). The 5-year LTPFS, OS, CSS and MFS rates were 93.0%, 98.4%, 100% and 100%, respectively, with a major complication rate of only 2.3%. KEY POINTS: • Image-guided percutaneous thermoablation of small renal malignancies was effective in 95.3% of the healthy surgical candidates. • Major complications were detected in 2.3% of the patients. • The local tumour progression-free survival rate was 97.6% and 93.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively.

17.
Int Braz J Urol ; 47(2): 251-262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840335

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly spreading virus that is changing the World and the way doctors are practicing medicine. The huge number of patients searching for medical care and needing intensive care beds led the health care system to a burnout status especially in places where the care system was already overloaded. In this setting, and also due to the absence of a specific treatment for the disease, health authorities had to opt for recommending or imposing social distancing to relieve the health system and reduce deaths. All other medical specialties non-directly related to the treatment of COVID-19 had to interrupt or strongly reduce their activities in order to give room to seriously ill patients, since no one knows so far the real extent of the virus damage on human body and the consequences of doing non deferrable procedures in this pandemic era. Despite not been a urological disease, the urologist needs to be updated on how to deal with these patients and how to take care of himself and of the medical team he works with. The aim of this article is to review briefly some practical aspects of COVID-19 and its implications in the urological practice in our country.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Doenças Urológicas/terapia , Urologia/tendências , Humanos
18.
J Urol ; 205(5): 1476-1482, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356485

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Williams-Beuren syndrome is a chromosomal disorder caused by a deletion at region 7q11.23. Lower urinary tract symptoms are highly prevalent and significantly affect quality of life. We assessed the long-term outcomes of lower urinary tract symptoms in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2001 to July 2016, 90 patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome were evaluated in our hospital, of whom 31 (20 boys) had at least 5 years of followup. Baseline evaluation included a history of lower urinary tract symptoms, frequency-volume chart and the impact on quality of life measured on a scale of 0 (delighted) to 6 (terrible). Pharmacological therapy with oxybutynin or doxazosin was offered to symptomatic patients. We present the outcome of lower urinary tract symptoms after 5 and 10 years of followup. RESULTS: At baseline 27 (87.1%) patients were symptomatic. Median duration of followup was 10 (range 6-13) years. Pharmacological therapy was started for 25 (92.6%) symptomatic patients at baseline, including oxybutynin for 19 (76.0%), doxazosin for 1 (4.0%) and a combination of the 2 agents for 5 (20.0%). Medical therapy was still in use by 61.2% after 5 years and 52.9% after 10 years (p=0.043). Median duration of pharmacological treatment was 7 (range 6-11) years. A significant improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms was observed over time, with 35.5% and 29.5% patients considered symptomatic after 5 years and 10 years, respectively (p <0.001). Quality of life was also markedly improved over time (p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This long-term study showed significant improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms in children and adolescents with Williams-Beuren syndrome over time. Long-term pharmacological treatment was needed in most patients.

20.
Eur Urol ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (EPLND) in the surgical management of prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains controversial, mainly because of a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether EPLND has better oncological outcomes than limited PLND (LPLND. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective, single-center phase 3 trial in patients with intermediate- or high-risk clinically localized PCa. INTERVENTION: Randomization (1:1) to LPLND (obturator nodes) or EPLND (obturator, external iliac, internal iliac, common iliac, and presacral nodes) bilaterally. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The primary endpoint was biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS). Secondary outcomes were metastasis-free survival (MFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and histopathological findings. The trial was designed to show a minimal 15% advantage in 5-yr BRFS by EPLND. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In total, 300 patients were randomized from May 2012 to December 2016 (150 LPLND and 150 EPLND). The median BRFS was 61.4 mo in the LPLND group and not reached in the EPLND group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.32; p = 0.6). Median MFS was not reached in either group (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.17-1.8; p = 0.3). CSS data were not available because no patient died from PCa before the cutoff date. In exploratory subgroup analysis, patients with preoperative biopsy International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grade groups 3-5 who were allocated to EPLND had better BRFS (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74, interaction p = 0.007). The short follow-up and surgeon heterogeneity are limitations to this study. CONCLUSION: This RCT confirms that EPLND provides better pathological staging, while differences in early oncological outcomes were not demonstrated. Our subgroup analysis suggests a potential BCRFS benefit in patients diagnosed with ISUP grade groups 3-5; however, these findings should be considered hypothesis-generating and further RCTs with larger cohorts and longer follow up are necessary to better define the role of EPLND during RP. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we investigated early outcomes in prostate cancer patients undergoing prostatectomy according to the anatomic extent of lymph node resection. We found that extended removal of lymph nodes did not reduce biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in the expected range.

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