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1.
J Robot Surg ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009987

RESUMO

To compare tissue trauma between Retropubic Radical Prostatectomy and Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy by inflammatory mediators. Serum samples from 40 patients submitted to RALP and 20 patients submitted to RRP were withdrawn at four different time points. The cytokines IL-4, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1B, IL-10 and TNF-α were detected using ELISA/Multiplex assays and xMAP-Luminex®. With both techniques, IL-10 and IL-6 were higher in T4 than in T1-T3 (p = 0.001). IL-10 and IL-6 were higher in T4 in open surgery than in robotic surgery (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Compared with both groups, IL-6 and IL-10 were higher in T4 in open surgery than in robotic surgery. Thus, we can postulate that RALP causes less tissue trauma than classical RRP, as indicated by the more limited increase in inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 and IL-10.

2.
J Endourol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite technology incorporation to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), residual stone fragments (RSF) may still persist after PCNL and need to be addressed to avoid re-growth or ureteral obstruction. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for treating patients with residual stone fragments after a previous standard PCNL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult patients with RSF after a standard PCNL submitted to RIRS or SWL in our Institution from January 2017 to January 2020 were retrospectively studied. Stone-free rate (SFR) was evaluated on POD 90 by non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) or ultrasound and kidney-bladder-ureter radiography (KUB) for each renal unit. Surgical complications based on Clavien-Dindo classification during the 90 days of follow-up were recorded. Sample size was calculated for a power of 80% and a significance level of 0.05, assuming SFR of 20% for SWL and 50% for RIRS. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients treated by SWL were compared to 36 patients treated by RIRS. Hospitalization time was longer in the RIRS group (4.18h vs. 12.33h, p=0.001). SFR and success rate were lower in SWL than RIRS group (24.2% vs. 58.3%, p=0.007 and 30.3% vs. 72.2%, p=0.004, respectively), using POD 90 NCCT in 81.8% and ultrasound and KUB in 18.2% of the SWL group and using POD 90 NCCT in 100% of the RIRS group. Minor complications (Clavien-Dindo < III) occurred in 11/36 (30.6%) patients submitted to RIRS and in 2/33 (6.1%) patients submitted to SWL group (p=0.025). Two patients (6.1%) of the SWL group had Clavien-Dindo IIIb complication due to steinstrasse and were submitted to ureteroscopy. Emergency room visits were similar between groups (6.1% vs. 8.3%, p=1.0). CONCLUSIONS: RIRS has better SFR, higher minor complications and lower major complications than SWL for the treatment of RSF after standard PCNL.

3.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869170

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate in an experimental model, the mobility of a novel peritoneal dialysis catheter with a metallic tip (Mag-Cath) using an extra-corporeal magnet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Mag-Cath was installed in a porcine model under general anesthesia using laparoscopic access. A senior urologist, a urology resident, and a 3rd-year medical student were assigned to complete 2 tasks guided by fluoroscopy: (1) Move the catheter tip from the right flank to the pelvis and (2) move the catheter tip from the pelvis to the left flank. Accomplishment and time to complete the tasks were recorded. Participants were asked independently to grade the difficulty of the tasks using an analog scale from 1 (extremely easy) to 10 (extremely difficult). RESULTS: All participants completed the tasks. The difficulty of the tasks was graded equal to 1 by the senior urologist and urology resident and equal to 3 by the medical student. The time to move the Mag-Cath from the right flank to the target was 14, 10, and 55 s for the senior urologist, urology resident, and medical student, respectively. The time to move the Mag-Cath from the target to the left flank was 17, 18, and 43 s for the senior urologist, urology resident, and medical student, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this preliminary analysis, the use of an extra-corporeal magnet to move the Mag-Cath was feasible, with a low grade of difficulty, and individuals with different levels of expertise could perform it. Further studies in human subjects are needed to evaluate the clinical applicability of the Mag-Cath properly.

4.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 191: 111352, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as regulatory elements, with up to 70 % of all miRNAs found in the brain, playing key roles in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: to broadly assess the expression levels of miRNAs in post-mortem brain (PMB) samples of individuals deceased with or without AD. METHODS: A high-throughput microarray platform was used to sketch miRNA samples isolated from superior and middle temporal gyrus of A+T+ AD cases, compared to samples from age- and sex-matched AD-devoid donors, all pulled from the University of São Paulo's Brain Biobank. The miRNAs identified by microarray were subjected to validation with specific qRT-PCR assays employing independent PMB samples. RESULTS: The analyses yielded 6 miRNAs differentially expressed (miR-30e_3p; miR-365b_5p; miR-664_3p; miR-1202; miR-4286; miR-4449), and their interplay with specific AD-related genes and signaling pathways was explored using bioinformatics analyses (including the KEGG package, mirPath v.3). In the end, 3 miRNAs, 7 target genes and 11 pathways were found closely interrelated and implicated with the AD pathophysiology. CONCLUSION: A dysregulation on a subset of these miRNAs appear to affect a range of genes (notably PTEN) and pathways (emphasis to PI3K-AKT) so to provide grounds for neuronal death by apoptotic signaling, autophagy and/or oxidative damage.

5.
World J Urol ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930845

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the complication and stone-free rates of PCNL in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate whether this population should be assigned a Guy's stone score (GSS) of 4. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted, and electronic charts were reviewed to search for patients with SCI, bladder dysfunction, and kidney stones who had undergone PCNL. Control cases were randomly selected from among patients with complete staghorn calculus (GSS = 4). RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients were included. Patients with SCI had a significant shorter operative time (119 vs. 141 min; p = 0.018). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the patients' position, number of renal tracts, bleeding or transfusion rate; however, there was a significantly higher complication rate (23.1% vs. 7.8%; p = 0.009) and a longer hospital stay (5.8 vs. 3.1 days; p = 0.002) among patients with SCI. With regards to the stone-free rate in patients with different grades of GSS patients with SCI who had a GSS of 1 had a stone-free rate of 85.7%, while those with a GSS of 2, 3, or 4 had 50%, 50%, and 31.5%, respectively (p = 0.024). Only patients with a GSS of 4 in the SCI group had outcomes that were similar to those of control patients (31.5% vs. 31.6%). CONCLUSION: Patients with SCI should not be automatically assigned GSS 4. Stone-free rate is related to stone burden in these patients, although they do show a higher complication rate and a longer hospital stay than non-neurological patients.

6.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcomes of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in adults with poorly functioning kidney due to ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). METHODS: A retrospective comparative analysis was performed between adult patients who underwent LP due to UPJO with differential renal function (DRF) ≤ 15% and DRF > 15%. LP success rate and complications were assessed. LP success was defined as symptoms improvement and DRF improvement or stabilization. DRF and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed before and 12 months after surgery to evaluate renal function recovery. DRF was estimated using Tc-99 m DMSA renal scintigraphy. RESULTS: Among 121 LP performed in the study period at our institution, 15 and 42 were included in the DRF ≤ 15% and DRF > 15% groups, respectively. At a median follow-up of 17.8 months, all patients with DRF ≤ 15% reported symptoms improvement. LP success rate was 86.7% and 90.5% (p = 0.65) for patients with DRF ≤ 15% and DRF > 15%, respectively. There were no complications in the DRF ≤ 15% group, while there were three complications recorded in the DRF > 15% group (Clavien 2 and 3b). In the DRF ≤ 15% group, mean pre-operative and post-operative DRF was 9.5% ± 3.6 and 10.5% ± 7.8 (p = 0.49), respectively. Median pre-operative and post-operative eGFR was 68.5 ml/min and 79.8 ml/min (p = 0.93), respectively. Two patients had DRF improvement after LP. CONCLUSIONS: LP in adult patients with UPJO and poor function kidneys is an effective and safe procedure. DRF recovery is seen in a minority of the patients; however, LP is an alternative to nephrectomy.

7.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The TWIST (Testicular Work-up for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion) score was developed to allow for expedited diagnosis of testicular torsion (TT) in children based on clinical variables: edema (2 points), hard mass (2), absent cremasteric reflex (1), high-riding testis (1) and nausea/vomiting (1). We sought to validate the TWIST Score applied by non-expert physicians for the diagnosis of testicular torsion in an adult population. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed all consecutive males presenting to a tertiary hospital with acute scrotum. Patients with previous scrotal pathology or trauma were excluded. Physical examination was performed by a general surgeon and variables of TWIST were recorded. All patients underwent Scrotal Doppler Ultrasound. Measures of accuracy of the TWIST score and ROC curves were generated to evaluate its performance in diagnosing TT in adults. RESULTS: Of 68 patients, 34 had TT (50%). Median age was 24.9 years. According to the original cutoffs of TWIST, 23 patients had a score ≤ 2 among which none had TT. Fifteen patients had a score of 3-4, among which seven had TT. Thirty patients had a score ≥ 5, among which 27 had TT. All 18 patients with a score of 6 or greater had TT (100% PPV). ROC curve revealed an AUC of 0.95. CONCLUSION: The TWIST Score is valid for the diagnosis of Testicular Torsion in adults, presenting a PPV of 90% for a cutoff of 5 points and 100% for six points. In all patients with a score of 2 or less, the disease could be safely excluded (100% NPV).

8.
Int Braz J Urol ; 462020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840335

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly spreading virus that is changing the World and the way doctors are practicing medicine. The huge number of patients searching for medical care and needing intensive care beds led the health care system to a burnout status especially in places where the care system was already overloaded. In this setting, and also due to the absence of a specific treatment for the disease, health authorities had to opt for recommending or imposing social distancing to relieve the health system and reduce deaths. All other medical specialties non-directly related to the treatment of COVID-19 had to interrupt or strongly reduce their activities in order to give room to seriously ill patients, since no one knows so far the real extent of the virus damage on human body and the consequences of doing non deferrable procedures in this pandemic era. Despite not been a urological disease, the urologist needs to be updated on how to deal with these patients and how to take care of himself and of the medical team he works with. The aim of this article is to review briefly some practical aspects of COVID-19 and its implications in the urological practice in our country.

9.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 197: 105683, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777664

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mobile applications ("apps") developed for smartphones and tablets are increasingly used in healthcare, allowing remote patient support or promoting self-health care. Prostate cancer (PC) screening allows for early-stage PC diagnosis, resulting in high rates of curative procedures such as radical prostatectomy. The main complications following surgery are urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. However, the exact numbers related to these morbidities are often missing due to brief interviews during consultations in the medical office. Therefore, the aim of this study was to create an app to determine whether response rates to pre- and post-surgical PC questionnaires will increase. METHODS: The app was built using the IONIC framework system and provided to patients through a prospective randomized study. We included 100 patients divided into two groups: 1. first group used the app (n = 50); and 2. second group responded via validated printed questionnaires (control group) (n = 50). All patients received discharge counseling to respond to the questionnaires 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. The app group received verbal guidance on how monitoring would occur, received an SMS containing a username and password providing access to the system and received reminder alerts to respond to the questionnaires. RESULTS: The new app is called UroHealth and is available for download in the Apple App Store or at www.urohealth.com.br. When we evaluated the response rates, we found that 42.9% of the patients answered the preoperative questionnaire in the app group, while 16% responded in the control group (p = 0.003). By the end of the follow-up, we found that 24.5% of the patients answered the questionnaire in the app group, while 4% responded in the control group (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: This app enabled almost 6 times more patients to answer long-term follow-up questions after surgical procedures, providing high-quality information regarding morbidity related to treatment. Although our initial results indicate that this app may become a useful tool in obtaining more frequent and realistic answers, thus helping to improve surgical techniques, other ways of reaching the patient should be tested to achieve higher response rates.

11.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(8): bvaa083, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724871

RESUMO

Purpose: This prospective study presents the results of a new approach in the treatment of primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH), with simultaneous total adrenalectomy of the larger adrenal gland and partial adrenalectomy of the contralateral adrenal gland (adrenal-sparing surgery). Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective study including 17 patients with PMAH treated surgically with adrenal-sparing surgery in a tertiary referral hospital, with a median follow-up of 41 months. Clinical, hormonal, and genetic parameters were evaluated before surgery and during follow-up. All patients had at least 1 radiological examination before and after the procedure. Results: Among the 17 patients, all but 1 patient had complete hypercortisolism control, and 12 recovered normal adrenal function after surgery. Significant improvement in clinical parameters was observed: weight loss (P = .004); reduction of both systolic (P = .001) and diastolic (P = .001) blood pressure; and reduction in the number of antihypertensive drugs (P < .001). Intra-, peri-, and postoperative complications were not observed. Conclusion: Adrenal-sparing surgery is a safe and feasible procedure to treat patients with PMAH, providing a substantial chance of hypercortisolism control without the disadvantages of lifetime corticosteroid replacement.

12.
Obes Surg ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Growing evidence in the literature suggests that obesity is capable of altering reproductive hormone levels and male fertility. Effects on classic semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF), however, have not been properly established. Additionally, the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on those parameters is still controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Phase 1, 42 patients with obesity and 32 fertile controls were submitted to reproductive hormone evaluation, semen analysis, and SDF testing. In Phase 2, patients with obesity were submitted to BS or clinical follow-up and were invited to 6-month revaluation. RESULTS: Phase 1: Men with obesity have higher levels of estradiol, LH, and FSH and lower levels of total testosterone (TT) when compared with eutrophic fertile men. Additionally, they present worse semen parameters, with reduction in ejaculated volume and sperm concentration, worse sperm motility and morphology, and higher SDF. Phase 2: 32 patients returned to revaluation. Eighteen were submitted to BS (group S) and 14 were not submitted to any specific therapeutic regimen (group NS). In group S, TT more than doubled after surgery (294.5 to 604 ng/dL, p < 0.0001). Worsening of sperm concentration and total ejaculated sperm count were also noticed, and 2 patients became azoospermic after BS. SDF, however, improved after the procedure. No changes in the variables studied were observed in non-operated patients. CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, we have found that BS results in improvements in reproductive hormone levels and SDF after 6-month follow-up. Sperm concentration, however, reduced after the procedure.

13.
J Endourol ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689826

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the outcomes of bilateral same-session retrograde intrarenal surgery (BSS RIRS) with unilateral RIRS and to compare the outcomes of first with second operated kidneys in BSS RIRS. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive symptomatic adult patients with kidney stones up to 20 mm who accepted to be treated by RIRS were prospectively studied. Stone-free rate (SFR) was evaluated by non-contrast CT for each renal unit, and surgical complications were evaluated based on Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: SFR (73.9% vs 76.1%, p = 0.830) and hospitalization time (14.43 ± 18.81 hours vs 13.00 ± 4.89 hours, p = 0.564) were similar between unilateral and BSS RIRS groups, with less consumption of disposable devices in BSS RIRS (p = 0.017). Operative time was longer in BSS RIRS (61.24 ± 26.62 minutes vs 88.65 ± 33.19 minutes, p < 0.001). Bilateral group had significant more overall complications by Clavien-Dindo classification than unilateral (15.9% vs 39.9%, p = 0.030) and more emergency room (ER) visits (11.6% vs 34.8%, p = 0.026). Moreover, although both groups temporarily increased creatinine levels, it was significantly higher in bilateral RIRS (p = 0.019). First operated kidney outcomes were similar to second operated kidney outcomes of BSS RIRS. Conclusion Although BSS RIRS had similar SFR and consumed less disposable devices, it had a higher overall complication rate, a higher frequency of ER visits, and higher creatinine levels during follow-up than unilateral RIRS. There is no significant outcome difference between first and second operated kidneys in BSS RIRS.

15.
Urology ; 143: 262, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the surgical treatment of a patient harboring a ureteropelvic junction obstruction in the lower unit of an incomplete duplicated collecting system. METHODS: A female patient with 32-year old presented a progressively increasing left lumbar pain for 1 year and urinary tract infections for the past 10 years. Computed tomography demonstrated a ureteropelvic junction obstruction in the lower unit of an incomplete duplicated urinary collecting system. RESULTS: The patient underwent a robot-assisted pyeloureterostomy. The surgical time was 118 minutes and there was no intraoperative complication. During surgery, anomalous vessels crossing to the lower pole of the kidney were identified. The bladder catheter and abdominal drain were removed at the first- and second postoperative days. The length of the hospital stay was 2 days and the postoperative course was uneventful. The double-J stent was retrieved 4 weeks after surgery. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient had complete pain resolution and no new episodes of urinary tract infections. The control image exam revealed minimal residual hydronephrosis. CONCLUSION: Robot-assisted pyeloureterostomy was an effective approach to the present case. Many times, the surgical strategy for patients with anatomic variants is determined intra-operatively. The surgeon must have a wide range of skills and be prepared for a timely decision.

16.
Radiology ; 296(2): 444-451, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484416

RESUMO

Background Long-term experience with prostatic artery embolization (PAE) for benign prostatic hyperplasia remains limited. Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and long-term results of PAE for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Materials and Methods This retrospective single-center study was conducted from June 2008 to June 2018 in patients with moderate to severe benign prostatic hyperplasia-related symptoms. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality-of-life score, maximum urinary flow rate, postvoid residual volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostate volume were assessed. PAE was performed with 100-500-µm embolic microspheres. Mixed-model analysis of variance and Kaplan-Meyer method was accessed, as appropriate. Results A total of 317 consecutive men (mean age ± standard deviation, 65 years ± 8) were treated. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 96 months (mean, 27 months). Bilateral and unilateral PAE was performed in 298 (94%) and 19 (6%) men, respectively. Early clinical failure occurred in six (1.9%) and symptom recurrence in 72 (23%) men at a median follow-up of 72 months. Mean maximum improvement was as follows: IPSS, 16 points ± 7; quality-of-life score, 4 points ± 1; prostatic volume reduction, 39 cm3 ± 39 (39% ± 29); maximum urinary flow rate, 6 mL/sec ± 10 (155% ± 293); and postvoid residual volume, 70 mL ± 121 (48% ± 81) (P < .05 for all). Unilateral PAE was associated with higher recurrence (42% vs 21%; P = .04). Baseline PSA was inversely related with recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.9 per nanograms per milliliter of PSA; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8, 0.9; P < .001). Embolization with combined particle sizes (100-500 µm) did not relate to symptom recurrence (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.1 for 100-500-µm group vs 300-500-µm group and hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.5 for 100-500-µm group vs 100-300-µm group; P = .19).None of the patients presented with urinary incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Conclusion Prostatic artery embolization was a safe and effective procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia with good long-term results for lower urinary tract symptoms. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

17.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(11): 2051-2057, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the expression of urinary biomarkers of inflammation and tissue remodeling in patients with BPH undergoing surgery and evaluate the association of biomarkers with postoperative urodynamic outcomes MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed urine samples from 71 patients treated with TURP from 2011 to 2017. Urinary levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), matrix-metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nerve growth factor (NGF) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (by commercial ELISA kit) were measured, adjusted by urinary creatinine (Cr) and analyzed according to patients clinical and urodynamic characteristics (baseline and 12-month postoperative urodynamic) RESULTS: MMP-1/Cr levels were significantly higher among subjects with higher detrusor pressure on preoprative urodynamic. MCP-1/Cr levels were significantly higher amongs subjects with preoperative DO. Preoperative levels of NGF/Cr (0.13 vs 0.08, p = 0.005) and MMP-1/Cr (0.11 vs 0.04, p = 0.021) were predictors of persistent DO 12 months after surgery. The following factors were shown to be useful for predicting the persistence of DO in the postoperative period: NGF/Cr, with an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI 0.62-0.92) (p = 0.006), and MMP-1/Cr, with an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI 0.56-0.88) (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: MMP-1/Cr was associated with higher detrusor pressure and MCP-1/CR with DO. NGF/Cr and MMP-1/Cr were shown to be predictors of persistent postoperative DO.

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