Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 375, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781579

RESUMO

Animal health surveillance is an important tool for disease mitigation and helps to promote animal health and welfare, protect human health, support efficient animal production, and enable trade. This study aimed to assess adoption of recommended standards and best practice for surveillance (including risk-based approaches) in Europe. It included scoping interviews with surveillance experts in Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, and Switzerland to gather information on knowledge acquisition, decisions and implementation of surveillance, and perceptions. This was followed by an online survey among animal health and food safety surveillance users in EU, EEA, and Schengen countries. A total of 166 responses were collected from 27 countries; 111 were eligible for analysis. A strong preference for legislation and established standards was observed, with peer-reviewed publications, conferences, symposia, and workshops to be major sources of information. The majority of respondents indicated a need for international evaluation for surveillance and implied that considerations of cost-effectiveness were essential when making a decision to adopt new surveillance standards. However, most of the respondents did not use a formal evaluation to inform the adoption of new standards or only conducted a descriptive assessment before their implementation or adaptation. Only a few respondents reported a quantitative economic evaluation despite economic efficiency being considered as a highly relevant criterion for surveillance implementation. Constraints mentioned in the adoption of new surveillance standards included insufficient time, financial and human resources, and lack of competency. Researchers aiming to achieve impact by their surveillance work are advised to consider ways of influencing binding standards and to disseminate their work pro-actively using varied channels of engagement tailored to relevant target audiences and their needs. Generally, a more formal linkage between surveillance information and disease mitigation decisions-for example, by using systematic evaluation-could help increase the economic value of surveillance efforts. Finally, a collaborative, international platform for exchange and learning on surveillance as well as co-design and dissemination of surveillance standards is recommended.

2.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(3): 308-341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976059

RESUMO

Current legislation governing monitoring of drug residues in foodstuff of animal origin is being revised at the European level. This study provides a qualitative comparison of the legislation, public and private standards in the European Union, the United States of America (USA) and the Eurasian Customs Union/Russia. We made a quantitative comparison of Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) applied in each region for pork kidneys for tetracycline (with a focus on doxycycline), penicillin and chloramphenicol. The Customs Union generally applied lower levels than the other regions, with MRLs for tetracyclines in pig kidneys being 1200 times lower than those applied in the USA. Growing consumer interest and concern about chemicals in their food could be leveraged to support and enhance the implementation of new initiatives to improve veterinary public health. Farmers and veterinarians could help reduce findings of drug residues in meat through the judicious use of preventive actions when using veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Drogas Veterinárias/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cloranfenicol/análise , Doxiciclina/análise , União Europeia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Rim/química , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne/análise , Penicilinas/análise , Federação Russa , Suínos , Tetraciclina/análise , Estados Unidos , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 167: 190-195, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685809

RESUMO

Diagnostic tools for the identification and confirmation of animal diseases have been evolving rapidly over the last decade, with diseases of aquatic animals being no exception. Hence, case definitions used in surveillance may now include molecular and genomic components and ultimately be based on the entire genome of a pathogen. While the opportunities brought on by this change in our ability to define and differentiate organisms are manifold, there are also challenges. These include the need to consider typing tool characteristics during sampling design, but also the re-thinking of diagnostic protocols and standards for the meaningful interpretation of the increasingly complex data presented to surveillance managers. These issues are illustrated for aquaculture using the example of multi-country surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas spp. strains isolated from rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Europe. In order to fully exploit the opportunities of molecular and genomic information, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed to develop harmonised diagnostic procedures and modified surveillance designs for aquaculture as well as for terrestrial animal production. This will require adjustments in the relevant standards applicable to assess food safety and trade risks.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Aquicultura/organização & administração , Tomada de Decisões , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Genômica , Aeromonas/genética , Aeromonas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Vigilância da População
4.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 194, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186842

RESUMO

We applied the evaluation framework developed by the EU COST Action "Network of Evaluation of One Health" (NEOH) to assess the operations, supporting infrastructures and outcomes of a research consortium "University of Copenhagen Research Centre for Control of Antibiotic Resistance" (UC-CARE). This 4-year research project was a One Health (OH) initiative with participants from 14 departments over four faculties as well as stakeholders from industry and health authorities aiming to produce new knowledge to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This was a case study focusing on assessing beneficial and counter-productive characteristics that could affect the OH outcomes. The study was also used to provide feedback to NEOH about the evaluation framework. The framework and evaluation tools are described in the introduction paper of this special journal issue. Data for the evaluation were extracted from the funding research proposal, the mid-term UC-CARE project evaluation report and supplemented with opinions elicited from project participants and stakeholders. Here, we describe the underlying system, theory of change behind the initiative and adapted questions from the NEOH tools that we used for semi-open interviews with consortium members throughout the evaluation process. An online survey was used to obtain information from stakeholders. The NEOH evaluation tools were then used for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the OH characteristics of UC-CARE. Senior UC-CARE researchers were interested and willing to be interviewed. Young scientists were more difficult to engage in interviews, and only 25% of stakeholders answered the online survey. Interviewees mentioned that the main benefit of UC-CARE was an increased awareness and general understanding of AMR issues. All interviewees stated that the adopted OH approach was relevant given the complexity of AMR. However, some questioned the applicability, and identified potentially counter-productive issues mainly related to the information sharing, collaboration and working methods across the consortium. A more integrated project organization, more stakeholder involvement and time for the project, flexibility in planning and a dedicated OH coordinator were suggested to allow for more knowledge exchange, potentially leading to a higher societal impact.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 362, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559960

RESUMO

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food. Results: Data from 313 out of 9,473 collected studies were extracted yielding 122,438 food samples and 38,362 bacteria isolates of which 30,092 samples and 8,799 isolates were AMR positive. A median AMRB prevalence of >50% was observed for meat and seafood harboring Campylobacter, Enterococcus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Listeria, and Vibrio spp. and to a lesser prevalence for milk products harboring starter culture bacteria. Gram-negative AMRB featured predominantly AMR against aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, penicillins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines observed at AMR exposures scores of levels 1 (medium) and 2 (high) for Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli in meat as well as Vibrio and E. coli in seafood. Gram-positive AMRB featured AMR against glycoproteins, lincosamides, macrolides and nitrofurans for Staphylococcus and Enterococcus in meat sources, Staphylococcus in seafood as well as Enterococcus and technologically important bacteria (incl. starters) in fermented or processed dairy products. Knowledge gaps were identified for AMR prevalence in dairy, plant, fermented meat and novel food products and for the role of specific indicator bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus), starter culture bacteria and their mobile genetic elements in AMR gene transfer. Conclusion: Raw meat, milk, seafood, and certain fermented dairy products featured a medium to high potential of AMR exposure for Gram-negative and Gram-positive foodborne pathogens and indicator bacteria. Food at retail, additional food categories including fermented and novel foods as well as technologically important bacteria and AMR genetics are recommended to be better integrated into systematic One Health AMR surveillance and mitigation strategies to close observed knowledge gaps and enable a comprehensive AMR risk assessment for consumers.

7.
Prev Vet Med ; 160: 145-154, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525235

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to propose a procedure for optimising the cost-effectiveness of vector borne disease surveillance using a scenario tree model and cost-effectiveness analysis. The surveillance systems for Bluetongue Virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) implemented in Switzerland and Belgium were used as examples. In twenty four different, simulated population structures, passive surveillance and five designs of active surveillance were investigated. The influence of surveillance system design and parameters such as farmer disease awareness, veterinary disease awareness, herd and within-herd design prevalence on the overall surveillance system sensitivity were assessed. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of mandatory and voluntary vaccination regimes in relation to disease surveillance was investigated. Under the assumption that BTV-8 manifests clinically, freedom from disease in a population can be established with almost certainty over the period of one year using clinical surveillance alone. Additional investment in active surveillance would therefore economically only be justified, if no clinical manifestation is suspected or other surveillance objectives are to be provided such as early detection. The best cost-effectiveness is obtained by sampling more herds rather than more animals within a herd. Mandatory vaccination reduces the cost of surveillance by 0.26 € per vaccine and voluntary vaccination only marginally reduces the cost of risk-based surveillance, by reducing the population at risk. Finally, in populations with predominantly dairy cattle, bulk-tank milk testing is the method of choice to actively demonstrate freedom from disease.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue , Bluetongue/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Vigilância da População , Ovinos/virologia
8.
Risk Anal ; 38(5): 1070-1084, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973821

RESUMO

Human exposure to bacteria resistant to antimicrobials and transfer of related genes is a complex issue and occurs, among other pathways, via meat consumption. In a context of limited resources, the prioritization of risk management activities is essential. Since the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) situation differs substantially between countries, prioritization should be country specific. The objective of this study was to develop a systematic and transparent framework to rank combinations of bacteria species resistant to selected antimicrobial classes found in meat, based on the risk they represent for public health in Switzerland. A risk assessment model from slaughter to consumption was developed following the Codex Alimentarius guidelines for risk analysis of foodborne AMR. Using data from the Swiss AMR monitoring program, 208 combinations of animal species/bacteria/antimicrobial classes were identified as relevant hazards. Exposure assessment and hazard characterization scores were developed and combined using multicriteria decision analysis. The effect of changing weights of scores was explored with sensitivity analysis. Attributing equal weights to each score, poultry-associated combinations represented the highest risk. In particular, contamination with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase/plasmidic AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in poultry meat ranked high for both exposure and hazard characterization. Tetracycline- or macrolide-resistant Enterococcus spp., as well as fluoroquinolone- or macrolide-resistant Campylobacter jejuni, ranked among combinations with the highest risk. This study provides a basis for prioritizing future activities to mitigate the risk associated with foodborne AMR in Switzerland. A user-friendly version of the model was provided to risk managers; it can easily be adjusted to the constantly evolving knowledge on AMR.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Campylobacter jejuni , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Gado , Carne/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Suínos/microbiologia , Suíça , Medicina Veterinária
9.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188156, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176851

RESUMO

Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario). Costs of human, animal, and entomological surveillance, sharing of information, and triggered interventions were estimated. Benefits were quantified as the averted costs of potential human cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease associated to infected blood transfusion. In the 2009-2015 period, the One Health approach was estimated to represent a cost saving of €160,921 compared to the uni-sectoral scenario. Blood donation screening was the main cost for both scenarios. The One Health approach further allowed savings of €1.21 million in terms of avoided tests on blood units. Benefits of the One Health approach due to short-term costs of hospitalization and compensation for transfusion-associated disease potentially avoided, were estimated to range from €0 to €2.98 million according to the probability of developing WNV neuroinvasive disease after receiving an infected blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Saúde Única/economia , Vigilância da População , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/economia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia
11.
Vet Rec ; 181(24): 657, 2017 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051316

RESUMO

Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage because of the rising threat from antimicrobial resistance. However, such efforts should not compromise the herd health status and performance. This study aimed to describe the profile of so-called 'top-farms' that managed to combine both high technical performance and low antimicrobial usage. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 farrow-to-finish farms in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. Among them, 44 farms were allocated to the top-farms group and were compared with the 'regular' farms group in terms of farm characteristics, biosecurity and health status. Top-farms had fewer gastrointestinal symptoms in suckling pigs and fewer respiratory symptoms in fatteners, which could partly explain their reduced need for antimicrobials and higher performance. They also had higher biosecurity and were located in sparsely populated pig areas. However, 14 farms of the top-farms group were located in densely populated pig areas, but still managed to have low usage and high technical performance; they had higher internal biosecurity and more extensive vaccination against respiratory pathogens. These results illustrate that it is possible to control infectious diseases using other approaches than high antimicrobial usage, even in farms with challenging environmental and health conditions.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Fazendas/organização & administração , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suínos , Vacinação/veterinária
12.
Vaccine ; 35(44): 5956-5966, 2017 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28750852

RESUMO

Decision-makers and risk managers are often called upon to prioritise on and recommend suitable measures to prevent the risk of introduction and spread of pathogens. The main objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of experts in Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom concerning the importance, effectiveness, feasibility, costs and acceptability of selected biosecurity measures to prevent the introduction and limit the spread of rabies, blue tongue (BT) and classical swine fever (CSF). After identifying the most relevant measures by the project team, an expert knowledge elicitation was implemented through a questionnaire. After preliminary descriptive analyses, a number of statistical calculations were performed such as weighted medians, Spearman rank correlation tests, Wilcoxon comparison tests and ranking of measures. Three experts from each country completed the questionnaires, one expert for each disease. The mean answer rates for CSF, BT and rabies were 73%, 100% and 99% respectively. "Tracing system for live animal trade" was highlighted as very relevant in all diseases. The implementation of a "restriction zone after a suspicion or confirmation" was also rated as a relevant measure, especially for CSF. We identified generally a small correlation between costs and the other criteria. Among the rabies experts, measures related to "zoonotic risk" were rated highly, supporting the idea of a One Health approach. Disagreement among experts concerned 43 measures for the three pathogens: the debated measures were "control of the wildlife CSF status", "arthropod-vector control" and "rabies vaccination for domestic animals". Facing budget restriction, decision-makers need to prioritise their actions and make efficient prevention choices. With this study, we aimed to provide elements for reflection and to inform priority setting. The results can be applied through the implementation of similar surveys or directly from the knowledge already gathered in this study.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bluetongue/prevenção & controle , Peste Suína Clássica/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Suínos , Vacinação/métodos
13.
Ecohealth ; 14(2): 342-360, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28523412

RESUMO

Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus. Circumstantial or observational evidence of risk factors for transmission between animal species was found in 21 papers, including proximity to infected animals, ingestion of infected material and potential association with a species known to carry influenza virus. Only three publications were found which presented a statistical measure of an epidemiological risk factor for the transmission of influenza between animal species. This review has identified a significant gap in knowledge regarding epidemiological risk factors for the transmission of influenza viruses between animal species.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Orthomyxoviridae , Fatores de Risco
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 137(Pt B): 151-153, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993402

RESUMO

This short communication summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of current organisational structures in government veterinary services, as well as future technical, financial and societal challenges and related necessary competencies for government veterinary services of the future as discussed by an expert panel at ISVEE2015. First, participating representatives of veterinary services of diverse geographical backgrounds and statements from the audience confirmed that non-technical skills such as ability to work in teams, adaptability to new environments and situations, social and communication skills are increasingly seen as important. The second challenge faced by veterinary services is related to capacity issues, i.e. to have enough manpower to plan and deliver according to legislation in a period of shrinking budgets. New and emerging diseases can result in sudden, massive increases in the workload of veterinary services. Technical complexity has also increased for some hazards. Staff skills in veterinary services therefore need to be continuously updated, and it is essential to establish cross technical collaboration with other sectors including food safety, public health and environment. ISVEE conferences were seen as an opportunity to provide a global platform to develop skills needed by veterinary services, now and in the future.


Assuntos
Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Competência Clínica/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Saúde Pública , Medicina Veterinária/tendências
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 242: 107-115, 2017 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919006

RESUMO

The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>105 genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from <5 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants before 2012 to >50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased reporting and higher awareness among medical practitioners. Extrapolation to other regions could be accomplished if detailed information on food consumption patterns were available. Notification of HEV cases and attempts of cases source attribution would improve the basis for risk assessments.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/virologia , Produtos da Carne/virologia , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/fisiologia , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Suínos , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High antimicrobial usage and the threat of antimicrobial resistance highlighted the need for reduced antimicrobial usage in pig production. Prevention of disease however, is necessary to obtain a reduced need for antimicrobial treatment. This study aimed at assessing possible associations between the biosecurity level, antimicrobial usage and farm and production characteristics in order to advice on best practices for a low antimicrobial usage and maximum animal health and production. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 227 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. Associations between biosecurity status, antimicrobial usage, and production parameters were evaluated with multivariable general linear models, according to an assumed causal pathway. RESULTS: The results showed that higher antimicrobial usage in sows tended to be associated with higher antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter (p = 0.06). The antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter was positively associated with the number of pathogens vaccinated against (p < 0.01). A shorter farrowing rhythm (p < 0.01) and a younger weaning age (p = 0.06) tended to be also associated with a higher antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter whereas a better external biosecurity (p < 0.01) was related with a lower antimicrobial usage from birth until slaughter. CONCLUSION: Management practices such as weaning age and biosecurity measures may be important factors indirectly impacting on antimicrobial usage. We therefore promote a holistic approach when assessing the potential to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments.

18.
Porcine Health Manag ; 2: 10, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28405436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A discrete time, stochastic, compartmental model simulating the spread of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae within a batch of industrially raised pigs was developed to understand infection dynamics and to assess the impact of a range of husbandry practices. A 'disease severity' index was calculated based on the ratio between the cumulative numbers of acutely and chronically diseased and infectious pigs per day in each age category, divided by the length of time that pigs spent in this age category. This is equal to the number of pigs per day, either acutely or chronically infectious and diseased, divided by the number of all pigs per all days in the model. The impact of risk and protective factors at batch level was examined by adjusting 'acclimatisation of gilts', 'length of suckling period', 'vaccination of suckling pigs against M. hyopneumoniae', 'contact between fattening pigs of different age during restocking of compartments' and 'co-infections in fattening pigs'. RESULTS: The highest 'disease severity' was predicted, when gilts do not have contact with live animals during their acclimatisation, suckling period is 28 days, no vaccine is applied, fatteners have contact with pigs of other ages and are suffering from co-infections. Pigs in this scenario become diseased/infectious for 26.1 % of their lifetime. Logistic regression showed that vaccination of suckling pigs was influential for 'disease severity' in growers and finishers, but not in suckling and nursery pigs. Lack of contact between gilts and other live pigs during the acclimatisation significantly influenced the 'disease severity' in suckling pigs but had less impact in growing and finishing pigs. The length of the suckling period equally affected the severity of the disease in all age groups with the strongest association in nursery pigs. The contact between fatteners of different groups influenced the course of infection among finishers, but not among other pigs. Finally, presence of co-infections was relevant in growers and finishers, but not in younger pigs. CONCLUSION: The developed model allows comparison of different prevention programmes and strategies for controlling transmission of M. hyopneumoniae.

20.
Ecohealth ; 13(1): 171-98, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25630935

RESUMO

In December 2011, the European Food Safety Authority awarded a Grant for the implementation of the FLURISK project. The main objective of FLURISK was the development of an epidemiological and virological evidence-based influenza risk assessment framework (IRAF) to assess influenza A virus strains circulating in the animal population according to their potential to cross the species barrier and cause infections in humans. With the purpose of gathering virological data to include in the IRAF, a literature review was conducted and key findings are presented here. Several adaptive traits have been identified in influenza viruses infecting domestic animals and a significance of these adaptations for the emergence of zoonotic influenza, such as shift in receptor preference and mutations in the replication proteins, has been hypothesized. Nonetheless, and despite several decades of research, a comprehensive understanding of the conditions that facilitate interspecies transmission is still lacking. This has been hampered by the intrinsic difficulties of the subject and the complexity of correlating environmental, viral and host factors. Finding the most suitable and feasible way of investigating these factors in laboratory settings represents another challenge. The majority of the studies identified through this review focus on only a subset of species, subtypes and genes, such as influenza in avian species and avian influenza viruses adapting to humans, especially in the context of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. Further research applying a holistic approach and investigating the broader influenza genetic spectrum is urgently needed in the field of genetic adaptation of influenza A viruses.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA