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1.
Scand J Pain ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246755

RESUMO

Background and aims A multimodal rehabilitation programme (MMRP) is an evidence-based treatment of chronic pain conditions. The complexity involved in chronic pain needs to be identified and evaluated in order to adapt the rehabilitation to patients' needs. The aim was to investigate the multivariate relationships between self-reported variables in patients with chronic pain before taking part in MMRP in primary care, with a special focus on gender and degree of sick leave. Methods Prior to MMRP, 397 patients (339 women and 58 men) filled in a questionnaire about pain, healthcare aspects, health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, coping, physical function, and work-related variables e.g. sick leave. Data were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square analysis. Results The PCA identified four components that explained 47% of the variation in the investigated data set. The first component showed the largest variation and was primarily explained by anxiety and depression, quality of life, acceptance (activity engagement), and pain-related disability. Gender differences were only seen in one component with the pain variables having the highest loadings. Degree of sick leave was not well explained by the variables in the questionnaire. Conclusions The questionnaire filled out by the patients prior to participation in MMRP in primary care identified much of the complexity of chronic pain conditions but there is room for improvement, e.g. regarding explanation of work-related factors. In the multivariate analysis, gender did not fall out as an important factor for how most patients answered the questions. Implications There are not many studies that describe patients who undergo MMRP in primary care since previously such patients were treated mostly in specialist care. More knowledge is needed about these patients in order to improve rehabilitation plans and interventions. The results suggest that the questionnaire identifies the complexity among chronic pain patients in primary care. The identified components could improve assessment before MMRP and contribute to better tailored programmes.

2.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(2): jrm00023, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the outcomes 1 year after multimodal rehabilitation programmes in primary care for patients with chronic pain, both as a whole and for men and women separately. A second aim was to identify predictive factors for not being on sickness absence at follow-up after 1 year. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 234 patients, 34 men and 200 women, age range 18-65 years, who participated in multimodal rehabilitation programmes in primary care in 2 Swedish county councils. Pain, physical and emotional functioning, coping, health-related quality of life, work-related factors, sickness absence (sick leave, sickness compensation/disability pension) were evaluated prior to and 1 year after multimodal rehabilitation programmes. RESULTS: Patients showed significant improvements at 1-year follow-up for all measures (all p ≤ 0.004) except satisfaction with vocation (p = 0.060). The proportion of patients on sick leave decreased significantly at follow-up (p = 0.027), while there was no significant difference regarding the proportion of patients on sickness compensation/disability pension (p = 0.087). Higher self-rated work ability was associated with not being on sickness absence at 1-year follow-up (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.06, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that multimodal rehabilitation programmes in primary care could be beneficial for patients with chronic pain, since the outcomes at 1-year follow-up for pain, physical and emotional functioning, coping, and health-related quality of life were positive. However, the effect sizes were small and thus further development of multimodal rehabilitation programmes is warranted in order to improve the outcomes.

3.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(3): E140-E147, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513116

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of orofacial pain and jaw disability in relation to neck pain, neck disability, and psychosocial factors at the acute stage and the chronic stage after whiplash trauma. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Many individuals report chronic pain in the orofacial region after whiplash trauma. The possible association between whiplash trauma and orofacial pain is debated. Prospective studies are therefore needed to evaluate the development of orofacial pain after whiplash trauma. METHODS: Within 1 month following a whiplash trauma, 176 cases were examined and compared to 116 controls with questionnaires concerning neck and jaw pain and related disability, nonspecific physical symptoms and depression. At the 2-year follow-up, 119 cases (68%) and 104 controls (90%) were re-examined. RESULTS: Compared to controls, cases reported more jaw and neck pain, both at baseline and follow-up. A majority (68%) of cases with pain in the jaw region in the acute stage also reported jaw pain at the follow-up. The intensity of jaw and neck pain was correlated both at baseline and follow-up. Both neck pain and jaw pain were correlated to nonspecific physical symptoms and to depression. CONCLUSION: Orofacial pain and jaw disability related to neck pain are often present already at the acute stage after whiplash trauma and persist into the chronic stage for most individuals. Assessment following whiplash trauma should therefore include both the neck and the orofacial regions. More studies are needed to further evaluate risk factors for development of orofacial pain after whiplash trauma. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

4.
Scand J Pain ; 20(2): 319-327, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881000

RESUMO

Background and aims Chronic pain is a common reason to seek health care. Multimodal rehabilitation is frequently used to rehabilitate patients with complex pain conditions. The multiprofessional assessment that patients go through before entering multimodal rehabilitation may, in itself, have a positive impact on patient outcome but little is known regarding patients own view. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to discover how patients experienced this multiprofessional assessment project. Methods Ten patients participating in a multiprofessional assessment at a primary healthcare centre in Western Finland were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Results The analysis resulted in six categories of participant description of their multiprofessional assessment experiences and the rehabilitation plan they received. Feeling chosen or not quite fitting in was a category describing participant feelings upon starting the assessment. They expressed their thoughts on the examinations in the category more than just an examination. Being affirmed described participant desire to be taken seriously and treated well. Receiving support described the perceived roles of the team members. Participant negative experiences of the assessment were described in confusion and disappointment. Finally, in taking and receiving responsibilities, participants described their own role in the team. Conclusions Experiences of patients in a multiprofessional assessment were mostly positive. This highlights the value of a team assessment that takes several aspects of chronic pain into account when assessing complex patients.

5.
Br J Pain ; 13(4): 214-225, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656627

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain education is an essential determinant for optimal chronic pain management. Given that attitudes and preferences are involved in making treatment decisions, identifying which factors are most influential to final year medical students' and general practitioners' (GPs) chronic pain management choices is of importance. This study investigates Swedish and Australian students' preferences with respect to a chronic pain condition, using a best-worst scaling (BWS) experiment, which is designed to rank alternatives. Methods: BWS, a stated-preference method grounded in random utility theory, was used to explore the importance of factors influencing chronic pain management. Results: All three cohorts considered the patients' pain description and previous treatment experience as the most important factors in making treatment decisions, whereas their demographics and voices or facial expressions while describing their pain were considered least important. Factors such as social support, patient preferences and treatment adherence were, however, disregarded by all cohorts in favour of pain assessment factors such as pain ratings, description and history. Swedish medical students and GPs show very high correlation in their choices, although the GPs consider their professional experience as more important compared to the students. Conclusion: This study suggests that the relative importance of treatment factors is cemented early and thus underline the critical importance of improving pain curricula during undergraduate medical education.

6.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 9216931, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534558

RESUMO

Aim: To assess the clinical course of disability, cognitive, and emotional impairments in patients with severe TBI (s-TBI) from 3 months to up to 7 years post trauma. Methods: A prospective cohort study of s-TBI in northern Sweden was conducted. Patients aged 18-65 years with acute Glasgow Coma Scale 3-8 were assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) at 3 months, 1 year, and 7 years after the injury. Results: The scores on both GOSE and BNIS improved significantly from 3 months (GOSE mean: 4.4 ± 2.3, BNIS mean: 31.5 ± 7.0) to 1 year (GOSE mean: 5.5 ± 2.7, p = 0.003, BNIS mean: 33.2 ± 6.3, p = 0.04), but no significant improvement was found from 1 year to 7 years (GOSE mean: 4.7 ± 2.8, p = 0.13, BNIS mean: 33.5 ± 3.9, p = 0.424) after the injury. The BNIS subscale "speech/language" at 1 year was significantly associated with favourable outcomes on the GOSE at 7 years (OR = 2.115, CI: 1.004-4.456, p = 0.049). Conclusions: These findings indicate that disability and cognition seem to improve over time after s-TBI and appear to be relatively stable from 1 year to 7 years. Since cognitive function on some of the BNIS subscales was associated with outcome on the GOSE, these results indicate that both screening and follow-up of cognitive function could be of importance for the rehabilitation of persons with s-TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Cognição , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Seguimentos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Scand J Pain ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150362

RESUMO

Background and aims Although literature concerning chronic pain patients indicates that cognitive behavioural variables, specifically acceptance and fear of movement/(re)injury, are related to life impact, the relative roles of these factors in relation to pain characteristics (e.g. intensity and spreading) and emotional distress are unclear. Moreover, how these variables affect rehabilitation outcomes in different subgroups is insufficiently understood. This study has two aims: (1) to investigate how pain, cognitive behavioural, and emotional distress variables intercorrelate and whether these variables can regress aspects of life impact and (2) to analyse whether these variables can be used to identify clinically meaningful subgroups at baseline and which subgroups benefit most from multimodal rehabilitation programs (MMRP) immediately after and at 12-month follow-up. Methods Pain aspects, background variables, psychological distress, cognitive behavioural variables, and two life impact variables were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRP) for chronic pain patients. These data were analysed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results The study includes 22,406 chronic pain patients. Many variables, including acceptance variables, showed important contributions to the variation in clinical presentations and in life impacts. Based on the statistically important variables considering the clinical presentation, three clusters/subgroups of patients were identified at baseline; from the worst clinical situation to the relatively good situation. These clusters showed significant differences in outcomes after participating in MMRP; the subgroup with the worst situation at baseline showed the most significant improvements. Conclusions Pain intensity/severity, emotional distress, acceptance, and life impacts were important for the clinical presentation and were used to identify three clusters with marked differences at baseline (i.e. before MMRP). Life impacts showed complex relationships with acceptance, pain intensity/severity, and emotional distress. The most significant improvements after MMRP were seen in the subgroup with the lowest level of functioning before treatment, indicating that patients with complex problems should be offered MMRP. Implications This study emphasizes the need to adopt a biopsychosocial perspective when assessing patients with chronic pain. Patients with chronic pain referred to specialist clinics are not homogenous in their clinical presentation. Instead we identified three distinct subgroups of patients. The outcomes of MMRP appears to be related to the clinical presentation. Thus, patients with the most severe clinical presentation show the most prominent improvements. However, even though this group of patients improve they still after MMRP show a complex situation and there is thus a need for optimizing the content of MMRP for these patients. The subgroup of patients with a relatively good situation with respect to pain, psychological distress, coping and life impact only showed minor improvements after MMRP. Hence, there is a need to develop other complex interventions for them.

8.
Diagn Progn Res ; 3: 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093575

RESUMO

Background: Many studies have been performed to identify important prognostic factors for outcomes after rehabilitation of patients with chronic pain, and there is a need to synthesize them through systematic review. In this process, it is important to assess the study quality and risk of bias. The "Quality In Prognosis Studies" (QUIPS) tool has been developed for this purpose and consists of several prompting items categorized into six domains, and each domain is judged on a three-grade scale (low, moderate or high risk of bias). The aim of the present study was to determine the interrater agreement of the risk of bias assessment in prognostic studies of patients with chronic pain using QUIPS and to elaborate on the use of this instrument. Methods: We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prognostic factors for long-term outcomes after multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic pain. Two researchers rated the risk of bias in 43 published papers in two rounds (15 and 28 papers, respectively). The interrater agreement and Cohen's quadratic weighted kappa coefficient (κ) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated in all domains and separately for the first and second rounds. Results: The raters agreed in 61% of the domains (157 out of 258), with similar interrater agreement in the first (59%, 53/90) and second rounds (62%, 104/168). The overall weighted kappa coefficient (kappa for all domains and all papers) was weak: κ = 0.475 (95%CI = 0.358-0.601). A "minimal agreement" between the raters was found in the first round, κ = 0.323 (95%CI = 0.129-0.517), but increased to "weak agreement" in the second round, κ = 0.536 (95%CI = 0.390-0.682). Conclusion: Despite a relatively low interrater agreement, QUIPS proved to be a useful tool in assessing the risk of bias when performing a meta-analysis of prognostic studies in pain rehabilitation, since it demands of raters to discuss and investigate important aspects of study quality. Some items were particularly hard to differentiate in-between, and a learning phase was required to increase the interrater agreement. This paper highlights several aspects of the tool that should be kept in mind when rating the risk of bias in prognostic studies, and provides some suggestions on common pitfalls to avoid during this process. Trial registration: PROSPERO CRD42016025339; registered 05 February 2016.

9.
J Pain Res ; 12: 891-908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881099

RESUMO

Background: Chronic pain patients frequently suffer from psychological symptoms. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of severe anxiety and depressive symptoms and the strength of the associations between pain intensity and psychological distress. Although an important aspect of the clinical picture is understanding how the pain condition impacts life, little is known about the relative importance of pain and psychological symptoms for individual's life impact. The aims of this study were to identify subgroups of pain patients; to analyze if pain, psychological distress, and life impact variables influence subgrouping; and to investigate how patients in the subgroups benefit from treatments. Methods: Background variables, pain aspects (intensity/severity and spreading), psychological distress (depressive and anxiety symptoms), and two life impact variables (pain interference and perceived life control) were obtained from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation for chronic pain patients and analyzed mainly using advanced multivariate methods. Results: Based on >35,000 patients, 35%-40% had severe anxiety or depressive symptoms. Severe psychological distress was associated with being born outside Europe (21%-24% vs 6%-8% in the category without psychological distress) and low education level (20.7%-20.8% vs 26%-27% in the category without psychological distress). Dose relationships existed between the two psychological distress variables and pain aspects, but the explained variances were generally low. Pain intensity/severity and the two psychological distress variables were significantly associated (R 2=0.40-0.48; P>0.001) with the two life impact variables (pain interference and life control). Two subgroups of patients were identified at baseline (subgroup 1: n=15,901-16,119; subgroup 2: n=20,690-20,981) and the subgroup with the worst situation regarding all variables participated less in an MMRP (51% vs 58%, P<0.001) but showed the largest improvements in outcomes. Conclusion: The results emphasize the need to assess both pain and psychological distress and not take for granted that pain involves high psychological stress in the individual case. Not all patients benefit from MMRP. A better matching between common clinical pictures and the content of MMRPs may help improve results. We only partly found support for treatment resistance in patients with psychological distress burden.

10.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(4): 281-289, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate: (i) changes in sick-leave benefits from 1 year prior to multimodal rehabilitation to 1 and 2 years after rehabilitation; (ii) sex differences in sick leave; and (iii) the impact of policy changes on sick leave. METHODS: All patients undergoing multimodal rehabilitation registered in a national pain database for 2007-11 (n = 7,297) were linked to the Swedish Social Insurance Agency database. Sick leave was analysed in 3-month periods: T0: 1 year before rehabilitation; T1: before start; T2: 1 year after; and T3: 2 years after rehabilitation. Four sick-leave benefit categories were constructed: no sick leave, part-time sick leave, full-time sick leave, and full-time permanent sick leave. The individual change in sick-leave category at each time-period was analysed. RESULTS: Sick-leave benefits increased from T0 to T1 (p < 0.001) and decreased from T1 to T3 (p < 0.001). Reductions were significant for both men and women from T1 to T3, but men had less sick-leave benefits at T2 and T3. Positive changes in sick-leave benefits at T2 and T3 were found both prior to and after policy changes, with less sick-leave benefits after policy changes at all time-points. CONCLUSION: Multimodal rehabilitation may positively influence sick-leave benefits for patients with chronic pain, regardless of their sick-leave situation, sex or policy changes.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Distribuição por Sexo , Suécia
11.
Clin J Pain ; 35(2): 148-173, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate prognostic factors for long-term (≥6 mo) physical functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain following multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic searches conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL revealed 25 original research reports, published 1983-2016, (n=9436). Potential prognostic factors relating to initial pain and physical and psychological functioning were synthesized qualitatively and quantitatively in random effects meta-analyses. The level of evidence (LoE) was evaluated with Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Pain-related factors (intensity and chronicity) were not associated with function/disability at long-term follow-up, odds ratio (OR)=0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-1.07 and OR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00, respectively (moderate LoE). A better function at follow-up was predicted by Physical factors; higher levels of initial self-reported functioning, OR=1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13 (low LoE), and Psychological factors; low initial levels of emotional distress, OR=0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92, low levels of cognitive and behavioral risk factors, OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.93 and high levels of protective cognitive and behavioral factors, OR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.17-1.90 (moderate LoE). DISCUSSION: While pain intensity and long-term chronicity did not predict physical functioning in chronic pain patients after MDR, poor pretreatment physical and psychological functioning influenced the prognosis negatively. Thus, treatment should further target and optimize these modifiable factors and an increased focus on positive, psychological protective factors may perhaps provide an opening for yet untapped clinical gains.

12.
J Pain Res ; 11: 1263-1271, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988716

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis to analyze qualitative research findings and thereby understand patients' experiences of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and the injury-recovery process. Materials and methods: A qualitative meta-synthesis, which is an interpretive integration of existing qualitative findings, was performed. The databases PubMed, PsychINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. The Critical Assessment Skills Programme was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Results: Four studies were included. The synthesis resulted in several codes, 6 categories, and 3 themes (distancing from normalcy, self-efficacy in controlling the life situation after the injury, and readjustment and acceptance) that described the participants' pain beliefs, their WAD-related life situation and their future expectations and acceptance. Changes in self-image were difficult to cope with and likely led to perceived stigmatization. Struggling with feelings of loss of control appeared to lead to low confidence and insecurity. Focusing on increasing knowledge and understanding the pain and its consequences were believed to lead to better strategies for handling the situation. Furthermore, recapturing life roles, including returning to work, was challenging, but an optimistic outlook reinforced symptom improvements and contributed to feelings of happiness. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide a comprehensive understanding of patients' complex, multifaceted experiences of WAD, and the injury-recovery process. The findings can guide us in the development of new ways to evaluate and manage WAD. The results also indicate that a more patient-centered approach is needed to determine the depth and breadth of each patient's problems.

13.
J Rehabil Med ; 50(7): 619-628, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patient-reported outcome measures in 2 different multimodal pain rehabilitation programmes and to determine whether outcomes are related to sex or age at 1-year follow-up. DESIGN: Longitudinal retrospective study. SUBJECTS: Patients who had participated in 1 of 2 multimodal pain rehabilitation programmes at 2 rehabilitation centres. A total of 356 women and 83 men, divided into 3 age groups. METHODS: Data from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation regarding activity and physical functions, pain intensity, health status and emotional functions analysed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Significant improvements in activity and physical functions, pain intensity and emotional func-tions were found in both multimodal pain rehabilitation programmes. Women improved more than men. The older group improved in all emotional functions (depression, anxiety, mental component summary), while the younger group improved only in depression. The intermediate group improved in all variables except anxiety. CONCLUSION: Patients improved regardless of the design of the multimodal pain rehabilitation programme. Although only small differences were found between men and women and among the 3 age groups in terms of the measured variables, these findings may have clinical relevance and indicate a need to vary the design of the interventions in multimodal rehabilitation programmes for these subgroups.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor/métodos , Centros de Reabilitação/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Scand J Pain ; 18(3): 533-544, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794271

RESUMO

Background and aims Medical students receive training in the management of chronic pain, but the training is often suboptimal. Considering that the basis for physician's knowledge is their medical education, it is important to explore the attitudes and beliefs of medical students with respect both to chronic pain management and to their views on current pain education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare Swedish and Australian medical student's attitudes and beliefs about patients with chronic pain, and their perceptions regarding their chronic pain management education. Methods An online survey was conducted with final year Australian and Swedish medical students from two different universities between December 2016 and February 2017. Attitudes and beliefs towards chronic pain patients were measured using the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Scale (HC-PAIRS). A thematic analysis was conducted on open end questions regarding their views on their education and important skills for chronic pain management. Results A total of 57 Swedish and 26 Australian medical students completed the HC-PAIRS scale. The Swedish medical students showed statistically significantly lower total mean HC-PAIRS scores compared to Australian medical students (46 and 51, respectively). Australian students had statistically significantly higher scores than the Swedish students for two of four factors: functional expectations and need for cure, whereas no significant differences were seen for the factors social expectations or for projected cognition. From the open end questions it was evident that final year medical students are knowledgeable about key chronic pain items described in clinical guidelines. However, both cohorts described their chronic pain training as poor and in need of improvement in several areas such as more focus on the biopsychosocial model, working in multidisciplinary teams, seeing chronic pain patients and pharmacological training. Conclusions Attitudes and beliefs are formed during medical education, and our study exploring attitudes of medical students towards chronic pain and how it is taught have provided valuable information. Our survey provided detailed and cohesive suggestions for education improvement that also are in line with current clinical guidelines. This study indicates that the Swedish final year students have a more positive attitude towards chronic pain patients compared to their Australian counterparts. The majority of students in both cohorts perceived chronic pain management education in need of improvement. Implications This study highlights several areas of interest that warrant further investigation, for example, the impact of a changed medical curriculum in alignment with these clinical guidelines requested by students in this survey, and correspondingly if their attitudes towards chronic pain patients can be improved through education. Further, we conclude that it would be valuable to align the implementation of the HC-PAIRS instrument in order to achieve comparable results between future studies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Dor Crônica/terapia , Educação Médica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Manejo da Dor , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Rehabil Med ; 50(1): 73-79, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore patient experiences of participating in multimodal pain rehabilitation in primary care. SUBJECTS: Twelve former patients (7 women and 5 men) in multimodal rehabilitation in primary care were interviewed about their experiences of multimodal rehabilitation. METHODS: The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Analysis resulted in 4 categories: (i) from discredited towards obtaining redress; (ii) from uncertainty towards knowledge; (iii) from loneliness towards togetherness; and (iv) "acceptance of pain": an ongoing process. The results show that having obtained redress, to obtain knowledge about chronic pain, and to experience fellowship with others with the same condition were helpful in the acceptance process. However, there were patients who found it difficult to reconcile themselves with a life with chronic pain after multimodal rehabilitation. To find what was "wrong" and to have a medical diagnosis and cure were important. CONCLUSION: Patients in primary care multimodal rehabilitation experience a complex, ongoing process of accepting chronic pain. Four important categories were described. These findings will help others to understand the experience and perspective of patients with chronic pain who engage in multimodal rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Spine J ; 18(8): 1475-1482, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Studies have shown that pain acceptance strategies related to psychological flexibility are important in the presence of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, the predictors of these strategies have not been studied extensively in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to predict chronic pain acceptance and engagement in activities at 1-year follow-up with pain intensity, fear of movement, perceived responses from significant others, outcome expectancies, and demographic variables in patients with WAD before and after multimodal rehabilitation (MMR). STUDY DESIGN: The design of this investigation was a cohort study with 1-year postrehabilitation follow-up. STUDY SETTING: The subjects participated in MMR at a Swedish rehabilitation clinic during 2009-2015. PATIENT SAMPLE: The patients had experienced a whiplash trauma (WAD grade I-II) and were suffering from pain and reduced functionality. A total of 386 participants were included: 297 fulfilled the postrehabilitation measures, and 177 were followed up at 1 year after MMR. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic variables, pain intensity, fear of movement, perceived responses from significant others, and outcome expectations were measured at the start and after MMR. Chronic pain acceptance and engagement in activities were measured at follow-up. METHODS: The data were obtained from a Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation (SQRPR). RESULTS: Outcome expectancies of recovery, supporting and distracting responses of significant others, and fear of (re)injury and movement before MMR were significant predictors of engagement in activities at follow-up. Pain intensity and fear of (re)injury and movement after MMR significantly predicted engagement in activities at follow-up. Supporting responses of significant others and fear of (re)injury and movement before MMR were significant predictors of pain acceptance at the 1-year follow-up. Solicitous responses of significant others and fear of (re)injury and movement at postrehabilitation significantly predicted pain acceptance at follow-up. CONCLUSION: For engagement in activities and pain acceptance, the fear of movement appears to emerge as the strongest predictor, but patients' perceived reactions from their spouses need to be considered in planning the management of WAD.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Dor Crônica/reabilitação , Movimento , Traumatismos em Chicotada/reabilitação , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso/métodos , Adulto , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia , Traumatismos em Chicotada/psicologia
17.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 233-242, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pain is one of the most common reasons for patients to seek primary health care. Pain relief is likely to be achieved for patients suffering from acute pain, but for individuals with chronic pain it is more likely that the condition will persist. These patients have the option of being referred to specialised pain clinics. However, the complexity surrounding chronic pain patients is not well studied in these settings. This study aimed to describe patients with chronic pain referred to a pain clinic by using the information submitted during their first visit and one year later and also to identify associations between baseline characteristics and improvements in health-related quality of life in the follow-up. METHODS: This was a longitudinal observational study of a sample consisting of 318 patients referred to a pain clinic. One group of patients containing 271 individuals (median age 48, 64% females) was assessed and received conventional pain treatment (CPT group) and a second group of 47 patients (median age 53, 64% females) was assessed by a pain specialist and referred back to their physician with a treatment recommendation (assessment only, AO group). Patient-reported outcome measures in health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), pain intensity (VAS), mental health (HADS), insomnia (ISI), pain-related disability (PDI), kinesiophobia (TSK) and sense of coherence (SOC) were collected at the first visit and one year later. RESULTS: At baseline, the CPT group reported a low EQ-5D Index (median (md) 0.157) and EQ VAS (md 40) as well as considerable high, current pain intensity VAS (md 58), HADS anxiety (md 8), ISI (md 17), PDI (md 36) and TSK (md 39). The AO group showed similar problems (no significant differences compared to the CPT group), except for ISI, where the AO group reported less severe problems. At the one-year follow-up, the CPT group had a statistically significant improvement in EQ-5D, VAS, ISI, PDI and TSK. In the AO group no significant changes were observed. In the CPT group there was an association between a high ISI level at baseline and an improved EQ-5D Index in the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The study describes rarely explored groups of patients with chronic pain at a pain clinic. Severe pain problems were present in both groups at their first visit. A statistically significant improvement could be seen in the group that was conventionally treated while this was not the case among those subjects who were assessed and referred. The results imply, that relatively limited treatment strategies were helpful for the patients' health-related quality of life. Despite these improvements, the patients were not fully recovered, pointing to the chronicity of pain conditions and the need of support for many patients. IMPLICATIONS: Increased knowledge about assessment, selection and treatment at pain clinics is important to improve the quality of the work performed at these clinics. Despite limited resources, further efforts should be made to collect comparable, valid data on a regular base from pain clinics in order to develop recommendation models.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Clínicas de Dor , Medição da Dor/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Dor Crônica/classificação , Dissonias , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Syst Rev ; 6(1): 199, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major public health problem. Early prediction for optimal treatment results has received growing attention, but there is presently a lack of evidence regarding what information such proactive management should be based on. This study protocol, therefore, presents our planned systematic review and meta-analysis on important predictive factors for health and work-related outcomes following multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: We aim to perform a synthesis of the available evidence together with a meta-analysis of published peer-reviewed original research that includes predictive factors preceding MDR. Included are prospective studies of adults with benign, chronic (> 3 months) musculoskeletal pain diagnoses who have taken part in MDR. In the studies, associations between personal and rehabilitation-based factors and the outcomes of interest are reported. Outcome domains are pain, physical functioning including health-related quality of life, and work ability with follow-ups of 6 months or more. We will use a broad, explorative approach to any presented predictive factors (demographic, symptoms-related, physical, psychosocial, work-related, and MDR-related) and these will be analyzed through (a) narrative synthesis for each outcome domain and (b) if sufficient studies are available, a quantitative synthesis in which variance-weighted pooled proportions will be computed using a random effects model for each outcome domain. The strength of the evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation. DISCUSSION: The strength of this systematic review is that it aims for a meta-analysis of prospective cohort or randomized controlled studies by performing an extensive search of multiple databases, using an explorative study approach to predictive factors, rather than building on single predictor impact on the outcome or on predefined hypotheses. In this way, an overview of factors central to MDR outcome can be made and will help strengthen the evidence base and inform a wide readership including health care practitioners and policymakers. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016025339.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/reabilitação , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Retorno ao Trabalho , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
19.
J Rehabil Med ; 49(4): 354-361, 2017 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28352937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multimodal rehabilitation programmes (MMRP) for chronic pain could be improved by determining which patients do not benefit fully. General distress and pain-related fear may explain variations in the treatment effects of MMRP. DESIGN: Cohort study with a cross-sectional, prospective part. PATIENTS: Chronic musculoskeletal pain patients referred to 2 hospital-based pain rehabilitation clinics. METHODS: The cross-sectional part of this study cluster analyses patients (n = 1,218) with regard to distress and pain-related fear at first consultation in clinical pain rehabilitation and describes differences in external variables between clusters. The prospective part follows the subsample of patients (n = 260) participating in MMRP and describes outcome post-treatment. RESULTS: Four distinct subgroups were found: (i) those with low levels of distress and pain-related fear; (ii) those with high levels of pain-related fear; (iii) those with high levels of distress; and (iv) those with high levels of distress and pain-related fear. These subgroups showed differences in demogra-phics, pain characteristics, quality of life, and acceptance, as well as the degree of MMRP participation and MMRP outcome. CONCLUSION: Among patients with chronic pain referred to MMRP there are subgroups with different profiles of distress and pain-related fear, which are relevant to understanding the adaptation to pain and MMRP outcome. This knowledge may help us to select patients and tailor treatment for better results.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Dor Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manejo da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Brain Inj ; 31(3): 351-358, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study: (i) acute computed tomography (CT) characteristics and clinical outcome; (ii) clinical course and (iii) Corticosteroid Randomisation after Significant Head Injury acute calculator protocol (CRASH) model and clinical outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). METHODS: Initial CT (CTi) and CT 24 hours post-trauma (CT24) were evaluated according to Marshall and Rotterdam classifications. Rancho Los Amigos Cognitive Scale-Revised (RLAS-R) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) were assessed at three months and one year post-trauma. The prognostic value of the CRASH model was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were included. Marshall CTi and CT24 were significantly correlated with RLAS-R at three months. Rotterdam CT24 was significantly correlated with GOSE at three months. RLAS-R and the GOSE improved significantly from three months to one year. CRASH predicted unfavourable outcome at six months for 81% of patients with bad outcome and for 85% of patients with favourable outcome according to GOSE at one year. CONCLUSION: Neither CT nor CRASH yielded clinically useful predictions of outcome at one year post-injury. The study showed encouragingly many instances of significant recovery in this population of sTBI. The combination of lack of reliable prognostic indicators and favourable outcomes supports the case for intensive acute management and rehabilitation as the default protocol in the cases of sTBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Amnésia/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prognóstico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
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