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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570889

RESUMO

Hypopigmentation along Blaschko's lines is a hallmark of a poorly defined group of mosaic syndromes whose genetic causes are unknown. Here we show that postzygotic inactivating mutations of RHOA cause a neuroectodermal syndrome combining linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, apparently asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy, and facial, ocular, dental and acral anomalies. Our findings pave the way toward elucidating the etiology of pigmentary mosaicism and highlight the role of RHOA in human development and disease.

4.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073819878917, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617442

RESUMO

The term spinocerebellar ataxia encompasses a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders due to pathogenic variants in more than 100 genes, underlying 2 major groups of ataxia: autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA, also known as spinocerebellar ataxias [SCAs]) due to heterozygous variants or polyglutamine triplet expansions leading to adult-onset ataxia, and autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxias (ARCAs, also known as SCARs) due to biallelic variants, usually resulting in more severe and earlier-onset cerebellar ataxia. Certain ataxia genes, including SPTBN2 which encodes ß-III spectrin, are responsible for both SCA and SCAR, depending on whether the pathogenic variant occurs in a monoallelic or biallelic state, respectively. Accordingly, 2 major phenotypes have been linked to SPTBN2: pathogenic heterozygous in-frame deletions and missense variants result in an adult-onset, slowly progressive ADCA (SCA5) through a dominant negative effect, whereas biallelic loss-of-function variants cause SCAR14, an allelic disorder characterized by infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia and cognitive impairment. Of note, 2 heterozygous missense variants (c.1438C>T, p.R480 W; c.1309C>G, p.R437G), both lying in the second spectrin repeat of SPTBN2, have been linked to infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia, similar to SCAR14. Here, we report a novel de novo heterozygous pathogenic missense variant (c.1310G>A) in SPTBN2 in a child with infantile-onset cerebellar ataxia and mild cognitive impairment. This variant affects the same R437 residue of the second spectrin repeat but results in a different amino acid change (p.R437Q). We review previously reported cases and discuss possible pathomechanisms responsible for the early-onset cerebellar phenotype due to disease-causing variants in the second spectrin repeat.

5.
Neurogenetics ; 20(2): 103-108, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924036

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-interacting multifunctional protein 1 (AIMP1) is a non-catalytic component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex which catalyzes the ligation of amino acids to the correct tRNAs. Pathogenic variants in several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases genes have been linked to various neurological disorders, including leukodystrophies and pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH). To date, loss-of-function variants in AIMP1 have been associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-3 (MIM 260600). Here, we report a novel frameshift AIMP1 homozygous variant (c.160delA,p.Lys54Asnfs) in a child with pontocerebellar hypoplasia and simplified gyral pattern, a phenotype not been previously described with AIMP1 variants, thus expanding the phenotypic spectrum. AIMP1 should be included in diagnostic PCH gene panels.

6.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 257-270.e8, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595499

RESUMO

Self-renewal and differentiation of pluripotent murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is regulated by extrinsic signaling pathways. It is less clear whether cellular metabolism instructs developmental progression. In an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen, we identified components of a conserved amino-acid-sensing pathway as critical drivers of ESC differentiation. Functional analysis revealed that lysosome activity, the Ragulator protein complex, and the tumor-suppressor protein Folliculin enable the Rag GTPases C and D to bind and seclude the bHLH transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, ectopic nuclear Tfe3 represses specific developmental and metabolic transcriptional programs that are associated with peri-implantation development. We show differentiation-specific and non-canonical regulation of Rag GTPase in ESCs and, importantly, identify point mutations in a Tfe3 domain required for cytoplasmic inactivation as potentially causal for a human developmental disorder. Our work reveals an instructive and biomedically relevant role of metabolic signaling in licensing embryonic cell fate transitions.

7.
J Christ Nurs ; 35(4): 258-262, 2018 Oct/Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198996

RESUMO

Many, especially newer, nurses lack the experience for nuanced skillful communication at end of life. This study incorporated the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) Core Curriculum Communication module into a nurse residency program and tested for change in attitudes toward end-of-life (EOL) care. Researchers found significant differences in attitudes toward care of the dying before and after the ELNEC training, and between nurses with greater than and less than 5 years experience. Findings support that ELNEC education can significantly impact nurse attitudes about EOL care.

8.
Genet Med ; 20(6): 645-654, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095811

RESUMO

PurposeCongenital anomalies and intellectual disability (CA/ID) are a major diagnostic challenge in medical genetics-50% of patients still have no molecular diagnosis after a long and stressful diagnostic "odyssey." Solo clinical whole-exome sequencing (WES) was applied in our genetics center to improve diagnosis in patients with CA/ID.MethodsThis retrospective study examined 416 consecutive tests performed over 3 years to demonstrate the effectiveness of periodically reanalyzing WES data. The raw data from each nonpositive test was reanalyzed at 12 months with the most recent pipeline and in the light of new data in the literature. The results of the reanalysis for patients enrolled in the third year are not yet available.ResultsOf the 416 patients included, data for 156 without a diagnosis were reanalyzed. We obtained 24 (15.4%) additional diagnoses: 12 through the usual diagnostic process (7 new publications, 4 initially misclassified, and 1 copy-number variant), and 12 through translational research by international data sharing. The final yield of positive results was 27.9% through a strict diagnostic approach, and 2.9% through an additional research strategy.ConclusionThis article highlights the effectiveness of periodically combining diagnostic reinterpretation of clinical WES data with translational research involving data sharing for candidate genes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Raras/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
9.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 830-835, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by a recognisable craniofacial appearance and a typical 'BOS' posture. BOS is caused by sporadic mutations ofASXL1. However, several typical patients with BOS have no molecular diagnosis, suggesting clinical and genetic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVES: To expand the phenotypical spectrum of autosomal recessive variants of KLHL7, reported as causing Crisponi syndrome/cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CS/CISS1)-like syndrome. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in two families with a suspected recessive mode of inheritance. We used the Matchmaker Exchange initiative to identify additional patients. RESULTS: Here, we report six patients with microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, including exophthalmos, nevus flammeus of the glabella and joint contractures with a suspected BOS posture in five out of six patients. We identified autosomal recessive truncating mutations in the KLHL7 gene. KLHL7 encodes a BTB-kelch protein implicated in the cell cycle and in protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recently, biallelic mutations in the KLHL7 gene were reported in four families and associated with CS/CISS1, characterised by clinical features overlapping with our patients. CONCLUSION: We have expanded the clinical spectrum of KLHL7 autosomal recessive variants by describing a syndrome with features overlapping CS/CISS1 and BOS.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/genética , Genes Recessivos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(11): 595-604, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has now entered medical practice with powerful applications in the diagnosis of rare Mendelian disorders. Although the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of WES have been widely demonstrated, it is essential to reduce the diagnostic turnaround time to make WES a first-line procedure. Since 2011, the automation of laboratory procedures and advances in sequencing chemistry have made it possible to carry out diagnostic whole genome sequencing from the blood sample to molecular diagnosis of suspected genetic disorders within 50 h. Taking advantage of these advances, the main objective of the study was to improve turnaround times for sequencing results. METHODS: WES was proposed to 29 patients with severe undiagnosed disorders with developmental abnormalities and faced with medical situations requiring rapid diagnosis. Each family gave consent. The extracted DNA was sequenced on a NextSeq500 (Illumina) instrument. Data were analyzed following standard procedures. Variants were interpreted using in-house software. Each rare variant affecting protein sequences with clinical relevance was tested for familial segregation. RESULTS: The diagnostic rate was 45% (13/29), with a mean turnaround time of 40 days from reception of the specimen to delivery of results to the referring physician. Besides permitting genetic counseling, the rapid diagnosis for positive families led to two pre-natal diagnoses and two inclusions in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of rapid diagnostic WES in our primary genetics center. It reduced the diagnostic odyssey and helped provide support to families.


Assuntos
Exoma , Testes Genéticos/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 371-380, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289185

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Encefalocele/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa
13.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 989-997, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postzygotic activating mutations of PIK3CA cause a wide range of mosaic disorders collectively referred to as PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of PIK3CA sequencing in PROS. METHODS: We performed ultradeep next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PIK3CA in various tissues from 162 patients referred to our clinical laboratory and assessed diagnostic yield by phenotype and tissue tested. RESULTS: We identified disease-causing mutations in 66.7% (108/162) of patients, with mutant allele levels as low as 1%. The diagnostic rate was higher (74%) in syndromic than in isolated cases (35.5%; P = 9.03 × 10-5). We identified 40 different mutations and found strong oncogenic mutations more frequently in patients without brain overgrowth (50.6%) than in those with brain overgrowth (15.2%; P = 0.00055). Mutant allele levels were higher in skin and overgrown tissues than in blood and buccal samples (P = 3.9 × 10-25), regardless of the phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the value of ultradeep NGS for molecular diagnosis of PROS, highlight its substantial allelic heterogeneity, and confirm that optimal diagnosis requires fresh skin or surgical samples from affected regions. Our findings may be of value in guiding future recommendations for genetic testing in PROS and other mosaic conditions.Genet Med advance online publication 02 February 2017.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 4(1): 26-35, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two consanguineous families, one of Sudanese ethnicity presenting progressive neuromuscular disease, severe cognitive impairment, muscle weakness, upper motor neuron lesion, anhydrosis, facial dysmorphism, and recurrent seizures and the other of Egyptian ethnicity presenting with neonatal hypotonia, bradycardia, and recurrent seizures, were evaluated for the causative gene mutation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing (WES) identified damaging homozygous variants in SCN10A, namely c.4514C>T; p.Thr1505Met in the first family and c.4735C>T; p.Arg1579* in the second family. A third family, of Western European descent, included a child with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) who also had compound heterozygous missense mutations in SCN10A, namely, c.3482T>C; p.Met1161Thr and c.4709C>A; p.Thr1570Lys. A search for SCN10A variants in three consortia datasets (EuroEPINOMICS, Epi4K/EPGP, Autism/dbGaP) identified an additional five individuals with compound heterozygous variants. A Hispanic male with infantile spasms [c.2842G>C; p.Val948Leu and c.1453C>T; p.Arg485Cys], and a Caucasian female with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [c.1529C>T; p.Pro510Leu and c.4984G>A; p.Gly1662Ser] in the epilepsy databases and three in the autism databases with [c.4009T>A; p.Ser1337Thr and c.1141A>G; p.Ile381Val], [c.2972C>T; p.Pro991Leu and c.2470C>T; p.His824Tyr], and [c.4009T>A; p.Ser1337Thr and c.2052G>A; p.Met684Ile]. INTERPRETATION: SCN10A is a member of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene family. Sodium channels are responsible for the instigation and proliferation of action potentials in central and peripheral nervous systems. Heterozygous mutations in VGSC genes cause a wide range of epileptic and peripheral nervous system disorders. This report presents autosomal recessive mutations in SCN10A that may be linked to epilepsy-related phenotypes, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(1): 62-71, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615324

RESUMO

Neutropenia can be qualified as congenital when of neonatal onset or when associated with extra-hematopoietic manifestations. Overall, 30% of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN) remain without a molecular diagnosis after a multidisciplinary consultation and tedious diagnostic strategy. In the rare situations when neutropenia is identified and associated with intellectual disability (ID), there are few diagnostic hypotheses to test. This retrospective multicenter study reports on a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 10 unrelated patients with CN associated with ID and no molecular diagnosis prior to whole-exome sequencing (WES). WES provided a diagnostic yield of 40% (4/10). The results suggested that in many cases neutropenia and syndromic manifestations could not be assigned to the same molecular alteration. Three sub-groups of patients were highlighted: (i) severe, symptomatic chronic neutropenia, detected early in life, and related to a known mutation in the CN spectrum (ELANE); (ii) mild to moderate benign intermittent neutropenia, detected later, and associated with mutations in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (CHD2, HUWE1); and (iii) moderate to severe intermittent neutropenia as a probably undiagnosed feature of a newly reported syndrome (KAT6A). Unlike KAT6A, which seems to be associated with a syndromic form of CN, the other reported mutations may not explain the entire clinical picture. Although targeted gene sequencing can be discussed for the primary diagnosis of severe CN, we suggest that performing WES for the diagnosis of disorders associating CN with ID will not only provide the etiological diagnosis but will also pave the way towards personalized care and follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Exoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Neutropenia/congênito , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome
17.
J Invest Dermatol ; 136(4): 770-778, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26778290

RESUMO

Common birthmarks can be an indicator of underlying genetic disease but are often overlooked. Mongolian blue spots (dermal melanocytosis) are usually localized and transient, but they can be extensive, permanent, and associated with extracutaneous abnormalities. Co-occurrence with vascular birthmarks defines a subtype of phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, a group of syndromes associated with neurovascular, ophthalmological, overgrowth, and malignant complications. Here, we discover that extensive dermal melanocytosis and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis are associated with activating mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ, genes that encode Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. The mutations were detected at very low levels in affected tissues but were undetectable in the blood, indicating that these conditions are postzygotic mosaic disorders. In vitro expression of mutant GNA11(R183C) and GNA11(Q209L) in human cell lines demonstrated activation of the downstream p38 MAPK signaling pathway and the p38, JNK, and ERK pathways, respectively. Transgenic mosaic zebrafish models expressing mutant GNA11(R183C) under promoter mitfa developed extensive dermal melanocytosis recapitulating the human phenotype. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis and extensive dermal melanocytosis are therefore diagnoses in the group of mosaic heterotrimeric G-protein disorders, joining McCune-Albright and Sturge-Weber syndromes. These findings will allow accurate clinical and molecular diagnosis of this subset of common birthmarks, thereby identifying infants at risk for serious complications, and provide novel therapeutic opportunities.


Assuntos
Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mancha Mongólica/genética , Mutação , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Alelos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Subunidades alfa Gq-G11 de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(6): 838-43, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26395558

RESUMO

Semaphorins are a large family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins necessary for wiring of the brain. Semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) acts as a bifunctional guidance cue, exerting both attractive and inhibitory effects on developing axons. Previous studies have suggested that SEMA5A could be a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We first identified a de novo translocation t(5;22)(p15.3;q11.21) in a patient with ASD and intellectual disability (ID). At the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 5, we observed a 861-kb deletion encompassing the end of the SEMA5A gene. We delineated the breakpoint by NGS and observed that no gene was disrupted on chromosome 22. We then used Sanger sequencing to search for deleterious variants affecting SEMA5A in 142 patients with ASD. We also identified two independent heterozygous variants located in a conserved functional domain of the protein. Both variants were maternally inherited and predicted as deleterious. Our genetic screens identified the first case of a de novo SEMA5A microdeletion in a patient with ASD and ID. Although our study alone cannot formally associate SEMA5A with susceptibility to ASD, it provides additional evidence that Semaphorin dysfunction could lead to ASD and ID. Further studies on Semaphorins are warranted to better understand the role of this family of genes in susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Herança Paterna , Translocação Genética
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(12): 3046-53, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26385851

RESUMO

Ductal plate malformations (DPM) present with a wide phenotypic spectrum comprising Von Meyenburg complexes (VMC), Caroli disease (CD), Caroli syndrome (CS), and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Variants in PKHD1 are responsible for ARPKD and CS with a high inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability. Rare familial cases of CD had been reported and exceptional cases of CD are associated with PKHD1 variants. In a family of three siblings presenting with a wide spectrum of severity of DPM, we performed whole exome sequencing and identified two PKHD1 compound heterozygous variants (c.10444G>A; p.Arg3482Cys and c.5521C>T; p.Glu1841Lys), segregating with the symptoms. Two compound heterozygous PKHD1 variants, including one hypomorphic variant, were identified in two other familial cases of DPM with at least one patient presenting with CD. This report widens the phenotypic variability of PKHD1 variants to VMC, and others hepatic bile ducts malformations with inconstant renal phenotype in adults and highlights the important intra-familial phenotypic variability. It also showed that PKHD1 might be a major gene for CD. This work adds an example of the contribution of exome sequencing, not only in the discovery of new genes but also in expanding the phenotypic spectrum of well-known disease-associated genes, using reverse phenotyping.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/anormalidades , Mutação/genética , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Adulto , Doenças dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/embriologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/patologia , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/patologia , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Brain ; 138(Pt 6): 1613-28, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25722288

RESUMO

Malformations of cortical development containing dysplastic neuronal and glial elements, including hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, are common causes of intractable paediatric epilepsy. In this study we performed multiplex targeted sequencing of 10 genes in the PI3K/AKT pathway on brain tissue from 33 children who underwent surgical resection of dysplastic cortex for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Sequencing results were correlated with clinical, imaging, pathological and immunohistological phenotypes. We identified mosaic activating mutations in PIK3CA and AKT3 in this cohort, including cancer-associated hotspot PIK3CA mutations in dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia type IIa. In addition, a germline PTEN mutation was identified in a male with hemimegalencephaly but no peripheral manifestations of the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. A spectrum of clinical, imaging and pathological abnormalities was found in this cohort. While patients with more severe brain imaging abnormalities and systemic manifestations were more likely to have detected mutations, routine histopathological studies did not predict mutation status. In addition, elevated levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein were identified in both neurons and astrocytes of all hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia type II specimens, regardless of the presence or absence of detected PI3K/AKT pathway mutations. In contrast, expression patterns of the T308 and S473 phosphorylated forms of AKT and in vitro AKT kinase activities discriminated between mutation-positive dysplasia cortex, mutation-negative dysplasia cortex, and non-dysplasia epilepsy cortex. Our findings identify PI3K/AKT pathway mutations as an important cause of epileptogenic brain malformations and establish megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly, and focal cortical dysplasia as part of a single pathogenic spectrum.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Hemimegalencefalia/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adolescente , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hemimegalencefalia/metabolismo , Hemimegalencefalia/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/metabolismo , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Megalencefalia/metabolismo , Megalencefalia/patologia , Mutação , Neuroimagem , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo
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