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1.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 106, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are prescribed frequently for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) even though most URTIs do not require antibiotics. This over-prescription contributes to antibiotic resistance which is a major health problem globally. As physicians' prescribing behaviour is influenced by patients' expectations, there may be some opportunities to reduce antibiotic prescribing using patient-oriented interventions. We aimed to identify these interventions and to understand which ones are more effective in reducing unnecessary use of antibiotics for URTIs. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL, and the Web of Science. We included English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. Two authors screened the abstract/titles and full texts, extracted data, and assessed study risk of bias. Where pooling was appropriate, a meta-analysis was performed by using a random-effects model. Where pooling of the data was not possible, a narrative synthesis of results was conducted. RESULTS: We included 13 studies (one ITS, one cluster RCTs, and eleven RCTs). All interventions could be classified into two major categories: delayed prescriptions (seven studies) and patient/public information and education interventions (six studies). Our meta-analysis of delayed prescription studies observed significant reductions in the use of antibiotics for URTIs (OR = 0.09, CI 0.03 to 0.23; six studies). A subgroup analysis showed that prescriptions that were given at a later time and prescriptions that were given at the index consultation had similar effects. The studies in the patient/public information and education group varied according to their methods of delivery. Since only one or two studies were included for each method, we could not make a definite conclusion on their effectiveness. In general, booklets or pamphlets demonstrated promising effects on antibiotic prescription, if discussed by a practitioner. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-oriented interventions (especially delayed prescriptions) may be effective in reducing antibiotic prescription for URTIs. Further research is needed to investigate the costs and feasibility of implementing these interventions as part of routine clinical practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016048007.

2.
Med Decis Making ; 40(3): 379-398, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428429

RESUMO

Introduction. The Ottawa Decision Support Framework (ODSF) has guided practitioners and patients facing difficult decisions for 20 years. It asserts that decision support interventions that address patients' decisional needs improve decision quality. Purpose. To update the ODSF based on a synthesis of evidence. Methods. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, searching 9 electronic databases. Eligible reviews included decisional needs assessments, decision support interventions, and decisional outcome measures guided by the ODSF. We extracted data and synthesized results narratively. Eight ODSF developers/expert users from 4 disciplines revised the ODSF. Results. Of 4656 citations, we identified 4 eligible reviews (>250 studies, >100 different decisions, >50,000 patients, 18 countries, 5 continents). They reported current ODSF decisional needs and their most frequent manifestations in the areas of inadequate knowledge/information, unclear values, decisional conflict/uncertainty, and inadequate support. They uncovered 11 new manifestations of 6 decisional needs. Using the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) to assess decisional needs, average scores were elevated at baseline and declined shortly after decision making, even without information interventions. Patient decision aids were superior to usual care in reducing total DCS scores and improving decision quality. We revised the ODSF by refining definitions of 6 decisional needs and adding new interventions to address 4 needs. We added a decision process outcome and eliminated secondary outcomes unlikely to improve across a range of decisions, retaining the implementation/continuance of the chosen option and appropriate use/costs of health services. Conclusions. We updated the ODSF to reflect the current evidence and identified implications for practice and further research.

3.
Perspect Med Educ ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medical education should portray evidence-based medicine (EBM) and shared decision making (SDM) as central to patient care. However, misconceptions regarding EBM and SDM are common in clinical practice, and these biases might unintentionally be transmitted to medical trainees through a hidden curriculum. The current study explores how assumptions of EBM and SDM can be hidden in formal curriculum material such as PowerPoint slides. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative content analysis using a purposive sample of 18 PowerPoints on the management of upper respiratory tract infections. We identified concepts pertaining to decision making using theory-driven codes taken from the fields of EBM and SDM. We then re-analyzed the coded text using a constructivist latent thematic approach to develop a rich description of conceptualizations of decision making in relation to EBM and SDM frameworks. RESULTS: PowerPoint slides can relay a hidden curriculum, which can normalize: pathophysiological reasoning, unexplained variations in clinical care, the use of EBM mimics, defensive medicine, an unrealistic portrayal of benefits, and paternalism. DISCUSSION: Addressing the hidden curriculum in formal curricular material should be explored as a novel strategy to foster a positive attitude towards EBM and SDM and to improve patient outcomes by encouraging the use of these skills.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 203, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DOLCE (Improving Decision making On Location of Care with the frail Elderly and their caregivers) was a post-intervention clustered randomised trial (cRT) to assess the effect of training home care teams on interprofessional shared decision-making (IP-SDM). Alongside the cRT, we sought to monitor healthcare providers' level of behavioural intention to engage in an IP-SDM approach and to identify factors associated with this intention. METHODS: We conducted two cross-sectional surveys in the province of Quebec, Canada, one each at cRT entry and exit. Healthcare providers (e.g. nurses, occupational therapists and social workers) in the 16 participating intervention and control sites self-completed an identical paper-based questionnaire at entry and exit. Informed by the Integrated model for explaining healthcare professionals' clinical behaviour by Godin et al. (2008), we assessed their behavioural intention to engage in IP-SDM to support older adults and caregivers of older adults with cognitive impairment to make health-related housing decisions. We also assessed psychosocial variables underlying their behavioural intention and collected sociodemographic data. We used descriptive statistics and linear mixed models to account for clustering. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2016, 271 healthcare providers participated at study entry and 171 at exit. At entry, median intention level was 6 in a range of 1 (low) to 7 (high) (Interquartile range (IQR): 5-6.5) and factors associated with intention were social influence (ß = 0.27, P <  0.0001), beliefs about one's capabilities (ß = 0.43, P <  0.0001), moral norm (ß = 0.31, P <  0.0001) and beliefs about consequences (ß = 0.21, P <  0.0001). At exit, median intention level was 5.5 (IQR: 4.5-6.5). Factors associated with intention were the same but did not include moral norm. However, at exit new factors were kept in the model: working in rehabilitation (ß = - 0.39, P = 0.018) and working as a technician (ß = - 0.41, P = 0.069) (compared to as a social worker). CONCLUSION: Intention levels were high but decreased from entry to exit. Factors associated with intention also changed from study entry to study exit. These findings may be explained by the major restructuring of the health and social care system that took place during the 2 years of the study, leading to rapid staff turnover and organisational disturbance in home care teams. Future research should give more attention to contextual factors and design implementation interventions to withstand the disruption of system- and organisational-level disturbances. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02244359). Registered on September 19th, 2014.

5.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 26(2): 610-621, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While shared decision-making (SDM) training programmes for health professionals have been developed in several countries, few have been evaluated. In Norway, a comprehensive curriculum, "klar for samvalg" (ready for SDM), for interprofessional health-care teams was created using generic didactic methods and guidance to tailor training to various contexts. The programmes adapted didactic methods from an evidence-based German training programmes (doktormitSDM). The overall aim was to evaluate two particular SDM modules on facilitating SDM implementation into clinical practice. METHOD: A descriptive mixed methods study using questionnaires and a focus group guided by the Medical Research Council Complex Interventions Framework. The training was provided as two different applications (module AB [introduction and SDM-basics] and module ABC [introduction, SDM-basics and interactive training]) with differing learning objectives, extent of interactivity, and duration (1 vs 2 hours). Groups of participants were recruited consecutively based on requests for health professional SDM training in university/college- and hospital-settings. By a focus group and a self-administered questionnaire comprehensibility, relevance and acceptance were assessed and qualitative feedback collected after the training. Data passed descriptive and content analysis, respectively. Knowledge was assessed twice using five multiple-choice items and analysed using paired t-tests. RESULTS: In 11 (six AB and five ABC) training sessions, 357/429 (296 AB and 133 ABC) eligible nurses, physicians and health professional students with varying clinical backgrounds and previous levels of SDM-knowledge participated. SDM-knowledge increased from 25-78% (range pretest) to 85-95% (range post-test) (P ≤ .001). The training was rated easy to understand, acceptable and relevant for practice. Findings to improve the education suggest higher emphasis on interprofessional teaching methods. CONCLUSIONS: The two SDM training modules met the basic requirements for use in a broader SDM implementation strategy and can even improve knowledge.

6.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 42, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020852

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that one of the authors' given name and last names are reversed and misspelled and thus not reflected correctly (given name now is Painchaud-Guérard and it should be Geneviève and last name now is Geneviève and it should be Painchaud Guérard).

7.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 1, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choice of insulin delivery for type 1 diabetes can be difficult for many parents and children. We evaluated decision coaching using a patient decision aid for helping youth with type 1 diabetes and parents decide about insulin delivery method. METHODS: A pre/post design. Youth and parent(s) attending a pediatric diabetes clinic in a tertiary care centre were referred to the intervention by their pediatric endocrinologist or diabetes physician between September 2013 and May 2015. A decision coach guided youth and their parents in completing a patient decision aid that was pre-populated with evidence on insulin delivery options. Primary outcomes were youth and parent scores on the low literary version of the validated Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS). RESULTS: Forty-five youth (mean age = 12.5 ± 2.9 years) and 66 parents (45.8 ± 5.6 years) participated. From pre- to post-intervention, youth and parent decisional conflict decreased significantly (youth mean DCS score was 32.0 vs 6.6, p < 0.0001; parent 37.6 vs 3.5, p < 0.0001). Youth's and parents' mean decisional conflict scores were also significantly improved for DCS subscales (informed, values clarity, support, and certainty). 92% of youth and 94% of parents were satisfied with the decision coaching and patient decision aid. Coaching sessions averaged 55 min. Parents (90%) reported that the session was the right length of time; some youth (16%) reported that it was too long. CONCLUSION: Decision coaching with a patient decision aid reduced decisional conflict for youth and parents facing a decision about insulin delivery method.

8.
J Interprof Care ; 34(1): 143-146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184540

RESUMO

Training in shared decision-making (SDM) often focuses solely on dyadic relationships between one healthcare provider and one patient. However, many healthcare decisions often involve two or more health professionals. These decisions warrant utilizing an interprofessional shared decision-making (IP-SDM) approach which enables patients and their caregivers to face difficult decisions around care together. Most existing SDM training programs fall short when building interprofessional (IP) competencies and require an approach that integrates IP with SDM. This short report discusses the creation and trial implementation of three enhanced education tools (a video, role-play exercise with decision aid, and an IP observation aid) for an IP-SDM workshop focused on helping homecare teams collaborate with seniors and their caregivers throughout the decision-making process. We developed and implemented these tools in eight study sites of a larger randomized control trial to test the training workshop for homecare teams. The workshop and tools helped participants overcome interprofessional challenges in their work. Participants evaluated the tools and workshop, which offered guidance to better translate teachable IP collaboration competencies within SDM.

9.
Med Decis Making ; 39(8): 1010-1018, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731879

RESUMO

Background. We aimed to validate the SURE test for use with parents in primary care. Methods. A secondary analysis of cluster randomized trial data was used to compare the SURE test (index, higher score = less conflict) to the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS; reference, higher score = greater conflict). Our a priori hypothesis was that the scales would correlate negatively. We evaluated the association between scores and estimated the proportion of variance in the DCS explained by the SURE test. Then, we dichotomized each measure using established cutoffs to calculate diagnostic accuracy and internal consistency with confidence intervals adjusted for clustering. We evaluated the presence of effect modification by sex, followed by sex-specific calculation of validation statistics. Results. In total, 185 of 201 parents completed a DCS and SURE test. Total DCS (mean = 4.2/100, SD = 14.3) and SURE test (median 4/4; interquartile range, 4-4) scores were significantly correlated (ρ = -0.36, P < 0.0001). The SURE test explained 34% of the DCS score variance. Internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson 20) was 0.38 (P < 0.0001). SURE test sensitivity and specificity for identifying decisional conflict were 32% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20%-44%) and 96% (95% CI, 93%-100%), respectively. The SURE test's positive likelihood ratio was 8.4 (95% CI, 0.1-17) and its negative likelihood ratio was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.53-0.87). There were no significant differences between females and males in DCS (P = 0.5) or SURE test (P = 0.97) total scores; however, correlations between test total scores (-0.37 for females v. for -0.21 for males; P = 0.001 for the interaction) and sensitivity and specificity were higher for females than males. Conclusions. SURE test demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties for screening decisional conflict among parents making a health decision about their child in primary care. However, clinicians cannot be confident that a negative SURE test rules out the presence of decisional conflict.

10.
Vaccine ; 37(51): 7493-7500, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood vaccination is one of the most important public health interventions. However, the injections are usually painful. Clinical practice guidelines recommend using pain management strategies for infants during vaccination. Public access to online health information has increased due to the advent of internet. Parents are likely to find thousands of websites, and online video platforms of variable quality. This study aims to identify and critically appraise the quality of online parent-targeted resources concerning early childhood vaccination and determine inclusion of recommended infant pain management strategies. METHODS: An environmental scan of two main internet sources was conducted: (a) Google, (b) Social Media networks. Resources including information relating to infant vaccination and available to Canadians were included. Characteristics of resources were collected. Resource quality was evaluated using the CDC Clear Communication Index. A CDC index score of 90% and above indicates the resource is as an acceptable public communication material. Means and standard deviations were used for normally distributed data; median and interquartile range (IQR) or numbers and proportions were used for data not normally distributed or presented in categorical format. RESULTS: We found 55 online resources in website format and 10 resources in video format. Overall, the mean score for the quality of resources was 60% ±â€¯0.19. Most resources were scored as moderate to low quality (33-87%). Only 5% of material scored as acceptable quality. In terms of content, 30 (46%) resources presented information about pain management strategies during vaccination, including breastfeeding (24, 37%), holding (27, 42%), and sweet solutions (22, 34%). The remaining 35 (54%) resources made no clear statement regarding any pain management strategies during vaccination. CONCLUSION: Most publicly accessible online parent-targeted vaccination resources were of poor quality and did not contain information related to the use of recommended pain management strategies during vaccination.

11.
Urol Oncol ; 37(11): 811.e1-811.e7, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient decision aids are structured clinical tools that facilitate shared decision-making. In urology, the decision between partial and radical nephrectomy for a renal mass can be difficult. We sought to develop and evaluate a decision aid for patients with a localized renal mass considering surgery. This paper describes the development process and acceptability testing of our patient decision aid. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision aid was systematically created using the International Patient Decision Aids Standards. Review of the literature identified evidence regarding patient-important outcomes of partial and radical nephrectomy. A mixed methods survey was designed to assess acceptability of the decision aid. Kidney cancer survivors, patient advocates, methodological experts, and urologists were recruited to evaluate the decision aid. The primary outcome was the acceptability of the decision aid reported by survey responders. RESULTS: An evidence-based decision aid was created. Included benefits were overall survival, cancer-free survival, and length of hospital stay. Included harms were postoperative bleeding, urine leak, stage 3 renal failure, renal replacement therapy, and flank bulge. The decision aid met the International Patient Decision Aids Standards defining (6 of 6), certification (6 of 6), and quality criteria (21 of 23). Results of acceptability testing were highly favorable. Responders (n = 22) reported the decision aid had acceptable language (91%), an appropriate length (82%), and presented balanced options (91%). Nine of 11 urologists (82%) reported intended use with future patients. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, evidence-based decision aid was created for patients with renal masses considering surgery. The decision aid is available at https://decisionaid.ohri.ca/AZsumm.php?ID=1913. A separate decision aid addressing the management of small renal masses is currently under development.

12.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 249, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Making health-related decisions about loved ones with cognitive impairment may contribute to caregiver burden of care. We sought to explore factors associated with burden of care among informal caregivers who had made housing decisions on behalf of a cognitively impaired older person. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis within a cluster randomized trial (cRT) conducted in 16 publicly-funded home care service points across the Province of Quebec. The cRT assessed the impact of training home care teams in interprofessional shared decision making (IP-SDM). We assessed burden of care with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) scale. We adapted Pallett's framework to inform our data analysis. This framework posits that factors influencing burden of care among caregivers fall within four domains: (a) characteristics of the caregiver, (b) characteristics of the cognitively impaired older person, (c) characteristics of the relationship between the caregiver and the cognitively impaired older person, and (d) the caregiver's perception of their social support resources. We computed the ZBI score and performed multilevel linear regression modelling. RESULTS: Among 296 caregivers included in the dataset, the mean ZBI score was 29.8 (SD = 17.5) out of 88. The typical participant was 62.6 years old (SD = 11.7), female (74.7%), and caring for a mother or father (61.2%). Using multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with caregiver burden mapped onto: caregiver characteristics (caregivers with higher burden were female, experienced higher decision regret and decisional conflict, preferred that their loved one move into the caregiver's home, into a private nursing home or a mixed private-public nursing home, and had made the decision more recently); relationship characteristics (spouses and children experienced higher burden); and caregiver's perception of social support resources (caregivers who perceived that a joint decision making process had occurred had higher burden). CONCLUSION: In line with the proposed framework used, we found that caregiver characteristics, relationship characteristics and caregiver's perception of social support resources were associated with burden of care. Our results will help design interventions to prevent and/or reduce caregivers' burden of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02244359 . Date of registration: September 18, 2014.

13.
Med Decis Making ; 39(7): 805-815, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423911

RESUMO

Background. Patient decision aids (PtDAs) are effective interventions to support patient involvement in health care decisions, but there is little use in practice. Our study aimed to determine subsequent PtDA use in clinical practice following published randomized controlled trials. Design. A descriptive study using an e-mail-embedded questionnaire survey targeting authors of 133 trials included in Cochrane Reviews of PtDAs (106 authors). We classified PtDA level of use as a) implementation, defined as integrating within care processes; b) dissemination to target users with planned strategies; and c) diffusion, defined as passive, unplanned spread. We conducted content analysis to identify barriers and enablers guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use. Results. Ninety-eight authors responded (92.5%) on 108 trialed PtDAs. Reported levels of use were implementation (n = 29; 28%), dissemination to target user(s) (n = 9; 9%), and diffusion (n = 7; 7%); 57 (55%) reported no uptake, and 1 had no response (1%). Barriers to use in clinical practice were identified at the level of researchers (e.g., lack of posttrial plan), PtDAs (e.g., outdated, delivery mechanism), clinicians (e.g., disagreed with PtDA use), and practice environment (e.g., infrastructure support; funding). Enablers were online delivery, organizational endorsement (e.g., professional organization, charity, government), and design for and integration into the care process. Limitations. Self-report bias and potential for recall bias. Conclusions. Only 44% of PtDA trial authors indicated some level of subsequent use following their trial. The most commonly reported barriers were lack of funding, outdated PtDAs, and clinician disagreement with PtDA use. To improve subsequent use, researchers should codesign PtDAs with end users to ensure fit with clinical practice and develop an implementation plan. National systems (e.g., platforms, endorsement, funding) can enable use.

14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461127

RESUMO

Importance: Statins are a cornerstone medication in cardiovascular disease prevention, but their use in clinical practice remains suboptimal, with less than half of people who are indicated for statins actually taking the medication. Objective: To perform a systematic review and synthesis of the literature on patient-oriented and physician-oriented interventions aimed at increasing statin-prescribing rates in adults without a history of cardiovascular disease. Evidence Review: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized clinical trials published between January 2000 and May 2019. Data abstraction was performed using the Cochrane Public Health Review Group's data collection template, and a narrative synthesis of study results was conducted. The risk of bias in each study was qualitatively assessed, and a funnel plot was created to further evaluate the risk of publication bias. Findings: Among 7948 citations and 128 full-text articles reviewed, 20 studies (of 109 807 patients) were included in the review. Eight trials reported a statistically significant increases in statin-prescribing rates. Among the effective trials, absolute effect sizes ranged from 4.2% (95% CI, 2.2%-6.4%) to 23% (95% CI, 7.3%-38.9%) and odds ratios from 1.29 (95% CI, 1.01-1.66) to 11.8 (95% CI, 8.8-15.9). Patient-education initiatives were the most commonly effective intervention, with 4 of 7 trials indicating increases in statin-prescribing rates. Two trials combined electronic decision-support tools with audit-and-feedback systems, both of which were effective overall. Physician-education programs without dynamic input regarding patient risk or updated treatment recommendations were generally found to be less effective. Conclusions and Relevance: While heterogeneous in their interventions and outcomes, a number of interventions have demonstrated increases in statin-prescribing rates, with patient-education initiatives demonstrating more promising results than those focused on physician education alone. As opposed to more education about generic recommendations, tailored patient-focused and physician-focused interventions were more effective when they provided personalized cardiovascular risk information, dynamic decision-support tools, or audit-and-feedback reports in a multicomponent program. There are a number of modestly successful approaches to implement increases in rates of statin prescribing, a proven yet underused cardiovascular disease prevention class of therapy.

15.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(9): 1185.e9-1185.e18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the influence of individual characteristics and organizational context features on nurses' self-reported use of research evidence in long-term care (LTC) homes. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of survey data collected in the Translating Research in Elder Care program. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 756 nurses (registered nurses and licensed practical nurses) from 89 LTC homes in Western Canada. METHODS: Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to identify which individual characteristics and organizational context features significantly predicted (P < .05) 3 kinds of self-reported research use by nurses: instrumental (the direct application of research findings), conceptual (using research findings to change thinking), and persuasive (using research findings to convince others). RESULTS: Nurses reported a moderate to high level of research use. There were no significant differences in mean research use scores by nursing role. Only 2 variables were associated with all 3 kinds of research use: having a positive attitude toward research, and availability of structural and electronic resources. Additional variables associated with instrumental research use were problem-solving ability, engaging in formal interactions (eg, education sessions), and better perceptions of organizational slack-staff (the availability of sufficient staff). Additional variables associated with conceptual research use were self-determination and job efficacy. Finally, additional variables associated with persuasive research use were belief suspension (the ability to suspend previously held beliefs), organizational citizenship behavior (one's voluntary commitment to the organization), self-determination, job efficacy, evaluation, and better perceptions of organizational slack-time (perceived availability of extra time). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Conceptual and persuasive research use were most strongly influenced by individual characteristics, whereas instrumental research use was predicted equally by individual and organizational variables. Nurses working in LTC are positioned in leadership roles; by targeting both the individual- and organizational-level predictors of nurses' research use, they can improve conditions for individuals living in LTC.

16.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(10): 1898-1904, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patient-directed knowledge tools are designed to engage patients in dialogue or deliberation, to support patient decision-making or self-care of chronic conditions. However, an abundance of these exists. The tools themselves and their purposes are not always clearly defined; creating challenges for developers and users (professionals, patients). The study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework of patient-directed knowledge tool types. METHODS: A face-to-face evidence-informed consensus meeting with 15 international experts. After the meeting, the framework went through two rounds of feedback before informal consensus was reached. RESULTS: A conceptual framework containing five patient-directed knowledge tool types was developed. The first part of the framework describes the tools' purposes and the second focuses on the tools' core elements. CONCLUSION: The framework provides clarity on which types of patient-directed tools exist, the purposes they serve, and which core elements they prototypically include. It is a working framework and will require further refinement as the area develops, alongside validation with a broader group of stakeholders. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The framework assists developers and users to know which type a tool belongs, its purpose and core elements, helping them to develop and use the right tool for the right job.

17.
Gerontologist ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Informal caregivers are rarely as involved as they want to be in the housing decisions of cognitively impaired older adults. Lack of awareness of available options and their benefits and risks may lead to decisions that do not reflect older adults' preferences, and to guilt and regret. We assessed the effect of training home care teams in interprofessional shared decision-making (SDM) on the proportion of caregivers who report being active in this decision. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a two-arm pragmatic cluster randomized trial with home care teams working in health centers in the Province of Quebec, we randomized health centers randomized to receive training in interprofessional SDM (intervention) or not (control). Eligible caregivers had made a housing decision for a cognitively impaired adult aged 65 years or older who was receiving services from a home care team. The primary outcome was the proportion of caregivers reporting an active role in decision making. We performed intention-to-treat multilevel analysis. RESULTS: We consecutively enrolled a random group of 16 health centers and recruited 309 caregivers, among whom 296 were included in the analysis. In the intervention arm, the proportion of caregivers reporting an active role in decision making increased by 12% (95% CI -2% to 27%; p = .10). After removal of an influential cluster outlier, the proportion increased to 18% (95% CI: 7%-29%; p < .01). DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Training home care teams in interprofessional SDM increased caregiver involvement in health-related housing decisions for cognitively impaired older adults.

18.
J Urol ; 202(5): 1001-1007, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The choice of urinary diversion at cystectomy is a life altering decision. Patient decision aids are clinical tools that promote shared decision making by providing information about management options and helping patients communicate their values. We sought to develop and evaluate a patient decision aid for individuals undergoing cystectomy with urinary diversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the IPDAS (International Patient Decision Aids Standards) to guide a systematic development process. A literature review was performed to determine urinary diversion options and the incidence of outcomes. We created a prototype using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. A 10-question survey was used to assess patient decision aid acceptability among patients, allied health professionals and urologists. The primary outcome was acceptability of the patient decision aid. RESULTS: Ileal conduit and orthotopic neobladder were included as primary urinary diversion options because they had the most evidence and are most commonly performed. Continent cutaneous diversion was identified as an alternative option. Outcomes specific to ileal conduit were stomal stenosis and parastomal hernia. Outcomes specific to neobladder were daytime and nighttime urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Acceptability testing was completed by 8 urologists, 9 patients and 1 advanced practice nurse. Of the respondents 94% reported that the language was appropriate, 94% reported that the length was adequate and 83% reported that option presentation was balanced. The patient decision aid met all 6 IPDAS defining criteria, all 6 certification criteria and 21 of 23 quality criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We created a novel patient decision aid to improve the quality of decisions made by patients when deciding among urinary diversion options. Effectiveness testing will be performed prospectively.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/psicologia , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Derivação Urinária/métodos
19.
Med Decis Making ; 39(4): 301-314, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142194

RESUMO

Background. The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) measures 5 dimensions of decision making (feeling: uncertain, uninformed, unclear about values, unsupported; ineffective decision making). We examined the use of the DCS over its initial 20 years (1995 to 2015). Methods. We conducted a scoping review with backward citation search in Google Analytics/Web of Science/PubMed, followed by keyword searches in Cochrane Library, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, PRO-Quest, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were published between 1995 and March 2015, used an original experimental/observational research design, concerned a health-related decision, and provided DCS data (total/subscales). Author dyads independently screened titles, abstracts, full texts, and extracted data. We performed narrative data synthesis. Results. We included 394 articles. DCS use appeared to increase over time. Three hundred nine studies (76%) used the original DCS, and 29 (7%) used subscales only. Most studies used the DCS to evaluate the impact of decision support interventions (n = 238, 59%). The DCS was translated into 13 languages. Most decisions were made by people for themselves (n = 353, 87%), about treatment (n = 225, 55%), or testing (n = 91, 23%). The most common decision contexts were oncology (n = 113, 28%) and primary care (n = 82, 20%). Conclusions. This is the first study to descriptively synthesize characteristics of DCS data. Use of the DCS as an outcome measure for health decision interventions has increased over its 20-year existence, demonstrating its relevance as a decision-making evaluation measure. Most studies failed to report when decisional conflict was measured during the decision-making process, making scores difficult to interpret. Findings from this study will be used to update the DCS user manual.

20.
Med Decis Making ; 39(4): 315-326, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142205

RESUMO

Background. We explored decisional conflict as measured with the 16-item Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and how it varies across clinical situations, decision types, and exposure to decision support interventions (DESIs). Methods. An exhaustive scoping review was conducted using backward citation searches and keyword searches. Eligible studies were published between 1995 and March 2015, used an original experimental/observational research design, concerned a health-related decision, and provided DCS data. Dyads independently screened titles/abstracts and full texts, and extracted data. We performed narrative syntheses and calculated average or median DCS scores. Results. We included 246 articles reporting on 253 studies. DCS scores ranged from 2.4 to 89.6 out of 100. Highest baseline DCS scores were for care planning (30.5 ± 12.8, median = 30.9) and treatment decisions (30.5 ± 14.6, median = 28.0), in contexts of primary care (33.8 ± 19.8), obstetrics/gynecology (28.8 ± 10.4), and geriatrics (32.6 ± 10.7). Baseline scores were high among decision makers who were ill (29.5 ± 13.8, median = 27.2) or making decisions for themselves (29.7 ± 14.8, median = 26.9). Total DCS scores <25 out of 100 were associated with implementing decisions. Without DESIs, DCS scores tended to increase shortly after decision making (>37.4). After DESI use, DCS scores decreased short-term but increased or remained the same long-term (>6 months). Conclusions. DCS scores were highest at baseline and decreased after decision making. DESIs decreased decisional conflict immediately after decision making. The largest improvements after DESIs were in decision makers who were ill, male, or made decisions for themselves. Meta-analyses focusing on decision types, contexts, and interventions could inform hypotheses about the expected effects of DESIs, the best timing for measurement, and interpretation of DCS scores.

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