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1.
Data Brief ; 38: 107320, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485650

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a frequent and potentially irreversible adverse event of cytotoxic chemotherapy. We evaluate whether sensory neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-DSN) can serve as human disease model system for chemotherapy induced neurotoxicity. Sensory neurons differentiated from two established induced pluripotent stem cell lines were used (s.c. BIHi005-A https://hpscreg.eu/cell-line/BIHi005-A and BIHi004-B https://hpscreg.eu/cell-line/BIHi004-B, Berlin Institute of Health Stem Cell Core Facility). Cell viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed, comparing susceptibility to four neurotoxic and two non-neurotoxic drugs. RNA sequencing analyses in paclitaxel vs. vehicle (DMSO)-treated sensory neurons were performed. Treatment of iPSC-DSN for 24 h with the neurotoxic drugs paclitaxel, bortezomib, vincristine and cisplatin led to a dose dependent decline of cell viability in clinically relevant IC50 ranges, which was not the case for the non-neurotoxic compounds doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. RNA sequencing analyses at 24 h, i.e. before paclitaxel-induced cell death occurred, revealed the differential expression of genes of neuronal injury, cellular stress response, and sterol pathways in response to 1 µM paclitaxel. Neuroprotective effects of lithium chloride co-incubation, which were previously shown in rodent dorsal root ganglia, could be replicated in human iPSC-DSN. Cell lines from the two different donors BIHi005-A and BIHi004-B showed different responses to the neurotoxic treatment in cell viability and cytotoxicity assays.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are considered the main effectors in allergic reactions and well known for their contribution to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, urticaria, and mastocytosis. To study their functions in vitro, human primary MCs are isolated directly from several tissues or differentiated from hematopoietic progenitors. However, these techniques bear several disadvantages and challenges including low proliferation capacity, donor-dependent heterogeneity, and the lack of a continuous cell source. OBJECTIVE: To address this, we developed a novel strategy for the rapid and efficient differentiation of MCs from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). METHODS: A 4-step protocol for the generation of hiPSC-derived MCs, based on the use of 3 hiPSC lines, was established and validated by comparison with human skin MCs and peripheral hematopoietic stem cell-derived MCs. RESULTS: hiPSC-MCs share phenotypic and functional characteristics of human skin MCs and peripheral hematopoietic stem cell-derived MCs. They display stable expression of the MC-associated receptors CD117, FcεRIα, and Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 and degranulate in response to IgE/anti-IgE and substance P. CONCLUSIONS: This novel hiPSC-based approach provides a sustainable and homogeneous source for a rapid and highly productive generation of phenotypically mature, functional MCs, and its principle allows for the investigation of disease- and patient-specific MC populations.

3.
Theranostics ; 11(17): 8430-8447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373751

RESUMO

Self-assembly of solid organs from single cells would greatly expand applicability of regenerative medicine. Stem/progenitor cells can self-organize into micro-sized organ units, termed organoids, partially modelling tissue function and regeneration. Here we demonstrated 3D self-assembly of adult and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial progenitors into both, planar human skin in vivo and a novel type of spheroid-shaped skin organoids in vitro, under the aegis of human platelet lysate. Methods: Primary endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), skin fibroblasts (FBs) and keratinocytes (KCs) were isolated from human tissues and polyclonally propagated under 2D xeno-free conditions. Human tissue-derived iPSCs were differentiated into endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs), fibroblasts (hiPSC-FBs) and keratinocytes (hiPSC-KCs) according to efficiency-optimized protocols. Cell identity and purity were confirmed by flow cytometry and clonogenicity indicated their stem/progenitor potential. Triple cell type floating spheroids formation was promoted by human platelet-derived growth factors containing culture conditions, using nanoparticle cell labelling for monitoring the organization process. Planar human skin regeneration was assessed in full-thickness wounds of immune-deficient mice upon transplantation of hiPSC-derived single cell suspensions. Results: Organoids displayed a distinct architecture with surface-anchored keratinocytes surrounding a stromal core, and specific signaling patterns in response to inflammatory stimuli. FGF-7 mRNA transfection was required to accelerate keratinocyte long-term fitness. Stratified human skin also self-assembled within two weeks after either adult- or iPSC-derived skin cell-suspension liquid-transplantation, healing deep wounds of mice. Transplant vascularization significantly accelerated in the presence of co-transplanted endothelial progenitors. Mechanistically, extracellular vesicles mediated the multifactorial platelet-derived trophic effects. No tumorigenesis occurred upon xenografting. Conclusion: This illustrates the superordinate progenitor self-organization principle and permits novel rapid 3D skin-related pharmaceutical high-content testing opportunities with floating spheroid skin organoids. Multi-cell transplant self-organization facilitates development of iPSC-based organ regeneration strategies using cell suspension transplantation supported by human platelet factors.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255976, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury associated with cytokine release frequently occurs in SARS-CoV-2 mediated coronavirus disease (COVID19) and mortality is particularly high in these patients. The mechanistic role of the COVID19 associated cytokine-storm for the concomitant cardiac dysfunction and associated arrhythmias is unclear. Moreover, the role of anti-inflammatory therapy to mitigate cardiac dysfunction remains elusive. AIMS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID19-associated inflammatory response on cardiac cellular function as well as its cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in rat and induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM). In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of the IL-1ß antagonist Canakinumab using state of the art in-vitro confocal and ratiometric high-throughput microscopy. RESULTS: Isolated rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to control or COVID19 serum from intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe ARDS and impaired cardiac function (LVEF 41±5%; 1/3 of patients on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; CK 154±43 U/l). Rat cardiomyocytes showed an early increase of myofilament sensitivity, a decrease of Ca2+ transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. In addition, we used iPS-CM to explore the long-term effect of patient serum on cardiac electrical and mechanical function. In iPS-CM, spontaneous Ca2+ release events were more likely to occur upon incubation with COVID19 serum and nuclear as well as cytosolic Ca2+ release were altered. Co-incubation with Canakinumab had no effect on pro-arrhythmogenic Ca2+ release or Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling, nor significantly influenced cellular automaticity. CONCLUSION: Serum derived from COVID19 patients exerts acute cardio-depressant and chronic pro-arrhythmogenic effects in rat and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. Canakinumab had no beneficial effect on cellular Ca2+ signaling during excitation-contraction coupling. The presented method utilizing iPS-CM and in-vitro Ca2+ imaging might serve as a novel tool for precision medicine. It allows to investigate cytokine related cardiac dysfunction and pharmacological approaches useful therein.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Arritmias Cardíacas , COVID-19 , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia
5.
Stem Cell Res ; 54: 102406, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062331

RESUMO

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of familial nephrotic syndrome. We generated 20 induced pluripotent stem cell lines from patients diagnosed with FSGS. The iPSC lines include 8 female and 12 male lines and cover a donor age range from 31 to 78. The lines were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by integration-free reprogramming using Sendai virus vectors. Cell lines were fully characterized regarding their pluripotency and differentiation potential, and quality controlled for karyotypic integrity, identity and clearance of reprogramming vectors. The generated cell lines represent a valuable tool for disease modelling and drug development for FSGS.


Assuntos
Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Vírus Sendai/genética
6.
Stem Cell Res ; 54: 102417, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119956

RESUMO

MIRAGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by mutations in SAMD9 (sterile α motif domain-containing protein 9) with a high mortality in the first decade of life. We generated 2 human induced pluripotent stem cell lines from male children diagnosed with MIRAGE syndrome. The cell lines were generated from fibroblasts by integration-free reprogramming using the Sendai virus. Both cell lines were fully characterized regarding their pluripotent identity and differentiation potential, and quality controlled for karyotypic integrity, cell line identity and clearance of reprogramming vectors. The generated cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the disease mechanism of MIRAGE syndrome.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Criança , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Masculino , Vírus Sendai/genética
7.
Neurobiol Dis ; 155: 105391, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984509

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a frequent, potentially irreversible adverse effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy often leading to a reduction or discontinuation of treatment which negatively impacts patients' prognosis. To date, however, neither predictive biomarkers nor preventive treatments for CIPN are available, which is partially due to a lack of suitable experimental models. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether sensory neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-DSN) can serve as human disease model system for CIPN. Treatment of iPSC-DSN for 24 h with the neurotoxic drugs paclitaxel, bortezomib, vincristine and cisplatin led to axonal blebbing and a dose dependent decline of cell viability in clinically relevant IC50 ranges, which was not observed for the non-neurotoxic compounds doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Paclitaxel treatment effects were less pronounced after 24 h but prominent when treatment was applied for 72 h. Global transcriptome analyses performed at 24 h, i.e. before paclitaxel-induced cell death occurred, revealed the differential expression of genes of neuronal injury, cellular stress response, and sterol pathways. We further evaluated if known neuroprotective strategies can be reproduced in iPSC-DSN and observed protective effects of lithium replicating findings from rodent dorsal root ganglia cells. Comparing sensory neurons derived from two different healthy donors, we found preliminary evidence that these cell lines react differentially to neurotoxic drugs as expected from the variable presentation of CIPN in patients. In conclusion, iPSC-DSN are a promising platform to study the pathogenesis of CIPN and to evaluate neuroprotective treatment strategies. In the future, the application of patient-specific iPSC-DSN could open new avenues for personalized medicine with individual risk prediction, choice of chemotherapeutic compounds and preventive treatments.

8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(8): 1621-1635, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905594

RESUMO

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great potential for modeling human diseases and the development of innovative therapeutic approaches. Here, we report on a novel, simplified differentiation method for forming functional osteoclasts from hiPSCs. The three-step protocol starts with embryoid body formation, followed by hematopoietic specification, and finally osteoclast differentiation. We observed continuous production of monocyte-like cells over a period of up to 9 weeks, generating sufficient material for several osteoclast differentiations. The analysis of stage-specific gene and surface marker expression proved mesodermal priming, the presence of monocyte-like cells, and of terminally differentiated multinucleated osteoclasts, able to form resorption pits and trenches on bone and dentine in vitro. In comparison to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived osteoclasts hiPSC-derived osteoclasts were larger and contained a higher number of nuclei. Detailed functional studies on the resorption behavior of hiPSC-osteoclasts indicated a trend towards forming more trenches than pits and an increase in pseudoresorption. We used hiPSCs from an autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) patient (BIHi002-A, ARO hiPSCs) with compound heterozygous missense mutations p.(G292E) and p.(R403Q) in CLCN7, coding for the Cl- /H+ -exchanger ClC-7, for functional investigations. The patient's leading clinical feature was a brain malformation due to defective neuronal migration. Mutant ClC-7 displayed residual expression and retained lysosomal co-localization with OSTM1, the gene coding for the osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1, but only ClC-7 harboring the mutation p.(R403Q) gave strongly reduced ion currents. An increased autophagic flux in spite of unchanged lysosomal pH was evident in undifferentiated ARO hiPSCs. ARO hiPSC-derived osteoclasts showed an increased size compared to hiPSCs of healthy donors. They were not able to resorb bone, underlining a loss-of-function effect of the mutations. In summary, we developed a highly reproducible, straightforward hiPSC-osteoclast differentiation protocol. We demonstrated that osteoclasts differentiated from ARO hiPSCs can be used as a disease model for ARO and potentially also other osteoclast-related diseases. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Osteopetrose , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Mutação , Osteoclastos , Osteopetrose/genética
9.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693580

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Here, we propose Fourier ring correlation-based quality estimation (FRC-QE) as a new metric for automated image quality estimation in 3 D fluorescence microscopy acquisitions of cleared organoids that yields comparable measurements across experimental replicates, clearing protocols and works for different microscopy modalities. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: FRC-QE is written in ImgLib2/Java and provided as an easy-to-use and macro-scriptable plugin in Fiji. Code, documentation, sample images and further information can be found under https://github.com/PreibischLab/FRC-QE. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(3): 1039-1052, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410098

RESUMO

Balanced signal transduction is crucial in tissue patterning, particularly in the vasculature. Heterotopic ossification (HO) is tightly linked to vascularization with increased vessel number in hereditary forms of HO, such as Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). FOP is caused by mutations in the BMP type I receptor ACVR1 leading to aberrant SMAD1/5 signaling in response to ActivinA. Whether observed vascular phenotype in human FOP lesions is connected to aberrant ActivinA signaling is unknown. Blocking of ActivinA prevents HO in FOP mice indicating a central role of the ligand in FOP. Here, we established a new FOP endothelial cell model generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iECs) to study ActivinA signaling. FOP iECs recapitulate pathogenic ActivinA/SMAD1/5 signaling. Whole transcriptome analysis identified ActivinA mediated activation of the BMP/NOTCH pathway exclusively in FOP iECs, which was rescued to WT transcriptional levels by the drug candidate Saracatinib. We propose that ActivinA causes transcriptional pre-patterning of the FOP endothelium, which might contribute to differential vascularity in FOP lesions compared to non-hereditary HO.

11.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol ; 55(1): e123, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956572

RESUMO

Advances in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) techniques have led them to become a widely used and powerful tool for a vast array of applications, including disease modeling, developmental studies, drug discovery and testing, and emerging cell-based therapies. hPSC workflows that require clonal expansion from single cells, such as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, face major challenges in terms of efficiency, cost, and precision. Classical sub-cloning approaches depend on limiting dilution and manual colony picking, which are both time-consuming and labor-intensive, and lack a real proof of clonality. Here we describe the application of three different automated cell isolation and dispensing devices that can enhance the single-cell cloning process for hPSCs. In combination with optimized cell culture conditions, these devices offer an attractive alternative compared to manual methods. We explore various aspects of each device system and define protocols for their practical application. Following the workflow described here, single cell-derived hPSC sub-clones from each system maintain pluripotency and genetic stability. Furthermore, the workflows can be applied to uncover karyotypic mosaicism prevalent in bulk hPSC cultures. Our robust automated workflow facilitates high-throughput hPSC clonal selection and expansion, urgently needed in the operational pipelines of hPSC applications. © 2020 The Authors. Basic Protocol: Efficient automated hPSC single cell seeding and clonal expansion using the iotaSciences IsoCell platform Alternate Protocol 1: hPSC single cell seeding and clonal expansion using the Cellenion CellenONE single-cell dispenser Alternate Protocol 2: hPSC single cell seeding and clonal expansion using the Cytena single-cell dispenser Support Protocol 1: Coating cell culture plates with Geltrex Support Protocol 2: hPSC maintenance in defined feeder-free conditions Support Protocol 3: hPSC passaging in clumps Support Protocol 4: Laminin 521 coating of IsoCell plates and 96-well/384-well plates Support Protocol 5: Preparation of medium containing anti-apoptotic small molecules Support Protocol 6: 96- and 384-well target plate preparation prior to single cell seeding Support Protocol 7: Single cell dissociation of hPSCs Support Protocol 8: IsoCell-, CellenONE-, and Cytena-derived hPSC clone subculture and expansion.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Automação Laboratorial , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Clonais , Edição de Genes , Humanos
12.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 37: 39-48, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684494

RESUMO

Melanocortin-4-receptor (MC4R) gene codes for a G-protein-coupled receptor that is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and involved in the regulation of appetite. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MC4R gene region have been associated with obesity, type 2-diabetes (T2D) and with antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Of these, rs17066842 (G>A) in the MC4R promoter region is the top variant associated with obesity and diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of rs17066842 on MC4R expression at various glucose concentrations using reporter gene expression in the SH-SY5Y cell line and regulation of MC4R expression in human cerebral organoids. We observed that higher glucose concentrations significantly reduced MC4R mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, at high glucose concentrations, the luciferase reporter plasmid containing the MC4R promoter insert with the G-allele of rs170066842 showed significantly reduced activity compared to the A-allele carrying plasmid. The immediate early gene product, early growth-response 1 (EGR-1), was identified to bind to the sequence containing the G-allele at rs17066842 but not to the A-allele-containing sequence. Interestingly, in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cerebral organoids, we observed increased MC4R expression in response to high glucose exposure. These opposite observations might suggest that glucose regulation is complex and may be cell-specific. This study provides evidence that rs17066842 regulates MC4R gene expression through binding of EGR-1 and that this process is influenced by glucose concentration.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/biossíntese , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354186

RESUMO

The test methods that currently exist for the identification of thyroid hormone system-disrupting chemicals are woefully inadequate. There are currently no internationally validated in vitro assays, and test methods that can capture the consequences of diminished or enhanced thyroid hormone action on the developing brain are missing entirely. These gaps put the public at risk and risk assessors in a difficult position. Decisions about the status of chemicals as thyroid hormone system disruptors currently are based on inadequate toxicity data. The ATHENA project (Assays for the identification of Thyroid Hormone axis-disrupting chemicals: Elaborating Novel Assessment strategies) has been conceived to address these gaps. The project will develop new test methods for the disruption of thyroid hormone transport across biological barriers such as the blood-brain and blood-placenta barriers. It will also devise methods for the disruption of the downstream effects on the brain. ATHENA will deliver a testing strategy based on those elements of the thyroid hormone system that, when disrupted, could have the greatest impact on diminished or enhanced thyroid hormone action and therefore should be targeted through effective testing. To further enhance the impact of the ATHENA test method developments, the project will develop concepts for better international collaboration and development in the area of thyroid hormone system disruptor identification and regulation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Descoberta de Drogas , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Internet
14.
JCI Insight ; 5(7)2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271161

RESUMO

Although human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent a substantial proportion of the human genome and some HERVs, such as HERV-K(HML-2), are reported to be involved in neurological disorders, little is known about their biological function. We report that RNA from an HERV-K(HML-2) envelope gene region binds to and activates human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8, as well as murine Tlr7, expressed in neurons and microglia, thereby causing neurodegeneration. HERV-K(HML-2) RNA introduced into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of either C57BL/6 wild-type mice or APPPS1 mice, a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulted in neurodegeneration and microglia accumulation. Tlr7-deficient mice were protected against neurodegenerative effects but were resensitized toward HERV-K(HML-2) RNA when neurons ectopically expressed murine Tlr7 or human TLR8. Transcriptome data sets of human AD brain samples revealed a distinct correlation of upregulated HERV-K(HML-2) and TLR8 RNA expression. HERV-K(HML-2) RNA was detectable more frequently in CSF from individuals with AD compared with controls. Our data establish HERV-K(HML-2) RNA as an endogenous ligand for species-specific TLRs 7/8 and imply a functional contribution of human endogenous retroviral transcripts to neurodegenerative processes, such as AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Retrovirus Endógenos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , RNA Viral , Receptor 7 Toll-Like , Receptor 8 Toll-Like , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 8 Toll-Like/metabolismo
15.
Thyroid ; 30(9): 1366-1383, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143555

RESUMO

Background: Mutations of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), a thyroid hormone (TH)-specific transmembrane transporter, cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. In MCT8 deficiency, TH is not able to reach those areas of the brain where TH uptake depends on MCT8. Currently, therapeutic options for MCT8-deficient patients are missing, as TH treatment is not successful in improving neurological deficits. Available data on MCT8 protein and transcript levels indicate complex expression patterns in neural tissue depending on species, brain region, sex, and age. However, information on human MCT8 expression is still scattered and additional efforts are needed to map sites of MCT8 expression in neurovascular units and neural tissue. This is of importance because new therapeutic strategies for this disease are urgently needed. Methods: To identify regions and time windows of MCT8 expression, we used highly specific antibodies against MCT8 to perform immunofluorescence labeling of postnatal murine brains, adult human brain tissue, and human cerebral organoids. Results: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of murine brain samples revealed stable levels of MCT8 protein expression in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), choroid plexus epithelial cells, and tanycytes during postnatal development. Conversely, the neuronal MCT8 protein expression that was robustly detectable in specific brain regions of young mice strongly declined with age. Similarly, MCT8 immunoreactivity in adult human brain tissue was largely confined to endothelial cells of the BBB. Recently, cerebral organoids emerged as promising models of human neural development and our first analyses of forebrain-like organoids revealed MCT8 expression in early neuronal progenitor cell populations. Conclusions: With respect to MCT8-deficient conditions, our analyses not only strongly support the contention that the BBB presents a lifelong barrier to TH uptake but also highlight the need to decipher the TH transport role of MCT8 in early neuronal cell populations in more detail. Improving the understanding of the spatiotemporal expression in latter barriers will be critical for therapeutic strategies addressing MCT8 deficiency in the future.

16.
Stem Cell Res ; 35: 101367, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763735

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) is a genetic bone disease that can be caused by mutations in the CLCN7 gene preventing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line, BIHi002-A, from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an ARO patient carrying the CLCN7 mutations c.875G>A and c.1208G>A using Sendai viral vectors. The pluripotent identity of the BIHi002-A line was confirmed by their expression of typical markers for undifferentiated hiPSCs, their capacity to differentiate into cells of the three germ layers and by PluriTest analysis. The BIHi002-A line provides a tool for disease modelling and therapy development.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular , Canais de Cloreto , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Mutação , Osteopetrose , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Lactente , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Osteopetrose/genética , Osteopetrose/metabolismo , Osteopetrose/patologia
17.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(1): 179-192, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310934

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide a source for the generation of defined kidney cells and renal organoids applicable in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening. These applications require the provision of hPSC-derived renal cells by reproducible, scalable, and efficient methods. We established a chemically defined protocol by application of Activin A, BMP4, and Retinoic acid followed by GDNF, which steered hPSCs to the renal lineage and resulted in populations of SIX2+/CITED1+ metanephric mesenchyme- (MM) and of HOXB7+/GRHL2+ ureteric bud (UB)-like cells already by 6 days. Transcriptome analysis corroborated that the PSC-derived cell types at day 8 resemble their renal vesicle and ureteric epithelial counterpart in vivo, forming tubular and glomerular renal cells 6 days later. We demonstrate that starting from hPSCs, our in vitro protocol generates a pool of nephrogenic progenitors at the renal vesicle stage, which can be further directed into specialized nephronal cell types including mesangial-, proximal tubular-, distal tubular, collecting duct epithelial cells, and podocyte precursors after 14 days. This simple and rapid method to produce renal cells from a common precursor pool in 2D culture provides the basis for scaled-up production of tailored renal cell types, which are applicable for drug testing or cell-based regenerative therapies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Néfrons/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Ativinas/farmacologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/farmacologia , Humanos , Néfrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Néfrons/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Tretinoína/farmacologia
18.
Regen Med ; 13(7): 859-866, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205750

RESUMO

Use of clinical-grade human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines as a starting material for the generation of cellular therapeutics requires demonstration of comparability of lines derived from different individuals and in different facilities. This requires agreement on the critical quality attributes of such lines and the assays that should be used. Working from established recommendations and guidance from the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative for human embryonic stem cell banking, and concentrating on those issues more relevant to iPSCs, a series of consensus workshops has made initial recommendations on the minimum dataset required to consider an iPSC line of clinical grade, which are outlined in this report. Continued evolution of this field will likely lead to revision of these guidelines on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/normas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Controle de Qualidade , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/microbiologia
19.
Stem Cell Reports ; 10(1): 1-6, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320760

RESUMO

Unambiguous cell line authentication is essential to avoid loss of association between data and cells. The risk for loss of references increases with the rapidity that new human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines are generated, exchanged, and implemented. Ideally, a single name should be used as a generally applied reference for each cell line to access and unify cell-related information across publications, cell banks, cell registries, and databases and to ensure scientific reproducibility. We discuss the needs and requirements for such a unique identifier and implement a standard nomenclature for hPSCs, which can be automatically generated and registered by the human pluripotent stem cell registry (hPSCreg). To avoid ambiguities in PSC-line referencing, we strongly urge publishers to demand registration and use of the standard name when publishing research based on hPSC lines.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes , Sistema de Registros , Terminologia como Assunto , Humanos
20.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 66(1): 53-62, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216651

RESUMO

For more than 20 years, tremendous efforts have been made to develop cell-based therapies for treatment of heart failure. However, the results of clinical trials using somatic, nonpluripotent stem or progenitor cells have been largely disappointing in both cardiology and cardiac surgery scenarios. Surgical groups were among the pioneers of experimental and clinical myocyte transplantation ("cellular cardiomyoplasty"), but little translational progress was made prior to the development of cellular reprogramming for creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Ever since, protocols have been developed which allow for the derivation of large numbers of autologous cardiomyocytes (CMs) from patient-specific iPSC, moving translational research closer toward clinical pilot trials. However, compared with somatic cell therapy, the technology required for safe and efficacious pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based therapies is extremely complex and requires tremendous resources and close interactions between basic scientists and clinicians. This review summarizes PSC sources, strategies to derive CMs, current cardiac tissue engineering approaches, concerns regarding immunogenicity and cellular maturity, and highlights the contributions made by surgical groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/transplante , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/transplante , Regeneração , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Linhagem da Célula , Reprogramação Celular , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
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