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1.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(1): 27-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295080

RESUMO

Cold-stress syndrome (CSS) is one of the leading natural threats to free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Cold water exposure below the species' acceptable physiologic range is a frequent occurrence for manatees during cold weather months causing CSS-induced systemic illness and significant annual mortality. Although CSS is a commonly presented condition at manatee rehabilitation facilities, the core body temperatures in CSS manatees are currently unknown due to the lack of clinically applicable and accurate temperature measurement methodologies. Our objective was to establish a clinically applicable measurement methodology of core body temperature in manatees. A novel, minimally invasive temperature technique to obtain esophageal temperature by placing a temperature sensor through an oro-gastric tube was compared to current oral and nasal methods in 20 clinically healthy manatees. Results identified the esophageal measurement as the best performing and most precise temperature methodology. The superior performance of esophageal temperature measurements differed significantly from both nasal and oral measurements, while nasal and oral measurements did not differ when compared with each other. The esophageal measurements were consistent with manatee core body temperature, facilitating generation of a reference interval for core body temperature in healthy manatees (35.0-35.8 C). Four CSS medical cases were evaluated with the newly validated esophageal temperature method, facilitating diagnosis of hypothermia. The application of this temperature measurement technique to CSS manatees in field or rehabilitation settings will help in understanding CSS pathophysiology, improve medical assessments during rehabilitation, and contribute to conservation efforts.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781584

RESUMO

Leukogram evaluation provides valuable information about inflammation, infection, and stress in free-living and zoo-maintained wildlife. While multiple protocols for quantifying leukocytes are available in reptiles, agreement between methods is infrequently described and analytical variability (including repeatability and reproducibility) has not been critically evaluated. This study addresses these knowledge gaps for two hematological methods in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina): Avian Leukopet™ (LO) and total white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films (EST). The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate agreement in total WBC and individual leukocyte counts between the LO and EST methods, (2) to document repeatability (intra-assay variability) and reproducibility (inter-assay variability) for the LO method, and (3) to investigate whether biological drivers of WBC counts differ between quantification methods. Box turtles (n = 120) were sampled from five study sites in Illinois during the 2018 active season. The LO method produced significantly higher WBC counts than the EST method, and constant and proportional error was variable for each leukocyte type. The LO method demonstrated an intra-assay variability of 8.2% and an inter-assay variability of 12%, independent of biological variation. WBC counts were significantly affected by age class using both LO and EST methods, but WBC differences between locations and sexes were only observed using the LO method. These findings emphasize the importance of considering leukocyte determination method when analyzing reptilian hematology results. The inherent variability in currently available methods creates uncertainty in resulting data and highlights the need of a gold standard for reptilian WBC quantification.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222426, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504062

RESUMO

Plasma chemistry is widely used in diagnostic and research settings in sea turtles. However, plasma discolorations such as hemolysis are often not considered in data interpretation. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of moderate hemolysis on plasma electrolytes, minerals, and proteins using dry chemistry analysis (DCA) and protein electrophoresis from nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) from Florida and to (2) establish blood analyte reference intervals. Twenty-six plasma samples with absence of hemolysis were selected and sub-divided into one non-hemolytic aliquot and an aliquot that was experimentally manipulated to mimic moderate hemolysis. Plasma samples were analyzed for hemoglobin using a handheld photometer; sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, and total protein using DCA; and protein electrophoresis. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin were measured in corresponding whole blood samples. Reference intervals were established. All analytes except calcium and pre-albumin were significantly higher and the calcium:phosphorus and albumin:globulin ratios were significantly lower in hemolytic plasma compared to non-hemolytic plasma. Alpha2-globulins and potassium were the analytes most impacted by hemolysis, averaging 3.3- and 2.0-fold higher in hemolyzed samples, respectively, indicating that (1) hemoglobin migrates into the alpha2-globulin region in this species and (2) notable intracellular potassium is released into plasma with hemolysis. Attempted conversion factors for compensation of hemolysis were considered inaccurate for 4 of 16 analytes due to non-significant regression lines. We also report that PCV provides an estimate of hemoglobin (g/L) using the formula: (2.59 × PCV) + 24.59. Given the spurious effects of hemolysis, the degree of this artifact should be reported with biochemistry data, and samples with moderate to severe hemolysis should be excluded from datasets when interpreting electrolyte, mineral, and protein results. This will ensure accurate data interpretation for individual turtles in rehabilitation or research settings and population-level data relevant to conservation-focused projects.

4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 315-321, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260195

RESUMO

Whole blood transfusions are an essential treatment modality during rehabilitation of stranded sea turtles, however, standardized protocols for transfusions are not available in reptile medicine. The objective of this study was to optimize a cross-matching protocol for sea turtle blood transfusions. Fresh venous blood samples from 15 turtles (n = 14 green turtles, Chelonia mydas [Cm]; n = 1 loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta [Cc]) were tested using a temperature-appropriate (i.e., reflecting body temperature), time-sensitive protocol in 26 reactions using two procedures for cross-match evaluation at 30 and 60 min at ambient air and water bath temperature. There were no significant differences between both protocols at 30- and 60-min incubation times or between microscopic evaluations at 2 or 5 min. The major cross-match identified 7/22 incompatible Cm-Cm reactions as observed by microscopic erythrocyte agglutination. Minor cross-matches resulted in 6/22 incompatible Cm-Cm reactions. About half of all Cm-Cm reactions (12/22) were compatible by major and minor cross-match. All Cc-Cm reactions (4/4) were incompatible. A higher than expected proportion of incompatible Cm cross-matching reactions suggests preexisting antibodies to nonself erythrocyte antigens in this species, or other factors promoting erythrocyte aggregation or agglutination. Preliminary data across Cm and Cc suggests cross-species incompatibility. These results indicate that sea turtles may react to donor erythrocytes even at the first transfusion. Concurrent major and minor cross-matching using the proposed protocol at 30-min incubation at room temperature should be considered a necessary and effective way to test for patient and donor incompatibilities in sea turtles.


Assuntos
Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 362-368, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260201

RESUMO

Colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is an important component of the forces that manage capillary filtration and is determined by circulating plasma proteins. Patients affected by conditions resulting in hypoproteinemia often suffer severe hemodynamic derangements, including decreased COP. Because chronically debilitated sea turtles (CDT) present with severe hypoproteinemia, the objectives of this study were to 1) determine differences in plasma COP and blood analyte data (packed cell volume [PCV], sodium, chloride, plasma protein fractions) in CDT at admission compared with data from apparently healthy rehabilitated turtles at time of release (HRT) admitted from various stranding causes, and 2) to investigate correlations of COP with these selected blood analytes. COP, PCV, and most plasma protein fractions (excluding pre-albumin and γ-globulins) were significantly lower in CDT upon admission as compared with HRT. Sodium and chloride did not significantly differ between CDT and HRT. A significant increase was observed with PCV and all plasma protein fractions as COP increased. Of all protein fractions tested, albumin contributed the most toward COP (r2 = 0.88, P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that COP is significantly lower in CDT as compared with HRT, providing insight into the complexity of this critical clinical condition and a small step in advancing the understanding of associated hemodynamic imbalances. Although COP analysis is not readily available as a diagnostic test, this preliminary baseline data suggests that additional research studies are warranted, given the potential for optimization of fluid therapy during rehabilitation of CDT.


Assuntos
Coloides , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Plasma/química , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Doença Crônica , Hidratação , Nível de Saúde , Valores de Referência
6.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(3): 239-243, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170775

RESUMO

Coelomic fluid sampling is a noninvasive technique that is used to access the body fluid of sea stars for diagnostics and research. Given recent mortality events including sea star wasting disease, which has killed millions of sea stars along the Pacific coast since 2013, there is a need for validated diagnostic tests to evaluate sea star health. The objectives of this study were to establish coelomic fluid reference intervals for clinically normal ochre sea stars Pisaster ochraceus in an open system aquarium, to describe the cytologic findings, and to compare the chemistries of coelomic fluid with open system tank water. Coelomic fluid from 26 clinically normal sea stars was sampled for coelomocyte counts, cytologic evaluation, and biochemical analysis including magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and total protein. The number of coelomocytes and total protein did not fit normal distribution and were excluded from analyses. Reference intervals were established for other chemistry analytes. There was no statistical difference in biochemistries between sea star coelomic fluid and water from five open system tanks, which supports previous evidence that sea stars are osmoconformers. Very low numbers of coelomocytes were observed cytologically. These results provide a useful baseline and diagnostic tool for health assessments of sea stars.

7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 572-575, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184294

RESUMO

We evaluated the oncotic pressure (plasma colloid osmotic pressure, πc) in a group of healthy, captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus; n = 21) with a colloid osmometer with a membrane cutoff of >20,000 daltons. The median πc for these elephants was 26.3 mm Hg with an interquartile interval of 25.5-26.8 mm Hg. The mean πc value was 26.0 mm Hg ± SD 1.1. We found moderate correlation between albumin measured by electrophoresis and πc (r = 0.622; p = 0.003). After a 16-h water deprivation test in a subset of elephants (n = 16), a difference in πc was not detected, despite a significant increase in serum total proteins, urea, and osmolality. These results indicate that πc is not a sensitive indicator of hydration status in elephants after a short period of water deprivation. Use of oncotic pressure as a diagnostic tool in diseased Asian elephants warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Eletroforese/veterinária , Elefantes/sangue , Pressão Osmótica , Privação de Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
8.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(2): 173-185, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077445

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to describe a minimally invasive coelomic fluid sampling technique in elasmobranchs, to characterize the coelomic fluid composition in clinically normal and abnormal animals, and to compare findings from wild and managed populations. Fluid was collected via the coelomic pore in 89 individuals from 16 species spanning clinically normal and abnormal patients within a managed population (n = 54), a semi-managed open-lagoon population (n = 18), and a wild population (n = 17). Biochemical and cytological fluid analyses were performed on all samples, and bacterial and fungal culture, protein electrophoresis, and cholesterol electrophoresis were performed on a subset of samples. The presence of a variable volume of colorless to white and clear to slightly turbid coelomic fluid was consistent with a normal finding; however, the cytological and chemical makeup of coelomic fluid was found to provide additional clinically relevant information. The coelomic fluid from some of the abnormal samples (n = 37) contained white blood cells (n = 15) and concurrent bacteria (n = 7), the latter suggestive of bacterial coelomitis. Yolk was identified in both clinically normal and abnormal females. Of the biochemical parameters tested, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, osmolality, phosphorus, salinity, sodium, specific gravity, total protein, and urea nitrogen have clinical utility. Abnormal samples were mostly associated with reproductive disease, but to a lesser extent with coelomitis and hemocoelom. The wild and semi-managed groups had biochemical differences presumably reflective of the higher salinity of ocean water compared with that in the managed habitat. Aerobic bacteria were identified in normal (n = 7) and abnormal (n = 11) animals. Positive bacterial culture without inflammation may be normal. This study contributes to a further understanding of elasmobranch coelomic fluid analysis and its use as a diagnostic modality for the evaluation of elasmobranch health.

9.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 31(2): 186-192, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100193

RESUMO

Fibropapillomatosis of sea turtles is traditionally treated with surgical debulking techniques that are often associated with prolonged healing and tumor recurrence. Electrochemotherapy was recently described for green turtles Chelonia mydas and can be an alternative to surgery and even general anesthesia. The objectives of this study were to replicate an electrochemotherapy protocol from a previous report and add plasma bleomycin analysis to the treatment. After bleomycin injection into similarly sized tumors of two green turtles and immediate electroporation at two time points, plasma bleomycin reached detectable concentrations that were considerably lower than those found in human studies. At 3 months posttherapy, no healing complications or recurrences were encountered and only scar tissue remained. This study adds further support that electrochemotherapy with bleomycin has the potential to be used as an effective alternative treatment for this complex disease.

10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 62-68, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120663

RESUMO

Cold-stunning in sea turtles is a frequent natural cause of mortality and is defined as a hypothermic state due to exposure to water temperatures <12°C. Derangements of biochemistry and hematology data by cold stunning have been well documented, although the effects on coagulation have not yet been investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterize the hemostatic state of non-cold-stunned sea turtles and to compare cold-stunned sea turtles at admission and after successful rehabilitation via a sea turtle-specific thromboelastography (TEG) protocol. TEG enables evaluation of the entire coagulation process, and the methodology has recently been established in sea turtles. Initially, 30 wild and apparently healthy sea turtles were sampled as controls: loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), n =17; Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii), n = 8; and green turtles (Chelonia mydas), n = 5. In addition, paired TEG samples were performed on 32 Ch. mydas and 14 L. kempii at admission and prerelease after successful rehabilitation from cold stunning. Statistically significant differences in reaction time, kinetics, angle, and maximum amplitude parameters in L. kempii and Ch. mydas species demonstrated that the time taken for blood clot formation was prolonged and the strength of the clot formed was reduced by cold stunning. These findings indicate that cold stunning may cause disorders in hemostasis that can contribute to the severity of the condition. Early diagnosis of coagulopathies in the clinical assessment of a cold-stunned sea turtle may influence the treatment approach and clinical outcome of the case.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Hemostasia , Tromboelastografia/veterinária , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Plasma/química , Valores de Referência , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(1): 69-81, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120664

RESUMO

Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) are unique because hatchlings and pelagic juveniles are carnivorous, whereas later life stages become primarily herbivorous. Although this dietary shift is well understood, nutritional requirements at each developmental stage are not. Diet selection during rehabilitation is challenging, because turtles are often fed high-protein, low-fiber diets to counteract poor appetite and emaciation, which can result in gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to analyze hematology, plasma biochemistry, and nutritional analytes to determine the effect of diet on rehabilitating green turtle health and recovery. Turtles in rehabilitation at the Georgia Sea Turtle Center (GSTC) on Jekyll Island, Georgia (n = 21) were sampled at admission, mid-rehabilitation, and recovery. Duration of rehabilitation ranged from 48 to 233 days (mean = 117) and included a shift from a mixed seafood-vegetable diet at admission to a primarily herbivorous diet at recovery. For comparison, free-ranging turtles captured during an ongoing monitoring project in St. Lucie County, Florida (n = 34) were evaluated for the same variables. Several analytes improved during rehabilitation, including total protein, uric acid, potassium, and vitamins A and E. Others were significantly different, including higher cholesterol and triglycerides, but lower calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium in recovery compared with freeranging turtles. These variations illustrate the benefits of appropriate supportive care during rehabilitation as well as the importance of a species-specific diet for green turtles, and may facilitate formulation of nutritionally complete gel diets for this species under human care.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Nutrientes/análise , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Georgia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Tartarugas/sangue
12.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106217

RESUMO

The nematode lungworm, Otostrongylus circumlitis (OC), is a significant cause of northern elephant seal (NES; Mirounga angustirostris) mortality at The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, Sausalito, CA). The current lack of specific antemortem diagnostic tests for pre-patent OC infection in NES makes diagnosis, proper treatment, and assessment of efficacy of medications challenging. Severe inflammation and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) develop rapidly and are difficult to treat once clinical signs develop. Certain blood inflammatory and hemostasis biomarkers for early diagnosis have recently been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of complete blood count, serum chemistry, acute phase proteins, protein electrophoresis, and coagulation parameters for diagnosis of OC clinical infection in NES. Samples from NES with OC infection confirmed by gross pathology with blood collected antemortem during clinical disease (n = 9) and NES initially admitted for malnutrition and sampled shortly before release after successful rehabilitation (n = 20) were included in the study. Using Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the diagnostic performances (area under the curve [AUC]) of albumin (0.994), albumin:globulin ratio (0.983), serum amyloid A (0.972), activated partial thromboplastin time (0.936), total bilirubin (0.975), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (0.939) were high (AUC > 0.9). These results confirm systemic inflammation and DIC, and support previously reported clinical and gross pathological findings in NES infected with OC. In addition to AUC values, this study produced cut-off points, sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals, and predictive values for analytes with high diagnostic performance. This data will be useful in the diagnosis and clinical management of OC-infected NES and will aid in assessment of treatment efficacy.

13.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(1): 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976886

RESUMO

Environmental contaminants, such as the trace element selenium (Se), are a continuing concern to species worldwide due to their potential pathophysiological effects, including their influence on the stress response mediated through glucocorticoids (GCs; stress hormones). Environmental concentrations of Se are increasing due to anthropogenic activities, including the incomplete combustion of coal and subsequent disposal of coal combustion wastes. However, most studies examining how Se affects GCs have been focused on lower trophic organisms. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term Se exposure on traditionally used stress parameters and to identify which of these parameters best indicate Se accumulation in liver and kidney of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), a top trophic carnivore found in the southeastern United States and known to inhabit Se-containing areas. Alligators were divided into three dietary treatments and fed prey spiked with 1000 or 2000 ppm of selenomethionine (SeMet) or deionized water (control treatment) for 7 weeks. Following the 7-week treatment protocol, blood and tissue samples were obtained to measure plasma corticosterone (CORT; the main crocodilian GC), tail scute CORT, the ratio of peripheral blood heterophils (H) to lymphocytes (L) as H/L ratio, and body condition. To evaluate which parameter best indicated Se accumulation in the liver and kidney, principal component and discriminant analyses were performed. The only parameter significantly correlated with liver and kidney Se concentrations was scute CORT. Our results suggest that measurement of CORT in tail scutes compared with plasma CORT, H/L ratios, and body condition is the best indicator of Se-exposure and accumulation in crocodilians.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Selênio/toxicidade , Animais , Corticosterona/análise , Corticosterona/sangue , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacocinética , Selenometionina/toxicidade
14.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 132(2): 85-97, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628575

RESUMO

Cold-stress syndrome (CSS) is a leading natural cause of mortality in free-ranging Florida manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris, but comprehensive investigations into blood analyte derangements and prognostic indicators in CSS are lacking. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare admission blood analyte data of manatees pre and post rehabilitation for CSS to identify clinicopathological derangements, (2) identify blood analyte prognostic indicators for survival, and (3) correlate post-mortem anatomic pathological changes with clinicopathological findings to improve the understanding of CS pathophysiology. CSS manatees admitted to a rehabilitation facility between 2007 and 2017 were included: 59 manatees with data for clinicopathological analysis (7 non-survivors and 49 survivors) and 14 manatees with necropsy data (7 with and 7 without blood analyte data). Main interpretive clinicopathological findings indicated systemic inflammation, bone marrow damage, diuresis, malnutrition, tissue necrosis, fat mobilization, hepatic impairment, acid-base imbalances, and gastrointestinal ulceration. The best diagnostically performing prognostic indicators for survival included platelet concentration, aspartate aminotransferase, calcium, and blood urea nitrogen. The main anatomic pathological findings were cutaneous lesions (n = 14), lipid depletion (n = 12), upper gastrointestinal ulceration and/or hemorrhage (n = 9), and pneumonia (n = 5). Based on the identified blood prognostic indicators interpreted in the context of anatomic pathological findings, multi-organ tissue injury, gastrointestinal ulceration and/or hemorrhage, and hemodynamic and platelet derangements are the presumptive major factors of CSS manatee mortality. These results contribute to the understanding of the complex CSS pathophysiology and offer the use of blood analyte prognostic indicators as a clinically applicable tool for the medical care of manatees during rehabilitation, thereby contributing to increased rehabilitation success and conservation of the Florida manatee.


Assuntos
Trichechus manatus , Animais , Prognóstico
15.
Arch Virol ; 164(1): 51-61, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238163

RESUMO

Infections caused by mule deerpox virus (MDPV) have been sporadically reported in North American cervids. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns from a farm located in South Central Florida presented with ulcerative and crusting lesions on the coronary band as well as the mucocutaneous tissues of the head. Evaluation of the crusted skin lesions was undertaken using microscopic pathology and molecular techniques. A crusted skin sample was processed for virus isolation in four mammalian cell lines. The resulting isolate was characterized by negative staining electron microscopy and deep sequencing. Histopathologic evaluation of the skin lesions from the fawns revealed a hyperplastic and proliferative epidermis with ballooning degeneration of epidermal and follicular keratinocytes with intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Electron microscopy of cell culture supernatant demonstrated numerous large brick-shaped particles typical of most poxviruses. Polymerase chain reaction assays followed by Sanger sequencing revealed a poxvirus gene sequence nearly identical to that of previous strains of MDPV. The full genome was recovered by deep sequencing and genetic analyses supported the Florida white-tailed deer isolate (MDPV-F) as a strain of MDPV. Herein, we report the first genome sequence of MDPV from a farmed white-tailed deer fawn in the South Central Florida, expanding the number of locations and geographic range in which MDPV has been identified.


Assuntos
Cervos/virologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Poxviridae/genética , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Infecções por Poxviridae/patologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia
16.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(1): 258-261, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235083

RESUMO

An adult male pygmy sperm whale ( Kogia breviceps) stranded alive at a beach in Florida, US, in 2016. Main postmortem examination findings included bilateral multifocal variably sized renal cysts, focal renal cystadenoma, and mild dilation of the renal pelvises. The role of these renal lesions in the stranding of this whale is unknown.

18.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 30(4): 325-331, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336511

RESUMO

Coelomic fluid aspiration has been utilized in echinoderms in research and clinical settings. Detailed procedural descriptions for coelomic fluid sampling in sea urchins (class Echinoidea) are lacking, and samples are prone to contamination. The objectives of this study were to (1) standardize a technique for coelomic fluid collection in long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum that optimizes the diagnostic quality of the sample utilizing diagnostic imaging, (2) identify coelomic fluid bacterial isolates (using Biolog GEN III MicroLog and 16s rDNA sequencing), and (3) compare positive cultures to animal weight, holding time prior to sampling, water temperature, and gross fluid appearance. Seventy Diadema antillarum from the Florida Keys collected in two groups (March and September 2015) were utilized. Positive cultures for bacterial contamination were identified in 5% and 44%, respectively, of animals in the sampling groups. Vibrio spp. was the predominant genus identified. Positive cultures were more frequent in the group with smaller-sized animals, increased holding times, and elevated water temperatures. Deviation from clear-pink gross coelomic fluid appearance did not reliably predict bacterial contamination. A standardized technique for coelomocentesis was defined. The use of the proposed coelomocentesis methodology may facilitate improved health evaluations of sea urchins and may be applicable to research, conservation efforts, and disease investigations.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Peso Corporal , Florida , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Temperatura Ambiente , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Vibrio/isolamento & purificação
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 49(3): 520-527, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212317

RESUMO

Currently available tests for the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in reptiles are limited and poorly sensitive. However, a number of hematological and plasma biochemical analytes are validated in the diagnosis of inflammation in mammals. The objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lactate, heat-precipitated fibrinogen, hematology, and plasma protein electrophoresis based on total protein by biuret method in 23 clinically healthy, captive gopher tortoises ( Gopherus polyphemus) after successful rehabilitation and to determine differences by age, sex, and season. In order to investigate biological differences, samples were collected in April, July, and November. There were no sex differences in any measured analyte; however, there were significant differences by age and season. Immature animals (<2 kg) had significantly higher total protein, albumin : globulin ratio, pre-albumin, albumin, and α-1 globulin than adults. Tortoises sampled in the spring season had significantly higher total solids (refractometer) and lower eosinophils compared with animals sampled in the summer. Further investigation is required to determine the clinical utility of these analytes in the diagnosis of inflammation in this species.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/química , Eletroforese/veterinária , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hematologia , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Feminino , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Valores de Referência
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 49(3): 765-769, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212346

RESUMO

The lack of sensitive and specific markers of inflammation poses a diagnostic challenge in sick or injured reptile patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of blood analytes associated with inflammation in healthy ( n = 24) and sick ( n = 38) gopher tortoises ( Gopherus polyphemus). Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the following as the best-performing diagnostic tests: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.812; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.693, 0.900), absolute mature heterophils (AUC = 0.771; 95% CI = 0.646, 0.869), total leukocytes (AUC = 0.767; 95% CI = 0.642, 0.866), lactate (AUC = 0.766; 95% CI = 0.641, 0.864), and absolute immature heterophils (AUC = 0.755; 95% CI = 0.628, 0.856). These results support the clinical application of additional tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory disease in gopher tortoises. Clinicians may consider adding erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate to the minimum database for this species.


Assuntos
Inflamação/veterinária , Tartarugas/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico
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