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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619332

RESUMO

Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) syndrome is associated with CDH1 germline likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants. Carriers of CDH1 germline likely pathogenic/pathogenic variants are predisposed to diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. This study aims to classify the CDH1 c.[715G>A] missense variant identified in a diffuse gastric cancer prone family by performing splicing studies. RT-PCR and subsequent cloning experiments were performed to investigate whether this variant completely disrupts normal splicing. This variant preferentially abolishes normal splicing through activation of a cryptic 3' acceptor splice site within exon 6 of CDH1, presumably leading to a premature protein truncation within first extracellular domain repeat of E-cadherin protein. Our results contributed to evidence necessary to resolve pathogenicity classification of this variant, indicating that this variant is to be classified as pathogenic.

2.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(2): 130-133, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545685

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome is a heritable cancer syndrome caused by a heterozygous germline mutation in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR-deficient (dMMR) tumors are particularly sensitive to immune checkpoint inhibitors, an effect attributed to the higher mutation rate in these cancers. However, approximately 15% to 30% of patients with dMMR cancers do not respond to immunotherapy. This report describes 3 patients with Lynch syndrome who each had 2 primary malignancies: 1 with dMMR and a high tumor mutational burden (TMB), and 1 with dMMR but, unexpectedly, a low TMB. Two of these patients received immunotherapy for their TMB-low tumors but experienced no response. We have found that not all Lynch-associated dMMR tumors have a high TMB and propose that tumors with dMMR and TMB discordance may be resistant to immunotherapy. The possibility of dMMR/TMB discordance should be considered, particularly in less-typical Lynch cancers, in which TMB evaluation could guide the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mutations in RAD51D are associated with a predisposition to primary ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma. Our study aims to characterize a RAD51D missense variant in a hereditary ovarian cancer family. METHODS: The effects of the RAD51D c.82G>A (p.Val28Met) variant on mRNA splicing were evaluated and characterized using RT-PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: This variant completely disrupts normal splicing and results in the loss of 3'end of 5'UTR and the entire exon 1 (c.-86_c.82), which presumably leads to loss of the RAD51D protein. The RAD51D c.82G>A (p.Val28Met) variant is clinically significant and classified as likely pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the RAD51D c.82G>A (p.Val28Met) variant contributes to cancer predisposition through disruption of normal mRNA splicing. The identification of this variant in an individual affected with high-grade serous fallopian tube cancer suggests that the RAD51D variant may contribute to predisposition to the ovarian cancer in this family.

4.
Cancer Cell ; 39(1): 22-24, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434511

RESUMO

The NCI-MATCH is a national master protocol trial, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, in which diverse tumors are sequenced and patients assigned to treatment. The trial demonstrates the feasibility of identifying rare and common actionable genetic alterations and underscores the strength of academic/community partnerships for improving trial access.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) alone is not active in mismatch repair-proficient (MMR-P) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), nor does radiotherapy alone result in objective systemic benefit. However, combined radiotherapy plus ICI can induce systemic antitumor immunity in preclinical and clinical models. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this single-center, phase II study, patients with chemotherapy-refractory MMR-P mCRC received durvalumab 1,500 mg plus tremelimumab 75 mg every 4 weeks plus radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in nonirradiated lesions. Treatment and efficacy were correlated with peripheral immune cell profiles. RESULTS: We enrolled 24 patients, and report outcomes after a median follow-up of 21.8 (range: 15.9-26.3) months. The ORR was 8.3% (2 patients) [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-27.0]. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.7-1.9) months, median overall survival was 11.4 (95% CI, 10.1-17.4) months. Twenty five percent of patients (n = 6) had treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events. We observed increased circulating CD8+ T lymphocyte activation, differentiation, and proliferation in patients with objective response. CONCLUSION: This combination of radiotherapy plus ICI study did not meet the prespecified endpoint criteria to be considered worthwhile for further study. However, rare instances of systemic immune augmentation and regression in nonirradiated lesions were observed (an abscopal response). Combination durvalumab and tremelimumab plus radiotherapy is feasible in MMR-P mCRC with a manageable safety profile. Further studies of novel immunotherapy combinations, and identification of biomarkers predictive of abscopal response are warranted.

6.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to describe the perspective of patients with early breast cancer toward research biopsies. The authors hypothesized that more patients at academic sites than at community-based sites would be willing to consider these procedures. METHODS: In total, 198 patients with early stage breast cancer were recruited from 3 academic centers (n = 102) and from 1 community oncology practice (n = 96). The primary objective was to compare the proportion of patients willing to consider donating excess tissue biospecimens from surgery, from a clinically indicated breast biopsy, or from a research purposes-only biopsy (RPOB) between practice types. RESULTS: Most patients (93% at academic sites, 94% at the community oncology site) said they would consider donating excess tissue from surgery for research. One-half of patients from academic or community sites would consider donating tissue from a clinically indicated breast biopsy. On univariate analysis, significantly fewer patients from academic sites would consider an RPOB (22% at academic sites, 42% at the community site; P = .003); however, this difference was no longer significant on multivariate analysis (P = .96). Longer transportation times and unfavorable prior experiences were associated with less willingness to consider an RPOB on multivariate analysis. Significantly fewer patients from academic sites (14%) than from the community site (35%) would consider a research biopsy in a clinical trial (P = .04). Contributing to scientific knowledge, return of results, and a personal request by their physician were the strongest factors influencing patients' willingness to undergo research biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The current results rejected the hypothesis that more patients with early breast cancer at academic sites would be willing to donate tissue biospecimens for research compared with those at community oncology sites. These findings identify modifiable factors to consider in biobanking studies and clinical trials.

7.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328602

RESUMO

Sporadic synchronous endometrial (ECs) and ovarian cancers (OCs), although clinically considered to be independent primaries, have been shown to be clonally related and likely constitute metastases from each other. We sought to define whether synchronous ECs/OCs in patients with DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficiency syndromes would be clonally related. We subjected synchronous ECs/OCs from four patients (LS3-LS6) with clinically confirmed Lynch syndrome (LS) and one patient with constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) to massively parallel sequencing targeting 468 cancer-related genes. Somatic mutations, copy number alterations (CNAs), clonal relatedness and clonal decomposition analyses were performed using previously described bioinformatics methods. All synchronous ECs/OCs analyzed were considered independent primaries based on clinicopathologic criteria. Sequencing analysis revealed that the ECs/OCs of three cases (LS2-CMMRD, L3, L4) harbored similar repertoires of somatic mutations and CNAs and were clonally related. In these three cases, a subset of subclonal mutations in the EC became clonal in the OC, suggesting that the EC was likely the substrate from which the OC developed. LS5's EC/OC had distinct mutational profiles but shared specific CNAs. In contrast, LS6's EC/OC harbored distinct somatic mutations and lacked CNAs, consistent with each tumor constituting an independent primary lesion. In LS5 and LS6, PTEN mutations and PTEN loss of protein expression were found to be restricted to the EC. Finally, re-analysis of sequencing data of sporadic synchronous ECs/OCs supported the observations made in the current study that the directionality of progression is likely from the endometrium to the ovary. In conclusion, contrary to sporadic synchronous ECs/OCs, which are almost invariably clonally related, ECs/OCs simultaneously involving the uterus and ovary in LS patients may represent distinct primary tumors. A subset of MMR-deficiency syndrome-related synchronous ECs/OCs, however, may originate from a single primary tumor at variance with their clinical diagnosis, with the endometrium being the likeliest site of origin.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and clinical characteristics of small bowel adenocarcinomas (SBAs) in the setting of LS have not been well-studied. We characterized SBA according to DNA mismatch repair and/or microsatellite instability (MMR/MSI) and germline mutation status and compared clinical outcomes. METHODS: A single-institution review identified 100 SBAs. Tumors were evaluated for MSI via MSIsensor and/or corresponding MMR protein expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Germline DNA was analyzed for mutations in known cancer-predisposition genes, including MMR (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM). Clinical variables were correlated with MMR/MSI status. RESULTS: 26% (26/100; 95% CI: 18.4-35.4) of SBAs exhibited MMR deficiency (MMR-D). LS prevalence was 10% overall and 38.5% among MMR-D SBAs. Median age at SBA diagnosis was similar in non-LS MMR-D vs MMR-proficient (MMR-P) SBAs (65 vs 61, p= 0.75), but significantly younger in LS (47.5 vs 61; p=0.03). The prevalence of synchronous/metachronous cancers was 9% (6/67) in MMR-P vs 34.6% (9/26) in MMR-D SBA, with 66.7% (6/9) of these in LS (p=0.0002). In the MMR-P group, 52.2% (35/67) of patients presented with metastatic disease, compared to 23.1% (6/26) in the MMR-D group (p=0.008). In MMR-P stage I/II patients, 88.2% (15/17) recurred, compared to 18.2% (2/11) in the MMR-D group (p=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: When compared to MMR-P SBA, MMR-D SBA is associated with earlier-stage disease and lower recurrence rates, similar to observations in colorectal cancer. With a 38.5% prevalence in MMR-D SBA, germline LS testing in MMR-D SBA is warranted.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097490

RESUMO

Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is a clinically diagnosed hamartomatous polyposis syndrome that increases the risk of gastrointestinal cancer. Approximately 40-50% of JPS is caused by a germline disease-causing variant (DCV) in the SMAD4 or BMPR1A genes. The aim of this study is to characterize the phenotype of DCV-negative JPS and compare it to DCV-positive JPS. Herein we analyze a cohort of 145 individuals with JPS from nine institutions, including both pediatric and adult centers. Data analyzed included age at diagnosis, family history, cancer history, need for colectomy/gastrectomy, and polyp number and location. Compared to DCV-positive JPS, DCV-negative JPS was associated with younger age at diagnosis (p<0.001), lower likelihood of having a family history of JPS (p<0.001), and a lower risk of colectomy (p=0.032). None of the DCV-negative individuals had gastric or duodenal polyps, and polyp burden decreased after the first decade compared to DCV-positive JPS. Subgroup analysis between SMAD4 and BMPR1A carriers showed that SMAD4 carriers were more likely to have a family history of JPS and require gastrectomy. Taken together, these data provide the largest phenotypic characterization of individuals with DCV-negative JPS to date, showing that this group has distinct differences compared to JPS due to a SMAD4 or BMPR1A variant. Better understanding of phenotype and cancer risk associated with JPS both with and without a DCV may ultimately allow for individualized management of polyposis and cancer risk.

11.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033905

RESUMO

The widespread use of tumor DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein immunohistochemistry in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) carcinomas has unveiled cases where the MMR protein status differs between synchronous/metachronous tumors from the same patients. This study aims at examining the frequency, patterns and molecular etiologies of such inter-tumoral MMR discordances. We analyzed a cohort of 2159 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients collected over a 5-year period and found that 1.3% of the patients (27/2159) had ≥ 2 primary CRCs, and 25.9% of the patients with ≥ 2 primary CRCs (7/27) exhibited inter-tumoral MMR discordance. We then combined the seven MMR-discordant CRC patients with three additional MMR-discordant GIT carcinoma patients and evaluated their discordant patterns and associated molecular abnormalities. The 10 patients consisted of 3 patients with Lynch syndrome (LS), 1 with polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PAPP), 1 with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and 5 deemed to have no cancer disposing hereditary syndromes. Their MMR discordances were associated with the following etiologies: (1) PMS2-LS manifesting PMS2-deficient cancer at an old age when a co-incidental sporadic MMR-proficient cancer also occurred; (2) microsatellite instability-driven secondary somatic MSH6-inactivation occurring in only one-and not all-PMS2-LS associated MMR-deficient carcinomas; (3) "compound LS" with germline mutations in two MMR genes manifesting different tumors with deficiencies in different MMR proteins; (4) PAPP or FAP syndrome-associated MMR-proficient cancer co-occurring metachronously with a somatic MMR-deficient cancer; and (5) non-syndromic patients with sporadic MMR-proficient cancers co-occurring synchronously/metachronously with sporadic MMR-deficient cancers. Our study thus suggests that inter-tumoral MMR discordance is not uncommon among patients with multiple primary GIT carcinomas (25.9% in patients with ≥ 2 CRCs), and may be associated with widely varied molecular etiologies. Awareness of these patterns is essential in ensuring the most effective strategies in both LS detection and treatment decision-making. When selecting patients for immunotherapy, MMR testing should be performed on the tumor or tumors that are being treated.

12.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1523, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lynch Syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes with mutations in MLH1 accounting for ~40% of LS-related alterations. METHODS: MSK-IMPACT analysis was performed on peripheral blood from a patient with early- onset colorectal cancer. Subsequently PCR and sequencing was performed to characterize the insertion. Immunohistochemistry for MMR genes and MLH1 promoter methylation were analyzed on patient's tumor. RESULTS: MSK-IMPACT germline testing revealed an insertion into c.588+8_588+9 of MLH1 intron 7. The insertion was further characterized as an AluSx-like element with ~115 bp in length. Functional studies demonstrated that the AluSx-like element led to complete disruption of mRNA splicing and probably resulted in transcriptional termination at the poly (A) region of the AluSx-like insertion. CONCLUSIONS: The insertion of a truncated AluSx like element into MLH1 intron 7 results in aberrant splicing and transcription, thereby causing Lynch syndrome. This study confirms that retrotransposon insertions may be an important mechanism for cancer predisposition.

13.
JAMA Surg ; 155(11): 1050-1057, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997132

RESUMO

Importance: CDH1 variants are increasingly identified on commercially available multigene panel tests, calling for data to inform counseling of individuals without a family history of gastric cancer. Objectives: To assess association between CDH1 variant pathogenicity or family history of gastric or lobular breast cancer and identification of signet ring cell cancer and to describe outcomes of risk-reducing minimally invasive and open total gastrectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was performed from January 1, 2006, to January 1, 2020, in 181 patients with CDH1 germline variants from a single institution. Interventions: Genetic counseling, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and possible total gastrectomy. Main Outcomes and Measures: CDH1 variant classification, family cancer history, findings of signet ring cell carcinoma at esophagogastroduodenoscopy and surgery, postoperative events and weight changes, and follow-up. Results: Of 181 individuals with CDH1 germline variants (mean [SD] age at time of testing, 44 [15] years; 126 [70%] female), 165 harbored a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Of these patients, 101 underwent open (n = 58) or minimally invasive (n = 43) total gastrectomy. Anastomotic leaks that required drainage were infrequent (n = 3), and median long-term weight loss was 20% (interquartile range [IQR], 10%-23%). In those undergoing minimally invasive operations, more lymph nodes were retrieved (median, 28 [IQR, 20-34] vs 15 [IQR, 9-19]; P < .001) and the hospital stay was 1 day shorter (median, 6 [IQR, 5-7] vs 7 [IQR, 6-7] days; P = .04). Signet ring cell cancer was identified in the surgical specimens of 85 of 95 patients (89%) with a family history of gastric cancer and 4 of 6 patients (67%) who lacked a family history. Among the latter 6 patients, 4 had a personal or family history of lobular breast cancer, including 2 with signet ring cell cancer. Of the 16 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDH1 variants who presented with locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer, 3 (19%) had no family history of gastric cancer or personal or family history of lobular breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: Total gastrectomy may be warranted for patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDH1 variants and a family history of gastric or lobular breast cancer and may be appropriate for those without a family history. A minimally invasive approach is feasible and may be preferred for selected patients.

14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(4): 585-600.e4, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240601

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causal alterations preceding CRC have not been elucidated. To prospectively assess microbiome changes prior to colorectal neoplasia, we investigated samples from 100 Lynch syndrome patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colon biopsies, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing of feces. Colectomy and CRC history represented the largest effects on microbiome profiles. A subset of Clostridiaceae were depleted in stool corresponding with baseline adenomas, while Desulfovibrio was enriched both in stool and in mucosal biopsies. A classifier leveraging stool metatranscriptomes resulted in modest power to predict interval development of preneoplastic colonic adenoma. Predictive transcripts corresponded with a shift in flagellin contributors and oxidative metabolic microenvironment, potentially factors in local CRC pathogenesis. This suggests that the effectiveness of prospective microbiome monitoring for adenomas may be limited but supports the potential causality of these consistent, early microbial changes in colonic neoplasia.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(13): 3271-3279, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144135

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate response of mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) rectal cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: dMMR rectal tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) were retrospectively reviewed for characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Fifty patients with dMMR rectal cancer were identified by IHC and/or microsatellite instability analysis, with initial treatment response compared with a matched MMR-proficient (pMMR) rectal cancer cohort. Germline and somatic mutation analyses were evaluated. Patient-derived dMMR rectal tumoroids were assessed for chemotherapy sensitivity. RESULTS: Of 21 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil/oxaliplatin), six (29%) had progression of disease. In comparison, no progression was noted in 63 pMMR rectal tumors (P = 0.0001). Rectal cancer dMMR tumoroids reflected this resistance to chemotherapy. No genomic predictors of chemotherapy response were identified. Of 16 patients receiving chemoradiation, 13 (93%) experienced tumor downstaging; one patient had stable disease, comparable with 48 pMMR rectal cancers. Of 13 patients undergoing surgery, 12 (92%) had early-stage disease. Forty-two (84%) of the 50 patients tested positive for Lynch syndrome with enrichment of germline MSH2 and MSH6 mutations when compared with 193 patients with Lynch syndrome-associated colon cancer (MSH2, 57% vs 36%; MSH6, 17% vs 9%; P < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Over one-fourth of dMMR rectal tumors treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy exhibited disease progression. Conversely, dMMR rectal tumors were sensitive to chemoradiation. MMR status should be performed upfront in all locally advanced rectal tumors with careful monitoring for response on neoadjuvant chemotherapy and genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in patients with dMMR rectal cancer.

16.
Cancer ; 126(9): 1995-2002, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With limited information on germline mutations in biliary tract cancers, this study performed somatic and germline testing for patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with known biliary tract carcinoma with the aim of determining the frequency and range of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs). METHODS: Patients with biliary tract carcinoma were consented for somatic tumor and matched blood testing of up to 468 genes via the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets next-generation sequencing platform. A germline variant analysis was performed on a panel of up to 88 genes associated with an increased predisposition for cancer. Demographic and diagnostic details were collected. RESULTS: Germline mutations were tested in 131 patients. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most common cancer (63.4%), and it was followed by gallbladder adenocarcinoma (16.8%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (16%), and otherwise unspecified biliary tract cancer (3.8%). Known and likely PGAs were present in 21 patients (16.0%), with 9.9% harboring a PGA in a high/moderate-penetrance cancer predisposition gene. Among high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, PGAs were most commonly observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (33.3%), which made up 5.3% of the entire cohort, and they were followed by PALB2, BAP1, and PMS2. Mutations in ATM, MITF, and NBN, moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, were identified in 1 patient each. There was no observed difference in the types of mutations among the subtypes of biliary tract cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of PGAs found was comparable to existing data on the prevalence of germline mutations in other solid tumor types with matched tumor analysis. This provides support for the role of the BRCA1/2, ATM, and BAP1 genes in biliary tract cancer susceptibility.

17.
J Am Coll Surg ; 230(4): 669-675, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of increased risk of metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC), all patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) are offered a total colectomy. However, because metachronous CRC rate by mismatch repair (MMR) gene is uncertain, and total colectomy negatively impacts quality of life, it remains unclear whether segmental resection is indicated for lower penetrance MMR genes. We evaluated metachronous CRC incidence according to MMR gene in LS patients who underwent a segmental colectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study in patients with an earlier colectomy for CRC and an MMR germline mutation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2 followed prospectively in a hereditary CRC family registry. All patients underwent surveillance colonoscopy. Metachronous CRC was defined as one detected more than 1 year after index resection. Primary end point was cumulative incidence of metachronous CRC overall and by MMR gene. RESULTS: One hundred and ten patients were included: 35 with MLH1 likely pathogenic/pathogenic (LP/P) variants (32%), 42 MSH2 (38%), 20 MSH6 (18%), and 13 PMS2 (12%). Median follow-up 4.26 years (range 0.53 to 19.92 years). Overall, metachronous CRC developed in 22 patients (20%). At 10-year follow-up, incidence was 12% (95% CI 6% to 23%), with no metachronous CRC detected in patients with a PMS2 or MSH6 LP/P variant. CONCLUSIONS: After index segmental resection, metachronous CRC is less likely to develop in LS patients with MSH6 or PMS2 LP/P variant than in MLH1 or MSH2 carriers. Our data support segmental resection and long-term colonoscopic surveillance rather than total colectomy in carefully selected, well-informed LS patients with MSH6 or PMS2 LP/P variant.

18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(3): 291-298, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051178

RESUMO

Prior small reports have postulated a link between gastrointestinal polyposis and childhood and young adulthood cancer (CYAC) treatment (therapy-associated polyposis; TAP), but this remains a poorly understood phenomenon. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotypic spectrum of TAP in a multi-institutional cohort. TAP cases were identified from eight high-risk cancer centers. Cases were defined as patients with ≥10 gastrointestinal polyps without known causative germline alteration or hereditary colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome who had a history of prior treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for CYAC. A total of 34 TAP cases were included (original CYAC: 27 Hodgkin lymphoma, three neuroblastoma, one acute myeloid leukemia, one medulloblastoma, one nephroblastoma, and one non-Hodgkin lymphoma). Gastrointestinal polyposis was first detected at a median of 27 years (interquartile range, 20-33) after CYAC treatment. A total of 12 of 34 (35%) TAP cases had ≥50 colorectal polyps. A total of 32 of 34 (94%) had >1 histologic polyp type. A total of 25 of 34 (74%) had clinical features suggestive of ≥1 colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome [e.g., attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), serrated polyposis syndrome, extracolonic manifestations of FAP, mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer, or hamartomatous polyposis] including 8 of 34 (24%) with features of multiple such syndromes. TAP is an apparently acquired phenomenon that should be considered in patients who develop significant polyposis without known causative germline alteration but who have had prior treatment for a CYAC. Patients with TAP have features that may mimic various hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes, suggesting multiple concurrent biologic mechanisms, and recognition of this diagnosis may have implications for cancer risk and screening.

19.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(5): 764-771, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053139

RESUMO

Importance: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a malignant neoplasm with a rising incidence and is a leading public health challenge. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has been well characterized genomically, with findings of therapeutic actionability that have substantive implications for clinical practice based on recent high-level evidence. Observations: Pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs) are relatively common in individuals with PDAC, as evidenced in multiple recent data sets, with a frequency of approximately 10%. The most common PGAs are in BRCA1, BRCA2, and ATM and more rarely in PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, CDKN2A, and TP53, among others, with an aggregate frequency of 3.8% to 9.7%. These PGAs are of key interest owing to therapeutic actionability and the downstream identification of at-risk family members and possible hereditary cancer syndromes. Approximately 3% to 7% of individuals with PDAC harbor a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, which are among the most frequently mutated genes in PDAC. Recent updates to the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend risk assessment for all individuals with PDAC irrespective of personal or family history or ethnicity. Treatment implications include the use of checkpoint inhibitor therapy for mismatch repair-deficient PDAC and the validation of poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi) therapy as a maintenance strategy in platinum-sensitive PDAC. Conclusions and Relevance: With increasing evidence and slow improvement of outcomes, PDAC has entered the era of precision medicine. Germline mutations have been identified in key genes with an aggregate frequency of 3.8% to 9.7%, several of which are therapeutically actionable with platinum, PARPi, and checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Potential therapeutic targets need to be actively sought and identified.

20.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1398-1408, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite advances in DNA sequencing technology and expanded medical guidelines, the vast majority of individuals carrying pathogenic variants of common cancer susceptibility genes have yet to be identified. An alternative to population-wide genetic screening of healthy individuals would exploit the trend for genetic testing at the time of cancer diagnosis to guide therapy and prevention, combined with augmented familial diffusion or "cascade" of genomic risk information. METHODS: Using a multiple linear regression model, we derived the time interval to detect an estimated 3.9 million individuals in the United States with a pathogenic variant in 1 of 18 cancer susceptibility genes. We analyzed the impact of the proportion of incident patients sequenced, varying observed frequencies of pathogenic germline variants in patients with cancer, differential rates of diffusion of genetic information in families, and family size. RESULTS: The time to detect inherited cancer predisposing variants in the population is affected by the extent of cascade to first-, second-, and third-degree relatives (FDR, SDR, TDR, respectively), family size, prevalence of mutations in patients with cancer, and the proportion of patients with cancer sequenced. In a representative scenario, assuming a 7% prevalence of pathogenic variants across cancer types, an average family size of 3 per generation, and 15% of incident patients with cancer in the United States undergoing germline testing, the time to detect all 3.9 million individuals with pathogenic variants in 18 cancer susceptibility genes would be 46.2, 22.3, 13.6, and 9.9 years if 10%, 25%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, of all FDR, SDR, and TDR were tested for familial mutations. CONCLUSION: Peridiagnostic and cascade cancer genetic testing offers an alternative strategy to achieve population-wide identification of cancer susceptibility mutations.

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