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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1769, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447832

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids (GCs) act via the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, GRα) to combat overshooting responses to infectious stimuli, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As such, GCs inhibit the activity of downstream effector cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). PPARα (NR1C1) is a nuclear receptor described to function on the crossroad between lipid metabolism and control of inflammation. In the current work, we have investigated the molecular mechanism by which GCs and PPARα agonists cooperate to jointly inhibit NF-κB-driven expression in A549 cells. We discovered a nuclear mechanism that predominantly targets Mitogen- and Stress-activated protein Kinase-1 activation upon co-triggering GRα and PPARα. In vitro GST-pull down data further support that the anti-inflammatory mechanism may additionally involve a non-competitive physical interaction between the p65 subunit of NF-κB, GRα, and PPARα. Finally, to study metabolic effector target cells common to both receptors, we overlaid the effect of GRα and PPARα crosstalk in mouse primary hepatocytes under LPS-induced inflammatory conditions on a genome-wide level. RNA-seq results revealed lipid metabolism genes that were upregulated and inflammatory genes that were additively downregulated. Validation at the cytokine protein level finally supported a consistent additive anti-inflammatory response in hepatocytes.

2.
Cell Rep ; 28(6): 1447-1454.e4, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390560

RESUMO

The newest classes of anti-diabetic agents include sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) agonists. The SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduces glucotoxicity by glycosuria but elevates glucagon secretion. The GLP1R agonist liraglutide inhibits glucagon; therefore, we hypothesize that the cotreatment of dapagliflozin with liraglutide could reduce hyperglucagonemia and hyperglycemia. Here we use five complementary models: human islet cultures, healthy mice, db/db mice, diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, and somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) KO mice. A single administration of liraglutide and dapagliflozin in combination improves glycemia and reduces dapagliflozin-induced glucagon secretion in diabetic mice. Chronic treatment with liraglutide and dapagliflozin produces a sustainable reduction of glycemia compared with each drug alone. Moreover, liraglutide reduces dapagliflozin-induced glucagon secretion by enhancing somatostatin release, as demonstrated by SSTR2 inhibition in human islets and in mice. Collectively, these data provide mechanistic insights into how intra-islet GLP1R activation is critical for the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

3.
Nanoscale ; 11(34): 15810-15820, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270521

RESUMO

Drug loaded hydrogels have proven to be versatile controlled-release systems. We report here on heat active hydrogel formation by mixing graphene oxide (GO) or carboxyl enriched reduced graphene oxide (rGO-COOH) with metformin hydrochloride, an insulin sensitizer drug currently used as the first line therapy to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. The driving forces of the gelation process between the graphene-based nanomaterial and metformin are hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions, weakened at elevated temperature. Using the excellent photothermal properties of the graphene matrixes, we demonstrate that these supramolecular drug reservoirs can be photothermally activated for transdermal metformin delivery. A sustained delivery of metformin was achieved using a laser power of 1 W cm-2. In vitro assessment of the key target Glucose-6 Phosphatase (G6P) gene expression using a human hepatocyte model confirmed that metformin activity was unaffected by photothermal activation. In vivo, metformin was detected in mice plasma at 1 h post-activation of the metformin loaded rGO-COOH gel.

4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 80, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical data identified an association between the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and incident diabetes in patients with underlying diabetes risk factors such as obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The molecular mechanisms however are unknown. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study included 910 severely obese patients, mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) 46.7 (8.7), treated with or without statins (ABOS cohort: a biological atlas of severe obesity). Data and sample collection took place in France between 2006 and 2016. Transcriptomic signatures of statin treatment in human liver obtained from genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of five different statin drugs using microarrays were correlated to clinico-biological phenotypes and also assigned to biological pathways and mechanisms. Patients from the non-statin-users group were matched to patients in the statin users group by propensity score analysis to minimize confounding effects from age, gender, parental familial history of diabetes, BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and use of anti-hypertensive drugs as pre-specified covariates. RESULTS: We determined the hepatic, statin-related gene signature from genome-wide transcriptomic profiling in severely obese patients with varying degrees of glucose tolerance and cardio-metabolic comorbidities. One hundred and fifty seven patients on statin treatment in the matched cohort showed higher diabetes prevalence (OR = 2.67; 95%CI, 1.60-4.45; P = 0.0002) and impairment of glucose homeostasis. This phenotype was associated with molecular signatures of increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) via activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and concomitant upregulation of the expression of key genes in both fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: A DNL gene activation profile in response to statins is associated with insulin resistance and the diabetic status of the patients. Identified molecular signatures thus suggest that statin treatment increases the risk for diabetes in humans at least in part via induction of DNL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01129297 . Registered May 242,010 (retrospectively registered).

5.
J Lipid Res ; 60(9): 1547-1561, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253637

RESUMO

The bile acid-activated nuclear receptor, FXR (NR1H4), has been implicated in the control of lipid and energy metabolism, but its role in fat tissue, where it is moderately expressed, is not understood. In view of the recent development of FXR-targeting therapeutics for treatment of human metabolic diseases, understanding the tissue-specific actions of FXR is essential. Transgenic mice expressing human FXR in adipose tissue (aP2-hFXR mice) at three to five times higher levels than endogenous Fxr, i.e., much lower than its expression in liver and intestine, have markedly enlarged adipocytes and show extensive extracellular matrix remodeling. Ageing and exposure to obesogenic conditions revealed a strongly limited capacity for adipose expansion and development of fibrosis in adipose tissues of aP2-hFXR transgenic mice. This was associated with impaired lipid storage capacity, leading to elevated plasma free fatty acids and ectopic fat deposition in liver and muscle as well as whole-body insulin resistance. These studies establish that adipose FXR is a determinant of adipose tissue architecture and contributes to whole-body lipid homeostasis.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1684, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975991

RESUMO

Obesity triggers the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which involves alterations of regulatory transcription networks and epigenomes in hepatocytes. Here we demonstrate that G protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2), a subunit of the nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR) and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) complex, has a central role in these alterations and accelerates the progression of NAFLD towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Hepatocyte-specific Gps2 knockout in mice alleviates the development of diet-induced steatosis and fibrosis and causes activation of lipid catabolic genes. Integrative cistrome, epigenome and transcriptome analysis identifies the lipid-sensing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα, NR1C1) as a direct GPS2 target. Liver gene expression data from human patients reveal that Gps2 expression positively correlates with a NASH/fibrosis gene signature. Collectively, our data suggest that the GPS2-PPARα partnership in hepatocytes coordinates the progression of NAFLD in mice and in humans and thus might be of therapeutic interest.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Epigênese Genética , Fibrose , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética
9.
J Hepatol ; 71(1): 200-211, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930223

RESUMO

Each day, all organisms are subjected to changes in light intensity because of the Earth's rotation around its own axis. To anticipate this geo-physical variability, and to appropriately respond biochemically, most species, including mammals, have evolved an approximate 24-hour endogenous timing mechanism known as the circadian clock (CC). The 'clock' is self-sustained, cell autonomous and present in every cell type. At the core of the clock resides the CC-oscillator, an exquisitely crafted transcriptional-translational feedback system. Remarkably, components of the CC-oscillator not only maintain daily rhythmicity of their own synthesis, but also generate temporal variability in the expression levels of numerous target genes through transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms, thus, ensuring proper chronological coordination in the functioning of cells, tissues and organs, including the liver. Indeed, a variety of physiologically critical hepatic functions and cellular processes are CC-controlled. Thus, it is not surprising that modern lifestyle factors (e.g. travel and jet lag, night and rotating shift work), which force 'circadian misalignment', have emerged as major contributors to global health problems including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis. Herein, we provide an overview of the CC-dependent pathways which play critical roles in mediating several hepatic functions under physiological conditions, and whose deregulation is implicated in chronic liver diseases including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and alcohol-related liver disease.

10.
Cell ; 177(5): 1201-1216.e19, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031005

RESUMO

Innate immune responses are intricately linked with intracellular metabolism of myeloid cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation shifts intracellular metabolism toward glycolysis, while anti-inflammatory signals depend on enhanced mitochondrial respiration. How exogenous metabolic signals affect the immune response is unknown. We demonstrate that TLR-dependent responses of dendritic cells (DCs) are exacerbated by a high-fatty-acid (FA) metabolic environment. FAs suppress the TLR-induced hexokinase activity and perturb tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism. These metabolic changes enhance mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production and, in turn, the unfolded protein response (UPR), leading to a distinct transcriptomic signature with IL-23 as hallmark. Interestingly, chemical or genetic suppression of glycolysis was sufficient to induce this specific immune response. Conversely, reducing mtROS production or DC-specific deficiency in XBP1 attenuated IL-23 expression and skin inflammation in an IL-23-dependent model of psoriasis. Thus, fine-tuning of innate immunity depends on optimization of metabolic demands and minimization of mtROS-induced UPR.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4908, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894635

RESUMO

Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) by synthetic agonists was found to improve cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice. However, these LXR agonists induce hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis, hampering their use in the clinic. We hypothesized that phytosterols as LXR agonists enhance cognition in AD without affecting plasma and hepatic triglycerides. Phytosterols previously reported to activate LXRs were tested in a luciferase-based LXR reporter assay. Using this assay, we found that phytosterols commonly present in a Western type diet in physiological concentrations do not activate LXRs. However, a lipid extract of the 24(S)-Saringosterol-containing seaweed Sargassum fusiforme did potently activate LXRß. Dietary supplementation of crude Sargassum fusiforme or a Sargassum fusiforme-derived lipid extract to AD mice significantly improved short-term memory and reduced hippocampal Aß plaque load by 81%. Notably, none of the side effects typically induced by full synthetic LXR agonists were observed. In contrast, administration of the synthetic LXRα activator, AZ876, did not improve cognition and resulted in the accumulation of lipid droplets in the liver. Administration of Sargassum fusiforme-derived 24(S)-Saringosterol to cultured neurons reduced the secretion of Aß42. Moreover, conditioned medium from 24(S)-Saringosterol-treated astrocytes added to microglia increased phagocytosis of Aß. Our data show that Sargassum fusiforme improves cognition and alleviates AD pathology. This may be explained at least partly by 24(S)-Saringosterol-mediated LXRß activation.

13.
Curr Opin Lipidol ; 30(3): 244-254, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893108

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the influence of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on bile acid metabolism and to analyze whether these findings reinforce current beliefs about the role of bile acids in the pathophysiology of these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Discordant results on plasma bile acid alterations in NAFLD patients have been reported. Obesity, insulin resistance, and T2D, common comorbidities of NAFLD, have been associated with bile acid changes, but the individual bile acid species variations differ between studies (summarized in this review), perhaps because of clinicobiological differences between the studied patient populations and the heterogeneity of statistical analyses applied. SUMMARY: The regulatory role of bile acids in metabolic and cellular homeostasis renders bile acids attractive candidates as players in the pathophysiology of NAFLD. However, considering the complex relationship between NAFLD, obesity, insulin resistance and T2D, it is difficult to establish clear and independent associations between bile acid alterations and these individual diseases. Though bile acid alterations may not drive NAFLD progression, signaling pathways activated by bile acids remain potent therapeutic targets for its treatment. Further studies with appropriate matching or adjustment for potential confounding factors are necessary to determine which pathophysiological conditions drive the alterations in bile acid metabolism.

14.
Mol Metab ; 23: 82-87, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The nuclear receptor superfamily is a potential target for the development of new treatments for obesity and metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence has pointed towards the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORα) as an important nuclear receptor involved in several biological processes. RORα full body knockout mice display improved metabolic phenotypes on both chow and high fat (60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) diets, but also have severe behavioral abnormalities. Here we investigated the effect of hepatic RORα by generating mice with liver-specific RORα deletion to elucidate the role of this nuclear receptor on host metabolism. METHODS: 8 week-old mice with liver-specific RORα deletion and littermate controls were fed either chow or western-style diets (40% fat, 40% carbohydrate) for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotyping was performed at the end of the dietary intervention. RESULTS: Here, we show that hepatic RORα deletion does not affect the metabolic susceptibility to either chow or western-style diet in terms of glucose metabolism and adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that liver deletion of RORα does not have a pivotal role in the regulation of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism on chow or western-style diet.

15.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(2)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894406

RESUMO

Mechanisms driving cognitive improvements following nuclear receptor activation are poorly understood. The peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor alpha (PPARα) forms heterodimers with the nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXR). We report that PPARα mediates the improvement of hippocampal synaptic plasticity upon RXR activation in a transgenic mouse model with cognitive deficits. This improvement results from an increase in GluA1 subunit expression of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor, eliciting an AMPA response at the excitatory synapses. Associated with a two times higher PPARα expression in males than in females, we show that male, but not female, PPARα null mutants display impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation. Moreover, PPARα knockdown in the hippocampus of cognition-impaired mice compromises the beneficial effects of RXR activation on synaptic plasticity only in males. Furthermore, selective PPARα activation with pemafibrate improves synaptic plasticity in male cognition-impaired mice, but not in females. We conclude that striking sex differences in hippocampal synaptic plasticity are observed in mice, related to differences in PPARα expression levels.

16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1951: 189-207, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825154

RESUMO

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cellular sensor of danger signals such as extracellular ATP or abnormally accumulating molecules like crystals. Activation of NLRP3 by such compounds triggers a sterile inflammatory response that may be involved in numerous pathologies including rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. A better understanding of the mechanisms that govern NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an important step toward the development of novel therapeutic strategies to dampen over-activation of the immune system. Recent findings demonstrate that ligand-activated nuclear receptors regulate the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, thus representing possible therapeutic targets. It is therefore important to assess the potential of these putative targets in the regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the most appropriate pathophysiological models. Fulminant hepatitis (FH) results from massive hepatocyte apoptosis, hemorrhagic necrosis, and inflammation. Low doses of LPS in combination with the specific hepatotoxic agent D-galactosamine (D-GalN) promote liver injury in mice and induce the production of inflammatory cytokines associated with increased NLRP3 protein and caspase 1 activity, thus recapitulating the clinical picture of FH in humans. We provide a simple method to examine the involvement of nuclear receptors in NLRP3-driven fulminant hepatitis, consisting in the induction of FH, in the isolation of liver macrophages, and in the extraction and analysis of RNA content.


Assuntos
Hepatite/etiologia , Hepatite/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Galactosamina/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite/patologia , Humanos , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Neurobiol Dis ; 125: 14-22, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665005

RESUMO

Accumulation of hyper-phosphorylated and aggregated Tau proteins is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Tauopathies. AD patient brains also exhibit insulin resistance. Whereas, under normal physiological conditions insulin signaling in the brain mediates plasticity and memory formation, it can also regulate peripheral energy homeostasis. Thus, in AD, brain insulin resistance affects both cognitive and metabolic changes described in these patients. While a role of Aß oligomers and APOE4 towards the development of brain insulin resistance emerged, contribution of Tau pathology has been largely overlooked. Our recent data demonstrated that one of the physiological function of Tau is to sustain brain insulin signaling. We postulated that under pathological conditions, hyper-phosphorylated/aggregated Tau is likely to lose this function and to favor the development of brain insulin resistance. This hypothesis was substantiated by observations from patient brains with pure Tauopathies. To address the potential link between Tau pathology and brain insulin resistance, we have evaluated the brain response to insulin in a transgenic mouse model of AD-like Tau pathology (THY-Tau22). Using electrophysiological and biochemical evaluations, we surprisingly observed that, at a time when Tau pathology and cognitive deficits are overt and obvious, the hippocampus of THY-Tau22 mice exhibits enhanced response to insulin. In addition, we demonstrated that the ability of i.c.v. insulin to promote body weight loss is enhanced in THY-Tau22 mice. In line with this, THY-Tau22 mice exhibited a lower body weight gain, hypoleptinemia and hypoinsulinemia and finally a metabolic resistance to high-fat diet. The present data highlight that the brain of transgenic Tau mice exhibit enhanced brain response to insulin. Whether these observations are ascribed to the development of Tau pathology, and therefore relevant to human Tauopathies, or unexpectedly results from the Tau transgene overexpression is debatable and discussed.

18.
J Hepatol ; 70(5): 963-973, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although the role of inflammation to combat infection is known, the contribution of metabolic changes in response to sepsis is poorly understood. Sepsis induces the release of lipid mediators, many of which activate nuclear receptors such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, which controls both lipid metabolism and inflammation. We aimed to elucidate the previously unknown role of hepatic PPARα in the response to sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli in different models of cell-specific Ppara-deficiency and their controls. The systemic and hepatic metabolic response was analyzed using biochemical, transcriptomic and functional assays. PPARα expression was analyzed in livers from elective surgery and critically ill patients and correlated with hepatic gene expression and blood parameters. RESULTS: Both whole body and non-hematopoietic Ppara-deficiency in mice decreased survival upon bacterial infection. Livers of septic Ppara-deficient mice displayed an impaired metabolic shift from glucose to lipid utilization resulting in more severe hypoglycemia, impaired induction of hyperketonemia and increased steatosis due to lower expression of genes involved in fatty acid catabolism and ketogenesis. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of PPARα impaired the metabolic response to sepsis and was sufficient to decrease survival upon bacterial infection. Hepatic PPARA expression was lower in critically ill patients and correlated positively with expression of lipid metabolism genes, but not with systemic inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: During sepsis, Ppara-deficiency in hepatocytes is deleterious as it impairs the adaptive metabolic shift from glucose to FA utilization. Metabolic control by PPARα in hepatocytes plays a key role in the host defense against infection. LAY SUMMARY: As the main cause of death in critically ill patients, sepsis remains a major health issue lacking efficacious therapies. While current clinical literature suggests an important role for inflammation, metabolic aspects of sepsis have mostly been overlooked. Here, we show that mice with an impaired metabolic response, due to deficiency of the nuclear receptor PPARα in the liver, exhibit enhanced mortality upon bacterial infection despite a similar inflammatory response, suggesting that metabolic interventions may be a viable strategy for improving sepsis outcomes.

19.
Kidney Int ; 95(3): 577-589, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639234

RESUMO

Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a strong predictor of progression in patients with chronic kidney disease, and is often accompanied by lipid accumulation in renal tubules. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating the relationship between lipotoxicity and tubulointerstitial fibrosis remain obscure. ATF6α, a transcription factor of the unfolded protein response, is reported to be an upstream regulator of fatty acid metabolism. Owing to their high energy demand, proximal tubular cells (PTCs) use fatty acids as their main energy source. We therefore hypothesized that ATF6α regulates PTC fatty acid metabolism, contributing to lipotoxicity-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Overexpression of activated ATF6α transcriptionally downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the master regulator of lipid metabolism, leading to reduced activity of fatty acid ß-oxidation and cytosolic accumulation of lipid droplets in a human PTC line (HK-2). ATF6α-induced lipid accumulation caused mitochondrial dysfunction, enhanced apoptosis, and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), as well as reduced cell viability. Atf6α-/- mice had sustained expression of PPARα and less tubular lipid accumulation following unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (uIRI), resulting in the amelioration of apoptosis; reduced expression of CTGF, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen I; and less tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Administration of fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, reduced lipid accumulation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the uIRI model. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF6α deranges fatty acid metabolism in PTCs, which leads to lipotoxicity-mediated apoptosis and CTGF upregulation, both of which promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(47): E11033-E11042, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397120

RESUMO

The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα integrates the circadian clock with hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by nucleating transcriptional comodulators at genomic regulatory regions. An interactomic approach identified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) as a REV-ERBα-interacting protein. By shielding cytoplasmic OGT from proteasomal degradation and favoring OGT activity in the nucleus, REV-ERBα cyclically increased O-GlcNAcylation of multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins as a function of its rhythmically regulated expression, while REV-ERBα ligands mostly affected cytoplasmic OGT activity. We illustrate this finding by showing that REV-ERBα controls OGT-dependent activities of the cytoplasmic protein kinase AKT, an essential relay in insulin signaling, and of ten-of-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes in the nucleus. AKT phosphorylation was inversely correlated to REV-ERBα expression. REV-ERBα enhanced TET activity and DNA hydroxymethylated cytosine (5hmC) levels in the vicinity of REV-ERBα genomic binding sites. As an example, we show that the REV-ERBα/OGT complex modulates SREBP-1c gene expression throughout the fasting/feeding periods by first repressing AKT phosphorylation and by epigenomically priming the Srebf1 promoter for a further rapid response to insulin. Conclusion: REV-ERBα regulates cytoplasmic and nuclear OGT-controlled processes that integrate at the hepatic SREBF1 locus to control basal and insulin-induced expression of the temporally and nutritionally regulated lipogenic SREBP-1c transcript.

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