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1.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113477, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198048

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) scale and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were administered to a non-clinical group of 274 participants recruited from a university volunteers list. We found a highly significant positive correlation between number of self-reported ADHD traits and sensory sensitivity. Furthermore, ADHD traits and age were predictors of SPS and exploratory factor analysis revealed a factor that combined ADHD traits and items from the HSPS. The psychometric properties of the HSPS were also examined supporting the unidimensional nature of the concept. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a positive relationship between HSPS and ADHD traits in the general population. Our results further support recent findings suggesting abnormal sensory processing in ADHD.

2.
Behav Res Methods ; 52(5): 2142-2155, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232739

RESUMO

Response time and accuracy are fundamental measures of behavioral science, but discerning participants' underlying abilities can be masked by speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATOs). SATOs are often inadequately addressed in experiment analyses which focus on a single variable or which involve a suboptimal analytic correction. Models of decision-making, such as the drift diffusion model (DDM), provide a principled account of the decision-making process, allowing the recovery of SATO-unconfounded decision parameters from observed behavioral variables. For plausible parameters of a typical between-groups experiment, we simulate experimental data, for both real and null group differences in participants' ability to discriminate stimuli (represented by differences in the drift rate parameter of the DDM used to generate the simulated data), for both systematic and null SATOs. We then use the DDM to fit the generated data. This allows the direct comparison of the specificity and sensitivity for testing of group differences of different measures (accuracy, reaction time, and the drift rate from the model fitting). Our purpose here is not to make a theoretical innovation in decision modeling, but to use established decision models to demonstrate and quantify the benefits of decision modeling for experimentalists. We show, in terms of reduction of required sample size, how decision modeling can allow dramatically more efficient data collection for set statistical power; we confirm and depict the non-linear speed-accuracy relation; and we show how accuracy can be a more sensitive measure than response time given decision parameters which reasonably reflect a typical experiment.

3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e48, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292137

RESUMO

The evidence for rationalisation, which motivates the target article, is exaggerated. Experimental evidence shows that rationalisation effects are small rather than gross and, I argue, largely silent on the pervasiveness and persistence of the phenomenon. At least some examples taken to show rationalisation also have an interpretation compatible with deliberate, knowing reason-responsiveness on the part of participants.


Assuntos
Racionalização
4.
Mov Disord ; 35(5): 877-880, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal temporal discrimination in cervical dystonia is hypothesized to be attributable to disrupted processing in the superior colliculus. The fast, luminance-based, retinotectal pathway, projects to the superior colliculus; chromatic stimuli responses, by the retino-geniculo-calcarine pathway, are up to 30 ms longer. OBJECTIVES: We sought to interrogate visual processing and reaction times in patients with cervical dystonia compared with healthy controls. We hypothesized that cervical dystonia patients would have impaired reaction times to luminance based stimuli accessing the retino-tectal pathway in comparison to healthy control participants. METHODS: In 20 cervical dystonia and 20 age-matched control participants, we compared reaction times to two flashing visual stimuli: (1) a chromatic annulus and (2) a luminant, noncolored annulus. Participants pressed a joystick control when they perceived the annulus flashing. RESULTS: Reaction times in control participants were 20 ms significantly faster in the luminant condition than the chromatic (P = 0.017). Patients with cervical dystonia had no reaction time advantage in response to the luminant stimulus. CONCLUSION: Cervical dystonia patients (compared to control participants) demonstrated no reduction in their reaction time to luminant stimuli, processed through the retinotectal pathway. This finding is consistent with superior colliculus dysfunction in cervical dystonia. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

5.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 34(1): 182-193, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599604

RESUMO

Behavioral economics provides a general framework to explain the shift in behavioral allocation from substance use to substance-free activities that characterizes recovery from addiction, but it does not attempt to explain the internal processes that prompt those behavioral changes. In this article we outline a novel analysis of addiction recovery based on computational work on value-based decision making (VBDM), which can explain how people with addiction are able to overcome the reinforcement pathologies and decision-making vulnerabilities that characterize the disorder. The central tenet of this account is that shifts in molar reinforcer preferences over time from substance use to substance-free activities can be attributed to changes in evidence accumulation rates and response thresholds in the context of choices involving substance use and substance-free alternatives. We discuss how this account can be reconciled with the established mechanisms of action of psychosocial interventions for addiction and demonstrate how it has the potential to empirically address longstanding debates regarding the nature of impairments to self-control in addiction. We also highlight conceptual and methodological issues that require careful consideration in translating VBDM to addiction and recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Reforço Psicológico , Autocontrole , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
6.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(6): 1017-1031, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599622

RESUMO

Models of cognitive development suggest that cognitive control, a complex construct that ensures goal-directedness even in the face of distractions, is still maturing across adolescence. In the present study, we investigated how the ability to dynamically adjust cognitive control develops in this period of life, as indexed by the magnitude of the congruency sequence effect (CSE) in conflict tasks, and how this ability might relate to lapses of attention (mind-wandering [MW]). To these ends, participants from four age groups (12-13, 14-15, 18-20 and 25-27 years old) completed confound-minimized variants of the flanker and Simon tasks, along with a Go/No-Go task with thought probes to assess their frequency of mind-wandering. The CSE was present in both tasks, but was not affected by age in either of them. In addition, the size of the CSE in the flanker, but not in the Simon task was negatively associated with the frequency of MW with awareness. Trait MW and the probability of reporting MW during the task was found to increase with age in accordance with cognitive resource views of MW. Our findings suggest that at the behavioral level there are no substantial developmental changes through the adolescent period in control adjustment ability as measured by the CSE. Response inhibition performance in the Go/No-Go task, however, improved significantly with age. The implications of the present results for the conflict monitoring account of the CSE and extant theories of MW are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3423, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833640

RESUMO

Parkinson's Disease can be understood as a disorder of motor habits. A prediction of this theory is that early stage Parkinson's patients will display fewer errors caused by interference from previously over-learned behaviours. We test this prediction in the domain of skilled typing, where actions are easy to record and errors easy to identify. We describe a method for categorizing errors as simple motor errors or habit-driven errors. We test Spanish and English participants with and without Parkinson's, and show that indeed patients make fewer habit errors than healthy controls, and, further, that classification of error type increases the accuracy of discriminating between patients and healthy controls. As well as being a validation of a theory-led prediction, these results offer promise for automated, enhanced and early diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
8.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1097): 20180958, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Expert radiologists exhibit high levels of visual diagnostic accuracy from review of radiological images, doing so after accumulating years of training and experience. To train new radiologists, learning interventions must focus on the development of these skills. By developing a web-based measure of image assessment, a key part of visual diagnosis, we aimed to capture differences in the performance of expert, trainee and non-radiologists. METHODS: 12 consultant paediatric radiologists, 12 radiology registrars, and 39 medical students were recruited to the study. All participants completed a two-part, online task requiring them to visually assess 30 images (25 containing an abnormality) drawn from a library of 150 paediatric skeletal radiographs assessed prior to the study. Participants first identified whether an image contained an abnormality, and then clicked within the image to mark its location. Performance measures of identification accuracy, localisation precision, and task time were collected. RESULTS: Despite the difficulties of web-based testing, large differences in performance, both in terms of the accuracy of abnormality identification and in the precision of abnormality localisation were found between groups, with consultant radiologists the most accurate both at identifying images containing abnormalities (p < 0.001) and at localising abnormalities on the images (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that an online measurement of radiological skill is sufficiently sensitive to detect group level changes in performance consistent with the development of expertise. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The developed tool will allow future studies assessing the impact of different training strategies on cognitive performance and diagnostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Internet , Radiologia/educação , Criança , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudantes de Medicina
9.
J Atten Disord ; 23(12): 1407-1415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800716

RESUMO

Objective: ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits found in the general population. Clinical and genetic studies suggest that ADHD and ASD often co-occur and share genetic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD traits in the general population. Method: In total, 334 participants were recruited from a population-based sample. Four questionnaires assessing current and retrospective ADHD and ASD traits were administered online: the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Symptom Checklist, the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25), the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Results: A significant correlation was found between ADHD and autistic traits. In particular, higher inattention and overall ADHD scores were associated with self-reported deficits in communication and social skills. Conclusion: Our findings are similar to results from studies on clinical populations, suggesting that ADHD and ASD might share common etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Utah
10.
Decision (Wash D C ) ; 5(2): 129-142, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682592

RESUMO

Complex natural systems from brains to bee swarms have evolved to make adaptive multifactorial decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that many evolved systems may take advantage of common motifs across multiple domains. We are particularly interested in value sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity to the magnitude or intensity of the stimuli or reward under consideration) as a mechanism to resolve deadlocks adaptively. This mechanism favours long-term reward maximization over accuracy in a simple manner, because it avoids costly delays associated with ambivalence between similar options; speed-value trade-offs have been proposed to be evolutionarily advantageous for many kinds of decision. A key prediction of the value-sensitivity hypothesis is that choices between equally-valued options will proceed faster when the options have a high value than when they have a low value. However, value-sensitivity is not part of idealised choice models such as diffusion to bound. Here we examine two different choice behaviours in two different species, perceptual decisions in humans and economic choices in rhesus monkeys, to test this hypothesis. We observe the same value sensitivity in both human perceptual decisions and monkey value-based decisions. These results endorse the idea that neural decision systems make use of the same basic principle of value-sensitivity in order to resolve costly deadlocks and thus improve long-term reward intake.

11.
Psychol Sci ; 29(3): 429-436, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364771

RESUMO

Stereotype threat has been offered as a potential explanation of differential performance between men and women in some cognitive domains. Questions remain about the reliability and generality of the phenomenon. Previous studies have found that stereotype threat is activated in female chess players when they are matched against male players. I used data from over 5.5 million games of international tournament chess and found no evidence of a stereotype-threat effect. In fact, female players outperform expectations when playing men. Further analysis showed no influence of degree of challenge, player age, nor prevalence of female role models in national chess leagues on differences in performance when women play men versus when they play women. Though this analysis contradicts one specific mechanism of influence of gender stereotypes, the persistent differences between male and female players suggest that systematic factors do exist and remain to be uncovered.


Assuntos
Motivação , Jogos e Brinquedos , Recreação , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexismo , Comportamento Estereotipado , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 44(1): 69-88, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28447844

RESUMO

Performance errors are associated with robust behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) effects. However, there is a debate about the nature of the relationship between these effects and implicit versus explicit error awareness. Our aim was to study the relationship between error related electrophysiological effects, such as spectral perturbations in fronto-medial theta band oscillations (FMT), and error awareness in typing. Typing has an advantage as an experimental paradigm in that detected errors are quickly and habitually signaled by the participant using backspace, allowing separation of detected from undetected errors without interruption in behavior. Typing is thought to be controlled hierarchically via inner and outer loops, which rely on different sources for error detection. Touch-typist participants were asked to copy-type 100 sentences as EEG was recorded in the absence of visual feedback. Continuous EEG data were analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA). Time-frequency and ERP analyses were applied to emergent independent components. The results show that single-trial FMT parameters and error related negativity (ERN) amplitude predict overt, adaptive posterror actions such as error correction via backspace; and, posterror slowing, reflecting implicit error awareness. In addition, we found that those uncorrected errors which were slowed down the most were also the ones associated with a high level of FMT activity. Our results as a whole show that FMT are related to neural mechanisms involved in explicit awareness of errors, and input from inner loop is sufficient for error correction in typing. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Compr Psychiatry ; 80: 179-185, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121555

RESUMO

Preliminary studies in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) report both hypo-responsiveness and hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli, as well as problems modulating sensory input. As it has been suggested that those with ADHD exist at the extreme end of a continuum of ADHD traits, which are also evident in the general population, we investigated the link between ADHD and sensory sensitivity in the general population. Two online questionnaires measuring ADHD traits and sensory responsivity across various sensory domains were administered to 234 participants. Results showed a highly significant positive correlation between the number of ADHD traits and the frequency of reported sensory processing problems. An increased number of sensory difficulties across all modalities were associated with the level of ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD traits predicted sensory difficulties and exploratory factor analysis revealed a factor that combined ADHD trait and sensory processing items. This is the first study to identify a positive relationship between sensory processing and ADHD traits in the general population. Our results suggest that sensory difficulties could be part of the ADHD phenotype.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Transtornos das Sensações/diagnóstico , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Autorrelato , Sensação , Transtornos das Sensações/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 181: 10-17, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024843

RESUMO

Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies. The Point of Subjective Similarity (PSS) was also measured in both cases. In the SJ task, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits considered significantly fewer stimuli to be simultaneous than participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits, and the former were found to have significantly smaller temporal windows of integration (although no difference was found in the PSS in the SJ or TOJ tasks, or the JND in the latter). This is the first study to identify an abnormal temporal integration window in individuals with ADHD-like traits. Perceived temporal misalignment of two or more modalities can lead to distractibility (e.g., when the stimulus components from different modalities occur separated by too large of a temporal gap). Hence, an abnormality in the perception of simultaneity could lead to the increased distractibility seen in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico , Percepção do Tempo , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Autorrelato , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuropsychology ; 31(2): 173-180, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two-alternative forced-choice tasks are widely used to gain insight into specific areas of enhancement or impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data arising from these tasks have been used to support myriad theories regarding the integrity, or otherwise, of particular brain areas or cognitive processes in ASD. The drift diffusion model (DDM) provides an account of the underlying processes which give rise to accuracy and reaction time (RT) distributions, and parameterizes these processes in terms which have direct psychological interpretation. Importantly, the DDM provides further insight into the origin of potential group differences in task performance. Here, for the first time, we used the DDM to investigate perceptual decision making in ASD. METHOD: Adults with (N = 25) and without ASD (N = 32) performed an orientation discrimination task. A drift diffusion model was applied to the full RT distributions. RESULTS: Participants with ASD responded more slowly than controls, the groups did not differ in accuracy. Modeled parameters indicated that: (a) participants with ASD were more cautious than controls (wider boundary separation); (b) nondecision time was increased in ASD; and (c) the quality of evidence extracted from the stimulus (drift rate) did not vary between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Taking the behavioral data in isolation would suggest reduced perceptual sensitivity in ASD. However, DDM results indicated that despite response slowing, there was no evidence of differential perceptual sensitivity between participants with and without ASD. Future use of the DDM in investigations of perception and cognition in ASD is highly recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Discriminação Psicológica , Modelos Psicológicos , Orientação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Cognição , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Top Cogn Sci ; 9(2): 485-496, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27868362

RESUMO

Using an observational sample of players of a simple online game (n > 1.2 million), we are able to trace the development of skill in that game. Information on playing time, and player location, allows us to estimate time of day during which practice took place. We compare those whose breaks in practice probably contained a night's sleep and those whose breaks in practice probably did not contain a night's sleep. Our analysis confirms experimental evidence showing a benefit of spacing for skill learning, but it fails to find any additional benefit of sleeping during a break from practice. We discuss reasons why the well-established phenomenon of sleep consolidation might not manifest in an observational study of skill development. We put the spacing effect into the context of the other known influences on skill learning: improvement with practice, and individual differences in initial performance. Analysis of performance data from games allows experimental results to be demonstrated outside of the lab and for experimental phenomenon to be put in the context of the performance of the whole task.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Sono , Humanos , Individualidade , Desempenho Psicomotor
17.
Perception ; 46(6): 665-678, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27895292

RESUMO

We examined the performance of nonclinical subjects with high and low levels of self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like traits in a novel distractibility paradigm with far peripheral visual distractors, the likely origin of many distractors in everyday life. Subjects were tested on a Sustained Attention to Response Task with distractors appearing before some of the target or nontarget stimuli. When the distractors appeared 80 ms before the targets or nontargets, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits were less affected in their reaction times than those with lower levels. Reducing the distractor-target or nontarget interval to 10 ms removed the reaction time advantage for the high group. We suggest that at 80 ms, the distractors were cueing the arrival of the target or nontarget, and that those with high levels of ADHD-like traits were more sensitive to the cues. Increased sensitivity to stimuli in the visual periphery is consistent with hyperresponsiveness at the level of the superior colliculus.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 10: 427, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27610079

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that markedly affects voluntary action. While regular dopamine treatment can help restore motor function, dopamine also influences cognitive portions of the action system. Previous studies have demonstrated that dopamine medication boosts action-effect associations, which are crucial for the discovery of new voluntary actions. In the present study, we investigated whether neural processes involved in the discovery of new actions are altered in PD participants on regular dopamine treatment, compared to healthy age-matched controls. We recorded brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity while PD patients and age-matched controls performed action discovery (AD) and action control tasks. We found that the novelty P3, a component normally present when there is uncertainty about the occurrence of the sensory effect, was enhanced in PD patients. However, AD was maintained in PD patients, and the novelty P3 demonstrated normal learning-related reductions. Crucially, we found that in PD patients the causal association between an action and its resulting sensory outcome did not modulate the amplitude of the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP), an EEG component sensitive to the association between an action and its resulting effect. Collectively, these preliminary results suggest that the formation of long-term action-outcome representations may be maintained in PD patients on regular dopamine treatment, but the initial experience of action-effect association may be affected.

19.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 68: 234-244, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27264831

RESUMO

Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Humanos , Sensação
20.
Biol Lett ; 11(3)2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25762573

RESUMO

Hippidions were equids with very distinctive anatomical features. They lived in South America 2.5 million years ago (Ma) until their extinction approximately 10 000 years ago. The evolutionary origin of the three known Hippidion morphospecies is still disputed. Based on palaeontological data, Hippidion could have diverged from the lineage leading to modern equids before 10 Ma. In contrast, a much later divergence date, with Hippidion nesting within modern equids, was indicated by partial ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences. Here, we characterized eight Hippidion complete mitochondrial genomes at 3.4-386.3-fold coverage using target-enrichment capture and next-generation sequencing. Our dataset reveals that the two morphospecies sequenced (H. saldiasi and H. principale) formed a monophyletic clade, basal to extant and extinct Equus lineages. This contrasts with previous genetic analyses and supports Hippidion as a distinct genus, in agreement with palaeontological models. We date the Hippidion split from Equus at 5.6-6.5 Ma, suggesting an early divergence in North America prior to the colonization of South America, after the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus 3.5 Ma and the Great American Biotic Interchange.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Equidae/classificação , Fósseis , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Equidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , América do Norte , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
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