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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(6)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471044

RESUMO

This study was aimed at the production and characterization of coated cotton textiles with luminescent ceramic nanophases doped with cationic Ir(III) tetrazole complexes. We confirmed that SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) do not affect the phosphorescent properties of the complexes that maintain their emission (610 and 490 nm). For the first time we transferred the luminescence feature from nanosol to textile surface, highlighting the advantages of using nanosilica as an encapsulating and stabilizing matrix. The optimized Ir@SiO2 suspensions were homogenously applied onto the cotton surface by dip-pad-dry-cure technique, as proved by the 2p-fluorescence microscope analysis. Once we verified the self-marker properties of the Ir(III) complex, we observed an excellent washing fastness of the coating with a very limited release. SiO2 in the washing water was quantified at maximum around 1.5 wt% and Ir below the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) detection limit of 1 ppm. A Franz cell test was used to evaluate any possible ex-vivo uptake of Ir@SiO2 nanoparticles across human skin tissues, showing that epidermis and dermis stop over 99% of Ir, implying a reduced impact on human health. The light-induced antimicrobial potential of the Ir@SiO2 were assessed toward both Gram(-) and Gram(+) bacteria. The results encouraged further developments of such functional textiles coated by self-markers and antibacterial active nanophases.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 48(41): 15613-15624, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408065

RESUMO

The synthesis, structural and photophysical characterisation of four tricarbonyl rhenium(i) complexes bound to 1,10-phenanthroline and a tetrazolato ancillary ligand are reported. The complexes are differentiated by the nature (hydroxy or methoxy) and position (meta or para) of the substituent attached to the phenyl ring in conjugation to the tetrazole ring. The complexes exhibit phosphorescence emission from triplet charge transfer excited states, with the maxima around 600 nm, excited state lifetime decays in the 200-300 ns range, and quantum yield values of 4-6% in degassed acetonitrile solutions. The nature and position of the substituent does not significantly affect the photophysical properties, which remain unchanged even after deprotonation of the hydroxide group on the phenol ring. The interpretation of the photophysical data was further validated by resonance Raman spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory calculations. All the complexes are internalised within cells, albeit to variable degrees. As highlighted by a combination of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the species display diffuse cytoplasmic localisation except for the complex with the hydroxy functional group at the para position, which reveals lower accumulation in cells and more pronounced punctate staining. Overall, the complexes displayed low levels of cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Fenol/química , Rênio/química , Tetrazóis/química , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/toxicidade , Ligantes , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Prótons , Teoria Quântica , Células RAW 264.7
3.
Chemistry ; 25(45): 10566-10570, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197892

RESUMO

A family of three neutral iridium(III) tetrazolato complexes are investigated as bacterial imaging agents. The complexes offer a facile tuning of the emission colour from green (520 nm) to red (600 nm) in aqueous media, while keeping the excitation wavelength unchanged. The three complexes do not inhibit the bacterial growth of Bacillus Cereus, used as a model in this study, and exhibit extremely fast cellular uptake. After a minute incubation time, the nontoxic complexes show subcellular localisation in spherical structures identified as lipid vacuoles. Confocal Raman imaging has been exploited for the first time on live bacteria, to provide direct and label-free mapping of the lipid-enriched organelles within B. cereus, complementing the use of luminescent probes. Examination of the Raman spectra not only confirmed the presence of lipophilic inclusions in B. cereus but offered additional information about their chemical composition, suggesting that the lipid vacuoles may contain polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB).


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Irídio/química , Lipídeos/química , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
Oncotarget ; 9(85): 35541-35552, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473749

RESUMO

Lipids are important cellular components which can be significantly altered in a range of disease states including prostate cancer. Here, a unique systematic approach has been used to define lipid profiles of prostate cancer cell lines, using quantitative mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescent microscopy. All three approaches identified significant difference in the lipid profiles of the three prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP and 22RV1) and one non-malignant cell line (PNT1a). Specific lipid classes and species, such as phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine 18:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:1) and cholesteryl esters, detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS, allowed statistical separation of all four prostate cell lines. Lipid mapping by FTIR revealed that variations in these lipid classes could also be detected at a single cell level, however further investigation into this approach would be needed to generate large enough data sets for quantitation. Visualisation by fluorescence microscopy showed striking variations that could be observed in lipid staining patterns between cell lines allowing visual separation of cell lines. In particular, polar lipid staining by a fluorescent marker was observed to increase significantly in prostate cancer lines cells, when compared to PNT1a cells, which was consistent with lipid quantitation by LC-ESI-MS/MS and FTIR spectroscopy. Thus, multiple technologies can be employed to either quantify or visualise changes in lipid composition, and moreover specific lipid profiles could be used to detect and phenotype prostate cancer cells.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 47(28): 9400-9410, 2018 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952386

RESUMO

Within the general framework of our past and current studies dealing with the investigation of the photophysical properties and the biological behavior of the family of tetrazolato and tetrazole Re(i) complexes, we have endeavored to investigate their potential in the luminescent staining of proteins purified by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. With the aim to provide the first examples of luminescent Re(i) complexes to be exploited for this specific purpose, we have designed and prepared four new Re(i)-based species with the general formula fac-[Re(CO)3(N^N)(Tph)]2-/0, where Tph is the 5-(phenyl)tetrazolato anion and N^N is in turn represented by bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS), bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) or by the SO3- free bathocuproine (BC). In this latter case, the neutral complex fac-[Re(CO)3(BC)(Tph)] served as a model species for the characterization of the former disulfonate complexes. Its cationic analogue fac-[Re(CO)3(BC)(Tph-Me)]+ was also prepared by a straightforward methylation reaction. All complexes displayed bright phosphorescence in organic media and, relative to their water solubility, the dianionic species fac-[Re(CO)3(BPS)(Tph)]2- and fac-[Re(CO)3(BCS)(Tph)]2- were also highly emissive in aqueous solution. The sulfonate groups played a key role in promoting and significantly enhancing the luminescent staining performances of both the Re(i) complexes fac-[Re(CO)3(BPS)(Tph)]2- and fac-[Re(CO)3(BCS)(Tph)]2- for proteins. Highlighting a response superior to that of Coomassie Blue and comparable to the one obtained by the well-known silver staining method, these dianionic Re(i)-complexes could efficiently detect up to 50 ng of pure Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), as well as all proteins found in a Standard Protein Marker mix and from a total protein extract. A lower but still good response for luminescent protein staining was surprisingly obtained by employing the -SO3- free neutral and cationic complexes fac-[Re(CO)3(BC)(Tph)] and fac-[Re(CO)3(BC)(Tph-Me)]+, respectively. These preliminary results open up new possibilities for the further widening of the use of Re(i)-based complexes as luminescent protein staining agents.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Fenantrolinas/química , Rênio/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Luminescência , Muramidase/química , Ovalbumina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , beta-Galactosidase/química
6.
Dalton Trans ; 47(24): 7956-7964, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855648

RESUMO

An isomorphous series of lanthanoid complexes containing tribenzoylmethanide (tbm) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands has been synthesised and structurally characterised. These complexes, formulated as [Ln(phen)(tbm)3] (Ln = Eu3+, Er3+ and Yb3+), were compared with analogous dibenzoylmethanide (dbm) [Ln(phen)(dbm)3] complexes to investigate the effect of changing ß-diketonate to ß-triketonate ligands on the photophysical properties of the complex. The photophysical properties for the Eu3+ complexes were similar for both systems, whereas a modest enhancement was observed for Yb3+ and Er3+ moving from the dbm to the tbm complexes. A detailed study of the NIR photophysical properties was achieved by adapting the integrating sphere method for the calculation of overall quantum yields in the solid state.

7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8191, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844412

RESUMO

Mitochondrial morphology is important for the function of this critical organelle and, accordingly, altered mitochondrial structure is exhibited in many pathologies. Imaging of mitochondria can therefore provide important information about disease presence and progression. However, mitochondrial imaging is currently limited by the availability of agents that have the capacity to image mitochondrial morphology in both live and fixed samples. This can be particularly problematic in clinical studies or large, multi-centre cohort studies, where tissue archiving by fixation is often more practical. We previously reported the synthesis of an iridium coordination complex [Ir(ppy)2(MeTzPyPhCN)]+; where ppy is a cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine and TzPyPhCN is the 5-(5-(4-cyanophen-1-yl)pyrid-2-yl)tetrazolate ligand; and showed that this complex (herein referred to as IraZolve-Mito) has a high specificity for mitochondria in live cells. Here we demonstrate that IraZolve-Mito can also effectively stain mitochondria in both live and fixed tissue samples. The staining protocol proposed is versatile, providing a universal procedure for cell biologists and pathologists to visualise mitochondria.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/análise , Irídio/análise , Substâncias Luminescentes/análise , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Técnicas de Preparação Histocitológica/métodos , Luminescência , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Ratos , Ovinos , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos
8.
Dalton Trans ; 46(36): 12328-12338, 2017 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28891573

RESUMO

Two neutral cyclometalated Ir(iii)-tetrazolato complexes that differ by variations of the substituents on either the phenylpyridine or the tetrazolate ligand have been converted into the corresponding methylated and cationic analogues. NMR (1H and 13C) characterization of the Ir(iii) complexes provided the results in agreement with the chemo- and regioselective character of methylation at the N-3 position of the Ir(iii)-coordinated tetrazolato ring. This evidence was further corroborated by the analysis of the molecular structures of the cationic complexes obtained by X-ray diffraction. In view of the photophysical properties, the addition of a methyl moiety to neutral Ir(iii) tetrazolates, which behave as sky-blue or orange phosphors, caused a systematic red shift of their phosphorescence output. The transformation of neutral Ir(iii) tetrazolates into cationic Ir(iii)-tetrazole complexes was screened for any eventual antimicrobial activity in vitro against Gram negative (E. coli) and Gram positive (D. radiodurans) microorganisms. While both kinds of complexes were not active against E. coli, the conversion of the neutral Ir(iii) tetrazolates into the corresponding methylated and cationic Ir(iii)tetrazole derivatives determined the turn-on of a good to excellent antimicrobial activity toward Gram positive Deinococcus radiodurans, a non-pathogenic bacterium that is listed as one of the toughest microorganisms in light of its outstanding resistance to radiation and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Irídio/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Deinococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Deinococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ligantes , Metilação , Conformação Molecular , Tetrazóis/química
9.
Chemistry ; 23(62): 15666-15679, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28782852

RESUMO

A family of five neutral cyclometalated iridium(III) tetrazolato complexes and their methylated cationic analogues have been synthesised and characterised. The complexes are distinguished by variations of the substituents or degree of π conjugation on either the phenylpyridine or tetrazolato ligands. The photophysical properties of these species have been evaluated in organic and aqueous media, revealing predominantly a solvatochromic emission originating from mixed metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer excited states of triplet multiplicity. These emissions are characterised by typically long excited-state lifetimes (∼hundreds of ns), and quantum yields around 5-10 % in aqueous media. Methylation of the complexes caused a systematic red-shift of the emission profiles. The behaviour and the effects of the different complexes were then examined in cells. The neutral species localised mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets, whereas the majority of the cationic complexes localised in the mitochondria. The amount of complexes found within cells does not depend on lipophilicity, which potentially suggests diverse uptake mechanisms. Methylated analogues were found to be more cytotoxic compared to the neutral species, a behaviour that might to be linked to a combination of uptake and intracellular localisation.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Irídio/química , Tetrazóis/química , Animais , Cátions/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/toxicidade , Cristalografia por Raios X , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Ligantes , Luz , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Conformação Molecular , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Piridinas/química , Ratos
10.
Inorg Chem ; 56(15): 8975-8985, 2017 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696105

RESUMO

The reaction of the ß-triketonate ligands tris(4-methylbenzoyl)methanide and tribenzoylmethanide with the trivalent lanthanoids Eu3+, Er3+, and Yb3+ in the presence of Cs+ afforded polymeric structures where the repeating units are represented by bimetallic tetranuclear assemblies of formulation {[Ln(Cs)(ß-triketonate)4]2}n. The only exception is the structure formed by the reaction of tris(4-methylbenzoyl)methanide, Yb3+, and Cs+, which yielded a polymeric assembly where the repeating units are mononuclear Yb3+ complexes bridged by Cs+ cations. Photophysical measurements on the obtained materials confirmed efficient sensitization from the ligand excited states to the 4f* excited states of the three lanthanoids. According to transient absorption data, Er3+ and Yb3+ are sensitized via energy transfer from the triplet state of the ß-triketonate ligands. On the other hand, energy transfer to Eu3+ seems to occur via an alternative pathway, possibly directly via the singlet state or through ligand to metal charge transfer states. The emission measurements confirm efficient sensitization for all three lanthanoids and bright near-infrared emission for Er3+ and Yb3+, a characteristic that seems to be linked to the specific chemical structure of the ß-triketonate ligands.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 56(6): 3404-3413, 2017 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240873

RESUMO

We carried out time-resolved infrared (TR-IR) and emission lifetime measurements on a Re(I) carbonyl complex having an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, namely, fac-[Re(CO)3(PyImPh)Br], under photochemically reactive (in solution in acetonitrile) and nonreactive (in solution in dichloromethane) conditions to investigate the mechanism of photochemical ligand substitution reactions. The TR-IR measurements revealed that no reaction occurs on a picosecond time scale and the cationic product, namely, fac-[Re(CO)3(PyImPh)(MeCN)]+, is produced on a nanosecond time scale only in solution in acetonitrile, which indicates that the reaction proceeds thermally from the excited state. Because no other products were observed by TR-IR, we concluded that this cationic product is an intermediate species for further reactions. The measurements of the temperature-dependent emission lifetime and analysis using transition-state theory revealed that the photochemical substitution reaction proceeds from a metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state, the structure of which allows the potential coordination of a solvent molecule. Thus, the coordinating capacity of the solvent determines whether the reaction proceeds or not. This mechanism is different from those of photochemical reactions of other types of Re(I) carbonyl complexes owing to the unique characteristics of the carbene ligand.

12.
Dalton Trans ; 46(17): 5558-5570, 2017 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872923

RESUMO

The versatile rhenium complex [ReCl(CO)3(bpyC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CH)] (HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]Cbpy = 5-ethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine) is used to generate a series of bimetallic complexes through the hydrometallation of [MHCl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] (M = Ru, Os; BTD = 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole). The ruthenium complex [Ru{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}Cl(BTD)(CO)(PPh3)2] was characterised structurally. Ligand exchange reactions with bifunctional linkers bearing oxygen and sulfur donors provide access to tetra- and pentametallic complexes such as [{M{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}(CO)(PPh3)2}2(S2CNC4H8NCS2)] and Fe[C5H4CO2M{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}(CO)(PPh3)2]2. The effect of the group 8 metal on the photophysical properties of the rhenium centre was investigated using the complexes [Ru{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}Cl(BTD)(CO)(PPh3)2] and [M{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}{S2P(OEt)2}(CO)(PPh3)2] (M = Ru, Os). This revealed the quenching of the rhenium-based emission in favour of weak radiative processes based on the Ru and Os centres. The potential for exploiting this effect is illustrated by the reaction of [Ru{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] with carbon monoxide, which results in a 5-fold fluorescence enhancement in the dicarbonyl product, [Ru{CH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH-bpyReCl(CO)3}Cl(CO)2(PPh3)2], as the quenching effect is disrupted.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 45(32): 12884-96, 2016 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477005

RESUMO

The bis-tetrazolate dianion [1,2 BTB](2-), which is the deprotonated form of 1,2 bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzene [1,2-H2BTB], is for the first time exploited as an ancillary N^N ligand for negatively charged [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](-)-type complexes, where C^N is represented by cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (F2ppy). The new Ir(iii) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- have been fully characterised and the analysis of the X-ray structure of [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- confirmed the coordination of the [1,2 BTB](2-) dianion in a bis chelated fashion through the N-atoms adjacent to each of the tetrazolic carbons. Both of the new anionic Ir(iii) complexes displayed phosphorescence in the visible region, with intense sky-blue (λmax = 460-490 nm) or aqua (λmax = 490-520 nm) emissions originating from [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, respectively. In comparison with our very recent examples of anionic Ir(iii)tetrazolate cyclometalates, the new Ir(iii) tris chelate complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, display an improved robustness, allowing the study of their reactivity toward the addition of electrophiles such as H(+) and CH3(+). In all cases, the electrophilic attacks occurred at the coordinated tetrazolate rings, involving the reversible - by a protonation deprotonation mechanism - or permanent - upon addition of a methyl moiety - switching of their global net charge from negative to positive and, in particular, the concomitant variation of their photoluminescence output. The combination of the anionic complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- or [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- with a deep red emitting (λmax = 686 nm) cationic Ir(iii) tetrazole complex such as [IrTPYZ-Me]+, where TPYZ-Me is 2-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyrazine, gave rise to two fully Ir(iii)-based soft salts capable of displaying additive and O2-sensitive emission colours, with an almost pure white light obtained by the appropriate choice of the ionic components.

14.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0161557, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551717

RESUMO

Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells. Here we describe the potential for ReZolve-L1™ to localise to intracellular compartments containing polar lipids, such as for example sphingomyelin and phosphatidylethanolamine. In live Drosophila fat body tissue from third instar larvae, ReZolve-L1™ interacted mainly with lipid droplets, including the core region of these organelles. The presence of polar lipids in the core of these lipid droplets was confirmed by Raman mapping and while this was consistent with the distribution of ReZolve-L1™ it did not exclude that the molecular probe might be detecting other lipid species. In response to complete starvation conditions, ReZolve-L1™ was detected mainly in Atg8-GFP autophagic compartments, and showed reduced staining in the lipid droplets of fat body cells. The induction of autophagy by Tor inhibition also increased ReZolve-L1™ detection in autophagic compartments, whereas Atg9 knock down impaired autophagosome formation and altered the distribution of ReZolve-L1™. Finally, during Drosophila metamorphosis fat body tissues showed increased ReZolve-L1™ staining in autophagic compartments at two hours post puparium formation, when compared to earlier developmental time points. We concluded that ReZolve-L1™ is a new live cell imaging tool, which can be used as an imaging reagent for the detection of polar lipids in different intracellular compartments.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Sondas Moleculares , Adipócitos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Transporte Biológico , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Drosophila , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Metamorfose Biológica , Camundongos , Análise Espectral Raman , Coloração e Rotulagem
15.
FEBS Lett ; 590(18): 3051-60, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543777

RESUMO

Live cell imaging can provide important information on cellular dynamics; however, the full utilisation of this technology has been hampered by the limitations of imaging reagents. Metal-based complexes have the potential to overcome many of the issues common to many current imaging agents. The rhenium (I)-based complex fac-[Re(CO)3 (1,10-phenanthroline)(4-pyridyltetrazolate)], herein referred to as ReZolve-ER(™) , shows promise as a live cell imaging agent with rapid cell uptake, low cytotoxicity, resistance to photobleaching and compatibility with multicolour imaging. ReZolve-ER(™) localised to the nuclear membrane/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and allowed the detection of exocytotic events at the plasma membrane. Thus, we present a new imaging agent for monitoring live cell events in real time, which is ideal for imaging either short- or long-time courses.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Exocitose , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Compostos Organometálicos , Fenantrolinas , Rênio
16.
Dalton Trans ; 45(8): 3256-9, 2016 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26837780

RESUMO

The first examples of anionic Ir(iii) bis-tetrazolate complexes and their combination with a cationic Ir(iii)tetrazole derivative forming "fully tetrazolate" Ir(iii) based soft salts as O2-sensitive white emitters are described herein.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 44(47): 20636-47, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563409

RESUMO

Three new complexes of formulation fac-[Re(CO)3(diim)L], where diim is either 1,10-phenanthroline or 1,10-phenanthroline functionalised at position 5 by a thioalkyl chain, and L is either a chloro or aryltetrazolato ancillary ligand, were synthesised and photophysically characterised. The complexes exhibit phosphorescent emission with maxima around 600 nm, originating from triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer states with partially mixed ligand-to-ligand charge transfer character. The emission is relatively long-lived, within the 200-400 ns range, and with quantum yields of 2-4%. The complexes were trialed as cellular markers in live HeLa cells, along with two previously reported rhenium tetrazolato complexes bound to unsubstituted 1,10-phenanthroline. All five complexes exhibit good cellular uptake and non-specific perinuclear localisation. Upon excitation at 405 nm, the emission from the rhenium complexes could be clearly distinguished from autofluorescence, as demonstrated by spectral detection within the live cells. Four of the complexes did not appear to be toxic, however prolonged excitation could result in membrane blebbing. No major sign of photobleaching was detected upon multiple imaging on the same cell sample.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Fenantrolinas/química , Rênio/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ligantes , Fenantrolinas/farmacologia , Rênio/farmacologia
18.
Dalton Trans ; 44(47): 20597-608, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26554352

RESUMO

In order to exploit their potential as versatile luminescent sensors, four new Re(I)-tetrazolato complexes with the general formula fac-[Re(CO)3(diim)(L)], where diim is 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and L(-) is either the anion 5-(2'-pyridyl)tetrazolato (2-PTZ(-)) or 5-(2'-quinolyl)tetrazolato (2-QTZ(-)), were prepared and fully characterized. In all cases, the regioselective coordination of the Re(I) center through the N2 atom of the tetrazolato ring was observed. This particular feature ensures the availability of the diiminic (N^N) site that was systematically incorporated into the structure of the 2-PTZ(-) and 2-QTZ(-) ligands for further coordination with metal cations. Such a diimine-type coordination mode was preliminarily tested by using the mononuclear Re(I) complexes as N^N ligands for the preparation of two [(N^N)Cu(POP)] cationic species, where POP is the chelating diphosphine bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether. The X-ray structures of the resulting Re(I)-Cu(I) dyads revealed that the Re(I) mononuclear complexes effectively behaved as chelating N^N ligands with respect to the [Cu(POP)](+) fragment, the coordination of which also resulted in significant modification of the Re(I)-centered luminescence. With these data in hand, the luminescent sensing abilities of the four new Re(I) tetrazolato complexes were screened with respect to divalent metal ions of toxicological and biological importance such as Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). The interaction of the Re(I) complexes with Zn(II) and Cd(II) was witnessed by the evident blue shift (Δλmax = 22-36 nm) of the emission maxima, which was also accompanied by a significant elongation of the emission lifetimes. On the contrary, the addition of the cupric ion caused substantial quenching of the radiative processes originating from the Re(I) luminophores.

19.
Chemistry ; 21(50): 18354-63, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26511032

RESUMO

The reaction of hydrated lanthanoid chlorides with tribenzoylmethane and an alkali metal hydroxide consistently resulted in the crystallization of neutral tetranuclear assemblies with the general formula [Ln(Ae⋅HOEt)(L)4 ]2 (Ln=Eu(3+) , Er(3+) , Yb(3+) ; Ae=Na(+) , K(+) , Rb(+) ). Analysis of the crystal structures of these species revealed a coordination geometry that varied from a slightly distorted square antiprism to a slightly distorted triangular dodecahedron, with the specific geometrical shape being dependent on the degree of lattice solvation and identity of the alkali metal. The near-infrared (NIR)-emitting assemblies of Yb(3+) and Er(3+) showed remarkably efficient emission, characterized by significantly longer excited-state lifetimes (τobs ≈37-47 µs for Yb(3+) and τobs ≈4-6 µs for Er(3+) ) when compared with the broader family of lanthanoid ß-diketonate species, even in the case of perfluorination of the ligands. The Eu(3+) assemblies show bright red emission and a luminescence performance (τobs ≈0.5 ms, ${{\Phi}{{{\rm L}\hfill \atop {\rm Ln}\hfill}}}$≈35-37 %, ηsens ≈68-70 %) more akin to the ß-diketonate species. The results highlight that the ß-triketonate ligand offers a tunable and facile system for the preparation of efficient NIR emitters without the need for more complicated perfluorination or deuteration synthetic strategies.

20.
Dalton Trans ; 44(18): 8379-93, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25582581

RESUMO

The irreversible reaction of methyl triflate with neutral Re(I) tetrazolato complexes of the type fac-[Re(diim)(CO)3(L)], where diim is either 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine and L is a para substituted 5-aryltetrazolate, yielded the corresponding cationic methylated complexes. While methylation occurred regioselectively at the N4 position of the tetrazole ring, the cationic complexes were found to exist in solution as equilibrating mixtures of linkage isomers, where the Re(i) centre was bound to either the N1 or N2 atom of the tetrazole ring. The existence of these isomers was highlighted both by NMR and X-ray crystallography studies. On the other hand, the two isomers appeared indistinguishable by IR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopy. The prepared cationic complexes are all brightly phosphorescent in fluid and rigid solutions, with emission originating from triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited states. Compared to their neutral precursors, which emit from admixtures of triplet metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer states, the methylated complexes exhibit blue-shifted emission characterised by elongated excited state lifetimes and increased quantum yields. The nature of the excited states for both the neutral and the methylated complexes was probed by resonance Raman spectroscopy and with the aid of time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Lastly, both the neutral and the methylated species were used as emitting phosphors in the fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Light Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

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