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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2252239, 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36701156

RESUMO

Importance: The association between an overall healthy lifestyle and the subsequent risk of microvascular complications among patients with diabetes remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association between adherence to a healthy lifestyle before and after diabetes diagnosis and the risk of subsequent microvascular complications among adults with diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included incident patients with type 2 diabetes who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at the time of diabetes diagnosis and completed the diabetes supplementary questionnaires in the Nurses' Health Study (in 2000 and 2005) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (in 2000, 2004, and 2008) in the US. Data were analyzed from April to August 2021. Exposures: Diet and lifestyle factors before and after diabetes diagnosis were assessed by validated questionnaires. A healthy lifestyle consisted of nonsmoking, having a healthy body weight (a body mass index of ≥18.5 or <25), engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥150 minutes per week), consuming a high-quality diet (top 40th percentile of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index), and moderate alcohol drinking (5-15 g/d for women and 5-30 g/d for men). Main Outcomes and Measures: Physician-diagnosed microvascular complications including diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and foot disorders were self-reported at questionnaire surveys. Results: A total of 7077 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the cohort (4982 women in NHS and 2095 men in HPFS, mean [SD] age 61 [8.8], 94.2% White). During follow-up, 2878 patients developed microvascular complications. After multivariable adjustment, adherence to a healthy lifestyle before and after diabetes diagnosis were both associated with a lower risk of developing microvascular complications. The relative risk (RR) for participants with 4 or more low-risk lifestyle factors before diabetes diagnosis compared with zero was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.91) for any microvascular complications, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.93) for diabetic neuropathy, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.57-1.01) for diabetic retinopathy, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.23-0.79) for diabetic nephropathy, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.35-1.00) for diabetic foot disorders. Similar results were observed for adherence to a healthy lifestyle after diabetes diagnosis, with an RR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55-0.83) for any microvascular complications, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.51-0.88) for diabetic neuropathy, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.86) for diabetic retinopathy, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.34-0.98) for diabetic nephropathy, and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.37-1.05) for diabetic foot disorders. In addition, greater improvement in lifestyle factors from before to after diabetes diagnosis was also significantly associated with a lower risk of neuropathy or total microvascular complications. Each increment in number of low-risk lifestyle factors was associated with a 6% (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.98) lower risk for any microvascular complications and a 9% (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.96) lower risk for diabetic neuropathy. Consistent results were observed when analyses were stratified by age at diabetes diagnosis, sex/cohort, or lifestyle factors before diabetes diagnosis. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, adhering to an overall healthy lifestyle was associated with a significantly lower risk of microvascular complications among individuals with diabetes. These findings suggest substantial reduction in the burden of microvascular complications associated with adopting a healthy lifestyle among patients with type 2 diabetes.

2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(11): e892-e900, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diets that are rich in animal-based foods threaten planetary and human health, but plant-rich diets have varied health and environmental effects. We aimed to characterise a healthy dietary index and three plant-based indices by their environmental impacts and associations with risk of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we used data from a food-frequency questionnaire in the US-based Nurses' Health Study II. Participants were categorised by quintiles of four dietary indices, including the alternative healthy eating index-2010 (AHEI), plant-based diet index (PDI), unhealthy PDI, and healthy PDI. We calculated environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions and irrigation water, nitrogenous fertiliser, and high-quality cropland needs), and relative risks (RRs) of cardiovascular disease from 1991-2017, comparing quintiles. FINDINGS: We included 90 884 participants in the health-impact analysis and 65 625 participants in the environmental-impact analysis. Comparing the top and bottom quintiles, higher AHEI scores were associated with a decreased cardiovascular disease risk (relative risk 0·77 [95% CI 0·66-0·89]); 30% lower greenhouse gas emissions (Q5 2·6 kg CO2 equivalent vs Q1 3·7 kg CO2 equivalent); and lower fertiliser, cropland, and water needs (all ptrends<0·0001). Similarly, the highest healthy PDI and PDI quintiles were associated with a decreased cardiovascular disease risk (healthy PDI 0·71 [0·60-0·83] and PDI 0·74 [0·63-0·85]) and lower environmental impacts (PDI water needs ptrend=0·0014; all other ptrends<0·0001). Conversely, the highest unhealthy PDI quintile had a higher cardiovascular disease risk compared with the lowest unhealthy PDI quintile (1·15 [1·00-1·33]; ptrend=0·023) and required more cropland (ptrend<0·0001) and fertiliser (ptrend=0·0008). INTERPRETATION: Dietary patterns that are associated with better health had lower greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogenous fertiliser, cropland, and irrigation water needs. Not all plant-based diets conferred the same health and environmental benefits. US dietary guidelines should include nuanced consideration of environmental sustainability. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fertilizantes , Dióxido de Carbono , Meio Ambiente , Água
3.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated prospectively the association between incident early- (diagnosed before 40 years of age) and later-onset type 2 diabetes and early- (diagnosed before 50 years of age) and later-onset cancer risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 228,073 eligible participants in the Nurses' Health Studies for up to 38 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI were estimated using Cox models. RESULTS: We documented 18,290 type 2 diabetes, 6,520 early-onset cancer, and 36,907 later-onset cancer cases during follow-up. In fully adjusted analyses, early-onset type 2 diabetes was associated with increased risk of early-onset total cancer (HR [95% CI] 1.47 [1.06-2.04]), diabetes-related cancer (2.11 [1.38-3.23]), and obesity-related cancer (1.75 [1.08-2.82]), and the risk elevations were restricted to those with a BMI at 18 years of age of ≥21 kg/m2 (total cancer: 1.75 [1.20-2.56]; diabetes-related cancer: 2.43 [1.50-3.94]; and obesity-related cancer: 1.84 [1.05-3.22]). Early-onset type 2 diabetes was associated with higher risk of later-onset diabetes-related and obesity-related cancer specifically among individuals with higher BMI at 18 years of age. Later-onset type 2 diabetes was associated with a higher risk of later-onset total cancer (1.15 [1.11-1.20]), diabetes-related cancer (1.17 [1.12-1.22]), and obesity-related cancer (1.18 [1.13-1.24]). In analyses based on refined timing, the HRs attenuated substantially with aging. CONCLUSIONS: Incident early-onset type 2 diabetes was associated with increased risk of early-onset total cancer and diabetes- and obesity-related cancer, especially in those with higher BMI at 18 years of age. The impact of early-onset type 2 diabetes on cancer risk may be inherently stronger than that of later-onset type 2 diabetes. ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS: The relationship between incident early- and later-onset type 2 diabetes and risk of early- and later-onset cancer is unclear. We investigated this topic based on 228,073 U.S. women and up to 38 years of follow-up. Our findings suggested that incident early-onset type 2 diabetes was associated with increased risk of early-onset total cancer, and diabetes- and obesity-related cancer, especially in those with higher BMI at age 18 years. Cancer prevention efforts tailored for patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes may need to focus on those with higher adolescent or emerging adulthood BMI. The impact of early-onset type 2 diabetes on cancer risk may be inherently stronger than that of later-onset type 2 diabetes.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation-related mechanisms may be important in the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and diet plays a crucial role in modulating inflammation. Current epidemiologic evidence for the associations between dietary patterns and OSA risk is limited to cross-sectional studies. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prospectively the associations of overall diet quality and proinflammatory diet with OSA risk. DESIGN: We followed 145,801 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (2002-2012), Nurses' Health Study II (1995-2013), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1996-2012). The Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern (EDIP) scores were calculated based on validated food frequency questionnaires administered every 4 years. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We documented 8,856 incident OSA cases during follow-up. In pooled analyses adjusted for potential confounders, higher diet quality (higher AHEI scores) was associated with lower OSA risk (HR comparing the highest versus lowest quintiles of AHEI: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.82; P-trend < 0.001), and higher dietary inflammatory potential (higher EDIP scores) was associated with significantly increased risk (HR comparing participants with highest versus lowest quintiles of EDIP: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.81, 2.08; P-trend < 0.001). Additional adjustment for metabolic factors attenuated both associations. The association with AHEI was no longer statistically significant (comparable HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.05; P-trend = 0.54), whereas the association with EDIP remained statistically significant (comparable HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.41; P-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A healthier diet, particularly the one with anti-inflammatory potential, was associated with lower OSA risk.

5.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 327, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mediterranean (MED) diet is a rich source of polyphenols, which benefit adiposity by several mechanisms. We explored the effect of the green-MED diet, twice fortified in dietary polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat, on visceral adipose tissue (VAT). METHODS: In the 18-month Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial PoLyphenols UnproceSsed (DIRECT-PLUS) weight-loss trial, 294 participants were randomized to (A) healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), (B) MED, or (C) green-MED diets, all combined with physical activity. Both isocaloric MED groups consumed 28 g/day of walnuts (+ 440 mg/day polyphenols). The green-MED group further consumed green tea (3-4 cups/day) and Wolffia globosa (duckweed strain) plant green shake (100 g frozen cubes/day) (+ 800mg/day polyphenols) and reduced red meat intake. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the abdominal adipose tissues. RESULTS: Participants (age = 51 years; 88% men; body mass index = 31.2 kg/m2; 29% VAT) had an 89.8% retention rate and 79.3% completed eligible MRIs. While both MED diets reached similar moderate weight (MED: - 2.7%, green-MED: - 3.9%) and waist circumference (MED: - 4.7%, green-MED: - 5.7%) loss, the green-MED dieters doubled the VAT loss (HDG: - 4.2%, MED: - 6.0%, green-MED: - 14.1%; p < 0.05, independent of age, sex, waist circumference, or weight loss). Higher dietary consumption of green tea, walnuts, and Wolffia globosa; lower red meat intake; higher total plasma polyphenols (mainly hippuric acid), and elevated urine urolithin A polyphenol were significantly related to greater VAT loss (p < 0.05, multivariate models). CONCLUSIONS: A green-MED diet, enriched with plant-based polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat, may be a potent intervention to promote visceral adiposity regression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03020186.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Adiposidade , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal , Polifenóis , Chá , Redução de Peso
6.
Br J Cancer ; 127(9): 1670-1679, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual health behaviours have been associated with fatal prostate cancer (PCa). Their combined association with fatal PCa after diagnosis is unknown. METHODS: This prospective cohort included 4518 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic PCa from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Exposures included a three-factor score integrating post-diagnostic fatal PCa risk factors ("2021 PCa Behaviour Score"), six-factor score integrating incident aggressive PCa risk factors ("2015 PCa Behaviour Score"), and two scores integrating recommendations for cancer prevention and survival, respectively. Multivariable Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for fatal PCa. RESULTS: Over a median 10.2 years, we observed 219 PCa deaths. Each additional point of one of the PCa-specific health behaviour scores (2015 PCa Behaviour Score) was associated with a 19% reduced fatal PCa risk (HR: 0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97). The 2021 PCa Behaviour Score and scores integrating national recommendations were not associated with fatal PCa. CONCLUSIONS: While a PCa-specific health behaviour score was associated with a reduced risk of fatal PCa, we did not otherwise observe strong evidence of associations between post-diagnostic scores and fatal PCa. Avoiding tobacco, healthy body size, and physical activity may decrease PCa death risk, but further research is needed to inform cancer survivorship recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Seguimentos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
7.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 8(5): 481-491, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836303

RESUMO

Current biomarkers are inadequate prognostic predictors in localized prostate cancer making treatment decision-making challenging. Previously, we observed that the combination of more variable telomere length among prostate cancer cells and shorter telomere length in prostate cancer-associated stromal cells - the telomere biomarker - is strongly associated with progression to metastasis and prostate cancer death after prostatectomy independent of currently used pathologic indicators. Here, we optimized our method allowing for semi-automated telomere length determination in single cells in fixed tissue, and tested the telomere biomarker in five cohort studies of men surgically treated for clinically localized disease (N = 2,255). We estimated the relative risk (RR) of progression to metastasis (N = 311) and prostate cancer death (N = 85) using models appropriate to each study's design adjusting for age, prostatectomy stage, and tumor grade, which then we meta-analyzed using inverse variance weights. Compared with men who had less variable telomere length among prostate cancer cells and longer telomere length in prostate cancer-associated stromal cells, men with the combination of more variable and shorter telomere length had 3.76 times the risk of prostate cancer death (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-10.3, p = 0.01) and had 2.23 times the risk of progression to metastasis (95% CI 0.99-5.02, p = 0.05). The telomere biomarker was associated with prostate cancer death in men with intermediate risk disease (grade groups 2/3: RR = 9.18, 95% CI 1.14-74.0, p = 0.037) and with PTEN protein intact tumors (RR = 6.74, 95% CI 1.46-37.6, p = 0.015). In summary, the telomere biomarker is robust and associated with poor outcome independent of current pathologic indicators in surgically treated men.


Assuntos
Próstata , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/patologia
8.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(2)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated long-term overall survival and causes of death among men and women diagnosed with most commonly occurring cancers. METHODS: We estimated long-term (≥30-year) overall and cause-specific cumulative mortality for men diagnosed with prostate (n = 6873), lung and bronchus (n = 1290), colon and rectum (n = 1418), bladder (n = 1321), and melanoma (n = 2654) cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study between 1986 and 2012 and women with breast (n = 18 280), lung and bronchus (n = 3963), colon and rectum (n = 3461), uterine corpus (n = 1641), and thyroid (n = 1103) cancer in the Nurses' Health Study between 1976 and 2012 and Nurses' Health Study II between 1989 and 2013. RESULTS: We reported overall and cause-specific cumulative mortality of 30 years among men and 35 years among women. Among male cancer survivors, the 30-year cumulative cancer-specific mortality was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.4% to 16.4%) for prostate, 83.5% (95% CI = 81.2% to 85.5%) for lung and bronchus, 37.0% (95% CI = 34.4% to 39.5%) for colon and rectum, 22.5% (95% CI = 20.0% to 25.0%) for urinary bladder, and 8.0% (95% CI = 6.9% to 9.1%) for melanoma. Among female cancer survivors, the 35-year cumulative cancer-specific mortality rate was 20.6% (95% CI = 19.7% to 21.6%) for breast, 83.5% (95% CI = 81.6% to 85.2%) for lung and bronchus, 39.6% (95% CI = 37.5% to 41.6%) for colon and rectum, 16.6% (95% CI = 14.7% to 18.6%) for uterine corpus, and 3.2% (95% CI = 2.1% to 4.3%) for thyroid. Except for lung cancer, most patients with common cancer were more likely to die from causes other than primary cancers. We observed 2 basic trends for cumulative cancer-specific mortality. The first is a sustained but nevertheless excess risk: Prostate or breast cancer-specific cumulative mortality continued to increase after diagnosis from 5 to 30 years or longer. The second is greatly diminished risk of index cancer-specific mortality following diagnosis 10 years or longer previously. For example, colorectal cancer-specific mortality increased by less than 4 percentage points between 10 and 30 or 35 years after diagnosis, and this finding also applied to lung, bladder, melanoma, uterine corpus, and thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Except for lung cancer, patients diagnosed with common cancers were more likely to die from causes other than primary cancers. Patients with lung, colorectal, bladder, melanoma, uterine corpus, or thyroid cancer surviving longer than 10 years after diagnosis are unlikely to die from that disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Melanoma , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
9.
Proteomics ; 22(13-14): e2100170, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598103

RESUMO

Limited data exist on the performance of high-throughput proteomics profiling in epidemiological settings, including the impact of specimen collection and within-person variability over time. Thus, the Olink (972 proteins) and SOMAscan7Kv4.1 (7322 proteoforms of 6596 proteins) assays were utilized to measure protein concentrations in archived plasma samples from the Nurses' Health Studies and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Spearman's correlation coefficients (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess agreement between (1) 42 triplicate samples processed immediately, 24-h or 48-h after blood collection from 14 participants; and (2) 80 plasma samples from 40 participants collected 1-year apart. When comparing samples processed immediately, 24-h, and 48-h later, 55% of assays had an ICC/r ≥ 0.75 and 87% had an ICC/r ≥ 0.40 in Olink compared to 44% with an ICC/r ≥ 0.75 and 72% with an ICC/r ≥ 0.40 in SOMAscan7K. For both platforms, >90% of the assays were stable (ICC/r ≥ 0.40) in samples collected 1-year apart. Among 817 proteins measured with both platforms, Spearman's correlations were high (r > 0.75) for 14.7% and poor (r < 0.40) for 44.8% of proteins. High-throughput proteomics profiling demonstrated reproducibility in archived plasma samples and stability after delayed processing in epidemiological studies, yet correlations between proteins measured with the Olink and SOMAscan7K platforms were highly variable.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Manejo de Espécimes , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 19(10): 1740-1749, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385367

RESUMO

Rationale: Recent prospective studies suggest diabetes as a risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the extent to which diabetes-related traits, such as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, are related to OSA risk remains uncertain. Objectives: To examine the risk of developing OSA according to baseline concentrations of fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods: Participants from four prospective U.S. cohorts were included: NHS (Nurses' Health Study; 2002-2012), NHSII (Nurses' Health Study II; 1995-2013), HPFS (Health Professionals Follow-up Study; 1996-2012), and MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 2000-2012). OSA was assessed by self-reported clinical diagnosis in NHS/NHSII/HPFS and at-home polysomnography in MESA (defined as Apnea-Hypopnea Index ⩾30). Results: Of 9,283 participants with fasting insulin data, 790 (8.5%) developed OSA over 10 to 18 years of follow-up. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and comorbidity factors, the odds ratio for incident OSA comparing the extreme quintiles of fasting insulin was 3.59 (95% confidence interval, 2.67-4.82; P-trend < 0.0001). Of 6,342 participants with HbA1c data, 715 (11.3%) developed OSA. The comparable odds ratio for HbA1c was 2.21 (95% confidence interval, 1.69-2.89; P-trend < 0.0001). Additional adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference attenuated the associations for fasting insulin (P-trend = 0.005) and HbA1c (P-trend = 0.03). In the fully adjusted model simultaneously including both biomarkers, only fasting insulin but not HbA1c was associated with OSA risk. Conclusions: Independent of obesity, insulin resistance may play a more important role than hyperglycemia in the pathogenesis of OSA. Given the limitation of using self-reported diagnosis to exclude baseline prevalent OSA cases, additional studies are needed to further establish the temporal relationship and assess whether improving insulin resistance may reduce OSA risk.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Insulina , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(1): 33-42, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361505

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although insufficient or prolonged sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease, sleep duration is not included in most lifestyle scores. This study evaluates the relationship between a lifestyle score, including sleep duration and cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: A prospective analysis among 67,250 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 29,114 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) was conducted in 2021. Lifestyle factors were updated every 2-4 years using self-reported questionnaires. The traditional lifestyle score was defined as not smoking, having a normal BMI, being physically active (≥30 minutes/day of moderate physical activity), eating a healthy diet, and drinking alcohol in moderation. Low-risk sleep duration, defined as sleeping ≥6 to <8 hours/day, was included as an additional component in the updated lifestyle score. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate cardiovascular disease risk. The likelihood-ratio test and C-statistics were used to compare both scores. RESULTS: A total of 11,710 incident cardiovascular disease cases during follow-up were documented. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios comparing 6 with 0 low-risk factors in the healthy lifestyle score including sleep duration were 0.17 (95% CI=0.12, 0.23) for cardiovascular disease, 0.14 (95% CI=0.10, 0.21) for coronary heart disease, and 0.20 (95% CI=0.12, 0.33) for stroke. Approximately 66% (95% CI=56%, 75%) of cardiovascular disease, 67% (95% CI=54%, 77%) of coronary heart disease, and 62% (95% CI=42%, 76%) of stroke cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle including sleep. Adding sleep duration to the score slightly increased the C-statistics from 0.64 (95% CI=0.63, 0.64) to 0.65 (95% CI=0.64, 0.65) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Adopting a healthy lifestyle including sleep recommendations could substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença das Coronárias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sono
12.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 29, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked the Mediterranean diet (MED) with improved cardiometabolic health, showing preliminary evidence for a mediating role of the gut microbiome. We recently suggested the Green-Mediterranean (Green-MED) diet as an improved version of the healthy MED diet, with increased consumption of plant-based foods and reduced meat intake. Here, we investigated the effects of MED interventions on the gut microbiota and cardiometabolic markers, and the interplay between the two, during the initial weight loss phase of the DIRECT-PLUS trial. METHODS: In the DIRECT-PLUS study, 294 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia were prospectively randomized to one of three intervention groups: healthy dietary guidelines (standard science-based nutritional counseling), MED, and Green-MED. Both isocaloric MED and Green-MED groups were supplemented with 28g/day walnuts. The Green-MED group was further provided with daily polyphenol-rich green tea and Mankai aquatic plant (new plant introduced to a western population). Gut microbiota was profiled by 16S rRNA for all stool samples and shotgun sequencing for a select subset of samples. RESULTS: Both MED diets induced substantial changes in the community structure of the gut microbiome, with the Green-MED diet leading to more prominent compositional changes, largely driven by the low abundant, "non-core," microorganisms. The Green-MED diet was associated with specific microbial changes, including enrichments in the genus Prevotella and enzymatic functions involved in branched-chain amino acid degradation, and reductions in the genus Bifidobacterium and enzymatic functions responsible for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. The MED and Green-MED diets were also associated with stepwise beneficial changes in body weight and cardiometabolic biomarkers, concomitantly with the increased plant intake and reduced meat intake. Furthermore, while the level of adherence to the Green-MED diet and its specific green dietary components was associated with the magnitude of changes in microbiome composition, changes in gut microbial features appeared to mediate the association between adherence to the Green-MED and body weight and cardiometabolic risk reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a mediating role of the gut microbiome in the beneficial effects of the Green-MED diet enriched with Mankai and green tea on cardiometabolic risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on ClinicalTrial.gov ( NCT03020186 ) on January 13, 2017.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta Mediterrânea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Chá , Redução de Peso
13.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 78: 102126, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303619
14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 6(1)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047751

RESUMO

Background: Experimental and epidemiologic evidence supports the role of circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels with the risk of prostate cancer. Most circulating IGF-1 is bound to specific binding proteins, and only about 5% circulates in a free form. We explored the relation of free IGF-1 and other components of the IGF system with lethal prostate cancer. Methods: Using prospectively collected samples, we undertook a nested case-only analysis among 434 men with lethal prostate cancer and 524 men with indolent, nonlethal prostate cancer in the Physicians' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Prediagnostic plasma samples were assayed for free IGF-1 and total IGF-1, acid labile subunit, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and intact and total IGF binding protein 4. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between IGF-1-related biomarkers and lethal prostate cancer using unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, height, and body mass index. Results: Men in the highest quartile of PAPP-A levels had 42% higher odds of lethal prostate cancer (pooled adjusted OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.92) compared with men in the lowest 3 quartiles. There were no statistically significant differences in the other plasma analytes. The positive association between PAPP-A and lethal prostate cancer was present among men with intact PTEN but not among those with tumor PTEN loss (2-sided P interaction = .001). Conclusions: Our study provides suggestive evidence that among men who later develop prostate cancer, higher plasma PAPP-A levels measured prior to diagnosis are associated with increased risk of lethal compared with indolent disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Seguimentos , Humanos , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/sangue , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/classificação , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Risco
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(5): 825-833, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029641

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether intake of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables was associated with glioma. Within 3 prospective cohorts from 1998-2016-the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study-we computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (MVHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for glioma by quintiles of intake of low- and high-pesticide-residue fruits and vegetables using Cox proportional hazards regression. Fruits and vegetables were categorized as high or low residue using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data. We confirmed 275 glioma cases across 2,745,862 person-years. A significant association was observed between intake of high-residue fruits and vegetables and glioma in NHS (MVHR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.38, 6.44 comparing highest with lowest quintile, P for trend = 0.02). This was not identified in NHSII (MVHR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.19, 1.45, P for trend = 0.20) or Health Professionals Follow-up Study (MVHR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.42, 2.45, P for trend = 0.39). No significant associations were observed by intake of low-residue fruits and vegetables; overall intake was not significantly associated with glioma in any cohort. We found no evidence for an inverse relationship of fruit and vegetable intake with glioma. Although limited in power, this study suggests a possible association between fruit-and-vegetable pesticide residue intake and risk of glioma that merits further study.


Assuntos
Glioma , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutas/química , Glioma/epidemiologia , Glioma/etiologia , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras/química
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(2): 101-112, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olive oil consumption has been shown to lower cardiovascular disease risk, but its associations with total and cause-specific mortality are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether olive oil intake is associated with total and cause-specific mortality in 2 prospective cohorts of U.S. men and women. METHODS: The authors used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models to estimate HRs for total and cause-specific mortality among 60,582 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1990-2018) and 31,801 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1990-2018) who were free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. RESULTS: During 28 years of follow-up, 36,856 deaths occurred. The multivariable-adjusted pooled HR for all-cause mortality among participants who had the highest consumption of olive oil (>0.5 tablespoon/day or >7 g/d) was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.78-0.84) compared with those who never or rarely consumed olive oil. Higher olive oil intake was associated with 19% lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.87), 17% lower risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.89), 29% lower risk of neurodegenerative disease mortality (HR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.64-0.78), and 18% lower risk of respiratory disease mortality (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In substitution analyses, replacing 10 g/d of margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with 8%-34% lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. No significant associations were observed when olive oil was compared with other vegetable oils combined. CONCLUSIONS: Higher olive oil intake was associated with lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality. Replacing margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil was associated with lower risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Azeite de Oliva , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Transtornos Respiratórios/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(5): 1270-1281, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of diet on age-related brain atrophy is largely unproven. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MED) higher in polyphenols and lower in red/processed meat (Green-MED diet) on age-related brain atrophy. METHODS: This 18-mo clinical trial longitudinally measured brain structure volumes by MRI using hippocampal occupancy score (HOC) and lateral ventricle volume (LVV) expansion score as neurodegeneration markers. Abdominally obese/dyslipidemic participants were randomly assigned to follow 1) healthy dietary guidelines (HDG), 2) MED, or 3) Green-MED diet. All subjects received free gym memberships and physical activity guidance. Both MED groups consumed 28 g walnuts/d (+440 mg/d polyphenols). The Green-MED group consumed green tea (3-4 cups/d) and Mankai (Wolffia-globosa strain, 100 g frozen cubes/d) green shake (+800 mg/d polyphenols). RESULTS: Among 284 participants (88% men; mean age: 51 y; BMI: 31.2 kg/m2; APOE-ε4 genotype = 15.7%), 224 (79%) completed the trial with eligible whole-brain MRIs. The pallidum (-4.2%), third ventricle (+3.9%), and LVV (+2.2%) disclosed the largest volume changes. Compared with younger participants, atrophy was accelerated among those ≥50 y old (HOC change: -1.0% ± 1.4% compared with -0.06% ± 1.1%; 95% CI: 0.6%, 1.3%; P < 0.001; LVV change: 3.2% ± 4.5% compared with 1.3% ± 4.1%; 95% CI: -3.1%, -0.8%; P = 0.001). In subjects ≥ 50 y old, HOC decline and LVV expansion were attenuated in both MED groups, with the best outcomes among Green-MED diet participants, as compared with HDG (HOC: -0.8% ± 1.6% compared with -1.3% ± 1.4%; 95% CI: -1.5%, -0.02%; P = 0.042; LVV: 2.3% ± 4.7% compared with 4.3% ± 4.5%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 5.2%; P = 0.021). Similar patterns were observed among younger subjects. Improved insulin sensitivity over the trial was the parameter most strongly associated with brain atrophy attenuation (P < 0.05). Greater Mankai, green tea, and walnut intake and less red and processed meat were significantly and independently associated with reduced HOC decline (P < 0.05). Elevated urinary concentrations of the polyphenols urolithin-A (r = 0.24; P = 0.013) and tyrosol (r = 0.26; P = 0.007) were significantly associated with lower HOC decline. CONCLUSIONS: A Green-MED (high-polyphenol) diet, rich in Mankai, green tea, and walnuts and low in red/processed meat, is potentially neuroprotective for age-related brain atrophy.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03020186.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Juglans , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(4): 696-710, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999754

RESUMO

Among 683 participants in the Women's Lifestyle Validation Study (2010-2012), we evaluated the performance of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) and Web-based 24-hour recalls (Activities Completed Over Time in 24 Hours (ACT24)) using multiple comparison methods. Two PAQs, 4 ACT24s, two 7-day accelerometer measurements, 1 doubly labeled water (DLW) physical activity level (PAL) measure (repeated; n = 90), and 4 resting pulse rate measurements were collected over 15 months. The deattenuated correlation between the PAQ and DLW PAL was 0.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.49) for total physical activity (PA) and 0.40 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.48) for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). These correlations were similar when using accelerometry as the comparison method. Single and averaged ACT24 measurements had lower correlations with DLW and accelerometry as comparison methods. The PAQ showed inverse correlations with DLW body fat percentage and resting pulse rate. Using the method of triads, the estimated correlation of the PAQ with true total PA was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.62) and that with true MVPA was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.69). For averaged ACT24, the estimated correlations were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.59) for total PA and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.58) for MVPA, and for averaged accelerometry, these estimated correlations were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.81) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.71), respectively. The PAQ provided reasonable validity for total PA and MVPA.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(2): 353-361, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between alcohol intake and incidence of pituitary adenoma has not been reported previously. We examined this association in three large, prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pituitary adenoma by levels of alcohol intake using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: We identified 292 incident cases of pituitary adenoma (225 among women, 67 among men) among 235,973 participants with 6,548,732 person-years of follow-up. Compared with intake of ≤ 0.5 g/day, cumulative average alcohol intake in all categories was associated with reduced risk of pituitary adenoma (MVHR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.83 for 0.5-≤ 2 g/day, MVHR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.79 for > 2.0-≤ 8.0, MVHR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.47-1.04 for > 8.0-≤ 15.0, and MVHR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.83 for > 15.0 g/day). Significant inverse findings were present in women and were similar but non-significant in men. For specific alcoholic beverages, inverse associations were statistically significant for total wine (MVHR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.79 comparing 0.5-≤ 2 to ≤ 0.5 g/day), red wine (MVHR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.46-0.92 comparing 0.5-≤ 2 to ≤ 0.5 g/day), and white wine (MVHR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97 comparing 0.5-≤ 2 to ≤ 0.5 g/day). Results were consistent using baseline intake, recent intake, and with an 8-year lag. CONCLUSION: In three prospective cohorts, compared to almost no consumption, alcohol consumption was associated with reduced risk of pituitary adenoma. Sensitivity analyses suggest that these results are unlikely to be the result of reverse causation or diagnostic bias.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 85-96, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher circulating carotenoids are associated with lower breast cancer risk. The underlying biology remains under-explored. METHODS: We profiled 293 prediagnostic plasma metabolites in a nested case-control study (n = 887 cases) within the Nurses' Health Studies. Associations between circulating carotenoids and metabolites were identified using linear-mixed models (FDR ≤ 0.05), and we further selected metabolites most predictive of carotenoids with LASSO. Metabolic signatures for carotenoids were calculated as weighted sums of LASSO selected metabolites. We further evaluated the metabolic signatures in relation to breast cancer risk using conditional logistic-regression. RESULTS: We identified 48 to 110 metabolites associated with plasma levels of α-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, estimated-vitamin-A-potential, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene, which included primarily positively associated metabolites implicated in immune regulation (tryptophan), redox balance (plasmalogens, glutamine), epigenetic regulations (acetylated-/methylated-metabolites), and primarily inversely associated metabolites involved in ß-oxidation (carnitines; FDR ≤ 0.05). The metabolomic signatures derived for ß-carotene (Q4 vs. Q1 relative risk RR = 0.74, P trend = 0.02), and estimated-vitamin-A-potential (Q4 vs. Q1 RR = 0.74, P trend = 0.02)-measured ≥10 years before diagnosis-were associated with lower breast cancer risk. Modest attenuations of RR for measured levels of ß-carotene and estimated-vitamin-A-potential were seen when we adjusted for their corresponding metabolic signatures. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolites involved in immune regulation, redox balance, membrane signaling, and ß-oxidation were associated with plasma carotenoids. Although some metabolites may reflect shared common food sources or compartmental colocalization with carotenoids, others may signal the underlying pathways of carotenoids-associated lowered breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Consumption of carotenoid-rich diet is associated with a wide-range of metabolic changes which may help to reduce breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
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