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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077123

RESUMO

AIMS: Busulfan and treosulfan are cytotoxic agents used in the conditioning regime prior to paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). These agents cause suppression of myeloid cells leaving patients severely immunocompromised in the early post-HSCT period. The main objectives were: (i) to establish a mechanistic pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model for the treatment and engraftment effects on neutrophil counts comparing busulfan and treosulfan-based conditioning, and (ii) to explore current dosing schedules with respect to time to HSCT. METHODS: Data on 126 patients, 72 receiving busulfan (7 months-18 years, 5.1-47.0 kg) and 54 treosulfan (4 months-17 years, 3.8-35.8 kg), were collected. In total, 8935 neutrophil count observations were recorded during the study period in addition to drug concentrations to develop a mechanistic PKPD model. Absolute neutrophil count profiles were modelled semimechanistically, accounting for transplant effects and differing set points pre- and post-transplant. RESULTS: PK were best described by 2-compartment models for both drugs. The Friberg semimechanistic neutropenia model was applied with a linear model for busulfan and a maximum efficacy model for treosulfan describing drug effects at various stages of neutrophil maturation. System parameters were consistent across both drugs. The HSCT was represented by an amount of progenitor cells enhancing the neutrophils' proliferation and maturation compartments. Alemtuzumab was found to enhance the proliferative rate under which the absolute neutrophil count begin to grow after HSCT. CONCLUSION: A semimechanistic PKPD model linking exposure to either busulfan or treosulfan to the neutrophil reconstitution dynamics was successfully built. Alemtuzumab coadministration enhanced the neutrophil proliferative rate after HSCT. Treosulfan administration was suggested to be delayed with respect to time to HSCT, leaving less time between the end of the administration and stem cell infusion.

2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 13(2): 400-409, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995663

RESUMO

Variation in response to biologic therapy for inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, is partly driven by variation in drug exposure. Real-world psoriasis data were used to develop a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for the first-line therapeutic antibody ustekinumab. The impact of differing dosing strategies on response was explored. Data were collected from a UK prospective multicenter observational cohort (491 patients on ustekinumab monotherapy, drug levels, and anti-drug antibody measurements on 797 serum samples, 1,590 measurements of Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI)). Ustekinumab PKs were described with a linear one-compartment model. A maximum effect (Emax ) model inhibited progression of psoriatic skin lesions in the turnover PD mechanism describing PASI evolution while on treatment. A mixture model on half-maximal effective concentration identified a potential nonresponder group, with simulations suggesting that, in future, the model could be incorporated into a Bayesian therapeutic drug monitoring "dashboard" to individualize dosing and improve treatment outcomes.

3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 86(2): 318-328, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657867

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) and concentration-related effects of dobutamine in critically ill neonates in the first days of life, using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. METHODS: Dosing, plasma concentration and haemodynamic monitoring data from a dose-escalation study were analysed with a simultaneous population PK and pharmacodynamic model. Neonates receiving continuous infusion of dobutamine 5-20 µg kg-1 min-1 were included. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and cardiac output of right and left ventricle (RVO, LVO) were measured on echocardiography; heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), peripheral arterial oxygen saturation and cerebral regional oxygen saturation were recorded from patient monitors. RESULTS: Twenty-eight neonates with median (range) gestational age of 30.4 (22.7-41.0) weeks and birth weight (BW) of 1618 (465-4380) g were included. PK data were adequately described by 1-compartmental linear structural model. Dobutamine clearance (CL) was described by allometric scaling on BW with sigmoidal maturation function of postmenstrual age (PMA). The final population PK model parameter mean typical value (standard error) estimates, standardised to median BW of 1618 g, were 41.2 (44.5) L h-1 for CL and 5.29 (0.821) L for volume of distribution, which shared a common between subject variability of 29% (17.2%). The relationship between dobutamine concentration and RVO/LVEF was described by linear model, between concentration and LVO/HR/MAP/cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction by sigmoidal Emax model. CONCLUSION: In the postnatal transitional period, PK of dobutamine was described by a 1-compartmental linear model, CL related to BW and PMA. A concentration-response relationship with haemodynamic variables has been established.

4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(1): 135-139, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-Lactam (BL)/ß-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations are widely used for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. Cefepime has not been widely studied in combination with BLIs. Sulbactam, with dual BL/BLI activity, has been partnered with very few BLs. We investigated the potential of cefepime/sulbactam as an unorthodox BL/BLI combination against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: In vitro activity of cefepime/sulbactam (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) was assessed against 157 strains. Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the PTA with a number of simulated cefepime combination regimens, modelled across putative cefepime/sulbactam breakpoints (≤16/≤0.25 mg/L). RESULTS: Cefepime/sulbactam was more active (MIC50/MIC90 8/8-64/128 mg/L) compared with either drug alone (MIC50/MIC90 128 to >256 mg/L). Activity was enhanced when sulbactam was added at 1:1 or 1:2 (P<0.05). Reduction in MIC was most notable against Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacterales (MIC 8/8-32/64 mg/L). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling highlighted that up to 48% of all isolates and 73% of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii with a cefepime/sulbactam MIC of ≤16/≤8 mg/L may be treatable with a high-dose, fixed-ratio (1:1 or 1:2) combination of cefepime/sulbactam. CONCLUSIONS: Cefepime/sulbactam (1:1 or 1:2) displays enhanced in vitro activity versus MDR Gram-negative pathogens. It could be a potential alternative to existing BL/BLI combinations for isolates with a cefepime/sulbactam MIC of 16/8 mg/L either as a definitive treatment or as a carbapenem-sparing option.

5.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524

RESUMO

Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n = 87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year posttransplant. PKs were described with a two-compartment model. During follow-up, 11 of 87 patients died and 12 of 87 patients had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) of 1,000 mg hour/L the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23-1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36-1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4,800 mg hour/L maximized the probability of success (> 20% engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80% and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in nonmalignant disease.

6.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(12): 1099-1106, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760892

RESUMO

Introduction: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) studies of antibiotics in pediatrics are limited. Pediatric dosing regimens for many antimicrobial drugs have been historically derived from adult pharmacokinetic data. Most pediatric formularies and dosing guidelines globally are expert-based and provide no rationale for the recommended doses, leading to heterogeneous guidance.Areas covered: We systematically reviewed the current dosing for 28 antibiotics listed in the Access and Watch groups of the 2019 World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Medicines List for children (EMLc). PubMed and EMBASE were searched for all PK-PD and pharmacological studies in pediatrics up to May 2018. In total, 262 pediatric related articles were deemed eligible. The most studied drugs were those where therapeutic drug monitoring is routine (aminoglycosides, glycopeptides) and study reporting detail was variable, with only 60.0% using the PK-PD results in make dosing recommendations. Based on this evidence, dose recommendations for each antibiotic were made.Expert opinion: We provide an up-to-date review of the limited available evidence on pediatric dosing for the 28 commonly prescribed antibiotics in the 2019 WHO EMLc. We propose synthesized dosing recommendations for those antibiotics administered systemically for the treatment of serious infections. Further PK-PD studies in children, particularly with underlying conditions, are needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos Essenciais , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(12): 1091-1098, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747323

RESUMO

Introduction: There are limited data on optimal dosing of antibiotics in different age groups for neonates and children. Clinicians usually consult pediatric formularies or online databases for dose selection, but these have variable recommendations, are usually based on expert opinion and are not graded based on the existing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) studies. We describe here a potential new tool that could be used to grade the strength of evidence emanating from PKPD studies.Areas covered: A scoring system was developed (GAPPS tool) to quantify the strength of each PK assessment and rate the studies quality in already published articles. GAPPS was evaluated by applying it to pediatric PKPD studies of antibiotics from the 2019 Essential Medicines List for children (EMLC), identified through a search of PubMed.Expert opinion: Evidence for most antibiotic dose selection decisions was generally weak, coming from individual PK studies and lacked PKPD modeling and simulations. However, the quality of evidence appears to have improved over the last two decades.Incorporating a formal grading system, such as GAPPS, into formulary development will provide a transparent tool to support decision-making in clinical practice and guideline development, and guide PKPD authors on study designs most likely to influence guidelines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores Etários , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532460

RESUMO

Importance: High-cost biologic therapies have transformed the management of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. To optimize outcomes and reduce costs, dose adjustment informed by measurement of circulating drug levels has been shown to be effective in various settings. However, limited evidence exists for this approach with the interleukin 12 and interleukin 23 inhibitor ustekinumab. Objective: To evaluate clinical utility of therapeutic drug monitoring for ustekinumab in patients with psoriasis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective observational cohort of 491 adults with psoriasis was recruited to the multicenter Biomarkers of Systemic Treatment Outcomes in Psoriasis study within the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic and Immunomodulators Register from June 2009 to December 2017; samples from some patients were taken between 2009 and 2011 as part of a pilot study with the same inclusion criteria. Exposure: Serum ustekinumab level measured at any point during the dosing cycle using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease activity measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Treatment response outcomes were PASI75 (75% reduction in PASI score from baseline [primary outcome]), PASI90 (90% reduction of PASI score from baseline), and absolute PASI score of 1.5 or less. Results: A total of 491 patients (171 women and 320 men; mean [SD] age, 45.7 [12.8] years) had 1 or more serum samples (total, 853 samples obtained 0-56 weeks from start of treatment) and 1 or more PASI scores within the first year of treatment. Antidrug antibodies were detected in only 17 of 490 patients (3.5%). Early measured drug levels (1-12 weeks after starting treatment) were associated with PASI75 response 6 months after starting treatment (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.71) when adjusted for baseline PASI score, age, and ustekinumab dose. However, this finding was not consistent across the other PASI outcomes (PASI90 and PASI score of ≤1.5). Conclusions and Relevance: This real-world study provides evidence that measurement of early serum ustekinumab levels could be useful to direct the treatment strategy for psoriasis. Adequate drug exposure early in the treatment cycle may be particularly important in determining clinical outcome.

9.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(10): 1002-1010, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonidine is in widespread off-label use as a sedative in mechanically ventilated children, despite limited evidence of efficacy. A variety of dosage regimens have been utilized in clinical practice and in research studies. Within these studies, clonidine has inconsistently shown useful sedation properties. One of the reasons attributed to the inconsistent signs of efficacy is suboptimal clonidine dosing. AIMS: This study aims to propose a target plasma concentration and simulate clonidine pharmacokinetics (PK) in a cohort of mechanically ventilated children to evaluate the adequacy of clonidine dosage regimens used in clinical practice and research studies. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken to identify a clonidine pharmaockinetic-pharmacodynamics (PKPD) model, from which a target concentration for sedation was defined. Using a previously published PK model, the projected plasma concentrations of 692 mechanically ventilated children (demographics taken from a recent study) were generated. Doses from recently published clinical studies were investigated. Adequacy of each regimen to attain therapeutic clonidine plasma concentrations was assessed. RESULTS: A target plasma concentration of above 2 µg/L was proposed. Nine dosage regimens (four intravenous boluses, four intravenous infusions, and one nasogastric route boluses) were evaluated ranging from 1 µg/kg eight hourly intravenous boluses to a regimen up to 3 µg/kg/hr continuous intravenous infusion. Regimens with a loading dose of 2 µg/kg followed by variable continuous infusion of up to 2 µg/kg/hr titrated according to sedation score appear most suitable. Doses should be halved in neonates. CONCLUSION: The variety of dosage regimens in the previous studies of clonidine along with difficulties in the conduct of interventional studies may have contributed to the lack of efficacy data to support its use. Simulations of clonidine plasma concentrations based on known population pharmacokinetic parameters suggest a loading dose followed by higher than current practice maintenance dose infusion is required to achieve adequate steady-state concentrations early in treatment. Further PKPD studies will aid in the determination of the optimal clonidine dosage regimen.

10.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(8): 1790-1797, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026092

RESUMO

AIMS: Rituximab is a chimeric IgG-1 monoclonal antibody that depletes B cells, aiding in the treatment of several conditions including autoimmune diseases. It is not licensed for use in children. This study aimed to quantify the B cell-related pharmacodynamics of rituximab in children with autoimmune disease. METHODS: Routine electronic health record data were collected at a large paediatric tertiary hospital in London, UK. Dosing protocols were either 2 × 750 mg/m2 intravenous infusions of rituximab on days 1 and 15, or 4 × 375 mg/m2 infusions on days 1, 8, 15 and 22. Rituximab pharmacokinetics (PK) were not measured but CD19+ lymphocyte counts were taken before and after rituximab treatment. A dose-response model was constructed describing the life cycle of CD19+ lymphocytes, with rituximab assumed to increase the death rate. Rituximab effect was assumed to decay by first-order kinetics. RESULTS: In total, 258 measurements of CD19+ lymphocyte counts were collected from 39 children with 8 autoimmune diseases. The elimination rate constant (% relative standard error) of rituximab effect decay was 0.036 (22.7%) days-1 and CD19+ turnover was 0.02 (41%) days-1 corresponding to half-lives of 19 and 35 days respectively. Rituximab increased CD19+ death rate 35-fold, with methotrexate and cyclophosphamide associated with further increases. Simulations suggested that a single infusion of 750 mg/m2 provides similar 6-month suppression of CD19+ lymphocytes to current dosing. CONCLUSIONS: Rituximab pharmacodynamics (PD) in paediatric autoimmune diseases has been described. Compared with rituximab alone, the additional effect of methotrexate or cyclophosphamide was statistically significant but small.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833429

RESUMO

This study aimed to suggest an initial pediatric vancomycin dose regimen through population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. A population pharmacokinetic approach was used to analyze vancomycin concentration-time data from a large pediatric cohort. Pharmacokinetic target attainment for patients with bloodstream isolates was compared with clinical outcome using logistic regression and classification and regression trees. Change in serum creatinine during treatment was used as an indicator of acute nephrotoxicity. Probability of acute kidney injury (50% increase from baseline) or kidney failure (75% increase from baseline) was evaluated using logistic regression. An initial dosing regimen was derived, personalized by age, weight, and serum creatinine, using stochastic simulations. Data from 785 hospitalized pediatric patients (1 day to 21 years of age) with suspected Gram-positive infections were collected. Estimated (relative standard error) typical clearance, volume of distribution 1, intercompartmental clearance, and volume of distribution 2 were (standardized to 70 kg) 4.84 (2.38) liters/h, 39.9 (8.15) liters, 3.85 (17.3) liters/h, and 37.8 (10.2) liters, respectively. While cumulative vancomycin exposure correlated positively with the development of nephrotoxicity (713 patients), no clear relationship between vancomycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve and efficacy was found (102 patients). Predicted probability of acute kidney injury and kidney failure with the optimized dosing regimen at day 5 was 10 to 15% and 5 to 10%, increasing by approximately 50% on day 7 and roughly 100% on day 10 across all age groups. This study presents the first data-driven pediatric dose selection to date accounting for nephrotoxicity, and it indicates that cumulative vancomycin exposure best describes risk of acute kidney injury and acute kidney failure.

12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(4): 961-969, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The potential for synergy between colistin and fusidic acid in the treatment of MDR Acinetobacter baumannii has recently been shown. The aim of this study was to perform an extensive in vitro characterization of this effect using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling (PKPD) of time-kill experiments in order to estimate clinical efficacy. METHODS: For six clinical strains, 312 individual time-kill experiments were performed including 113 unique pathogen-antimicrobial combinations. A wide range of concentrations (0.25-8192 mg/L for colistin and 1-8192 mg/L for fusidic acid) were explored, alone and in combination. PKPD modelling sought to quantify synergistic effects. RESULTS: A PKPD model confirmed synergy in that colistin EC50 was found to decrease by 83% in the presence of fusidic acid, and fusidic acid maximum increase in killing rate (Emax) also increased 58% in the presence of colistin. Simulations indicated, however, that at clinically achievable free concentrations, the combination may be bacteriostatic in colistin-susceptible strains, but growth inhibition probability was <20% in a colistin-resistant strain. CONCLUSIONS: Fusidic acid may be a useful agent to add to colistin in a multidrug combination for MDR Acinetobacter baumannii.

13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(4): 1003-1011, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is commonly used for nosocomial bacterial pathogens causing late-onset septicaemia in preterm infants. We prospectively collected pharmacokinetic data aiming to describe pharmacokinetics and determine covariates contributing to the variability in neonatal vancomycin pharmacokinetics. Further, we aimed to use the model to compare the ratio of AUC24 at steady-state to the MIC (AUC24,ss/MIC) of several intermittent and continuous dosing regimens. METHODS: Newborns receiving vancomycin for suspected or confirmed late-onset sepsis were included. Peak and trough concentrations for intermittent vancomycin dosing and steady-state concentrations for continuous vancomycin dosing were measured. NONMEM 7.3 was used for population pharmacokinetic analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare dosing schemes. RESULTS: Data from 54 infants were used for model development and from 34 infants for the model evaluation {corrected gestational age [median (range)] = 29 (23.7-41.9) weeks and 28 (23.4-41.7) weeks, respectively}. The final model was a one-compartment model. Weight and postmenstrual age were included a priori, and then no additional covariate significantly improved the model fit. Final model parameter estimates [mean (SEM)]: CL = 5.7 (0.3) L/h/70 kg and V = 39.3 (3.7) L/70 kg. Visual predictive check of the evaluation dataset confirmed the model can predict external data. Simulations using MIC of 1 mg/L showed that for neonates with gestational age ≤25 weeks and postnatal age ≤2 weeks AUC24,ss/MIC was lower with the intermittent regimen (median 482 versus 663). CONCLUSIONS: A population pharmacokinetic model for continuous and intermittent vancomycin administration in infants was developed. Continuous administration might be favourable for treating infections caused by resistant microorganisms in very young and immature infants.

14.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(7): 621-629, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The postoperative course of patent ductus arteriosus ligation is often complicated by postligation cardiac syndrome, occurring in 10-45% of operated infants. Milrinone might prevent profound hemodynamic instability and improve the recovery of cardiac function in this setting. The present study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of milrinone in premature neonates at risk of postligation cardiac syndrome and give dosing recommendations. DESIGN: A prospective single group open-label pharmacokinetics study. SETTINGS: Two tertiary care neonatal ICUs: Tallinn Children's Hospital and Tartu University Hospital, Estonia. PATIENTS: Ten neonates with postmenstrual age of 24.6-30.1 weeks and postnatal age of 5-27 days undergoing patent ductus arteriosus ligation and at risk of postligation cardiac syndrome, based on echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular output of less than 200 mL/kg/min 1 hour after the surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Milrinone at a dose of 0.73 µg/kg/min for 3 hours followed by 0.16 µg/kg/min for 21 hours. Four blood samples from each patient for milrinone plasma concentration measurements were collected. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Concentration-time data of milrinone were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software (NONMEM Version 7.3 [ICON Development Solutions, Ellicott City, MD]). Probability of target attainment simulations gave a dosing schedule that maximally attains concentration targets of 150-250 µg/L. Milrinone pharmacokinetics was described by a one-compartmental linear model with allometric scaling to bodyweight and an age maturation function of glomerular filtration rate. Parameter estimates for a patient with the median weight were 0.350 (L/hr) for clearance and 0.329 (L) for volume of distribution. The best probability of target attainment was achieved with a loading dose of 0.50 µg/kg/min for 3 hours followed by 0.15 µg/kg/min (postmenstrual age < 27 wk) or 0.20 µg/kg/min (postmenstrual age ≥ 27 wk). CONCLUSIONS: Population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations suggest a slow loading dose followed by maintenance infusion to reach therapeutic milrinone plasma concentrations within the timeframe of the postligation cardiac syndrome.

15.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(1): 52-59, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267412

RESUMO

For clinical isolates of bovine Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, this study reports minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) differences for tetracycline, oxytetracycline and doxycycline between cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB), foetal bovine serum (FBS) and Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium. MICs were determined according to CLSI standards and additionally using five overlapping sets of twofold dilutions. Matrix effect: (a) free drug MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for all drugs were significantly higher in FBS than in CAMHB for both pathogens (p < 0.001); (b) MICs and MBCs were higher for CAMHB and FBS compared to RPMI for P. multocida only. Net growth rate for P. multocida in CAMHB was significantly slower than in FBS and higher than in RPMI, correlating to MIC and MBC ranking. Drug effect: doxycycline MICs and MBCs were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in both CAMHB and FBS than tetracycline and oxytetracycline for both pathogens. Only for M. haemolytica were oxytetracycline MIC and MBC significantly lower than tetracycline, precluding the use of tetracycline to predict oxytetracycline susceptibility in this species. Determining potencies of tetracyclines in a physiological medium, such as FBS, is proposed, when the objective is correlation with pharmacokinetic data for dosage determination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Mannheimia haemolytica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
16.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 58(1): 39-52, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675639

RESUMO

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling is important in the design and conduct of clinical pharmacology research in children. During drug development, PKPD modeling and simulation should underpin rational trial design and facilitate extrapolation to investigate efficacy and safety. The application of PKPD modeling to optimize dosing recommendations and therapeutic drug monitoring is also increasing, and PKPD model-based dose individualization will become a core feature of personalized medicine. Following extensive progress on pediatric PK modeling, a greater emphasis now needs to be placed on PD modeling to understand age-related changes in drug effects. This paper discusses the principles of PKPD modeling in the context of pediatric drug development, summarizing how important PK parameters, such as clearance (CL), are scaled with size and age, and highlights a standardized method for CL scaling in children. One standard scaling method would facilitate comparison of PK parameters across multiple studies, thus increasing the utility of existing PK models and facilitating optimal design of new studies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Modelos Biológicos , Farmacocinética , Fenômenos Farmacológicos e Toxicológicos , Criança , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos
17.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 58(1): 53-61, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29679234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in immunocompromised children, evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on posaconazole exposure and perform simulations to recommend optimal starting doses. METHODS: Posaconazole plasma concentrations from paediatric patients undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring were extracted from a tertiary paediatric hospital database. These were merged with covariates collected from electronic sources and case-note reviews. An allometrically scaled population-pharmacokinetic model was developed to investigate the effect of tablet and suspension relative bioavailability, nonlinear bioavailability of suspension, followed by a step-wise covariate model building exercise to identify other important sources of variability. RESULTS: A total of 338 posaconazole plasma concentrations samples were taken from 117 children aged 5 months to 18 years. A one-compartment model was used, with tablet apparent clearance standardised to a 70-kg individual of 15 L/h. Suspension was found to have decreasing bioavailability with increasing dose; the estimated suspension dose to yield half the tablet bioavailability was 99 mg/m2. Diarrhoea and proton pump inhibitors were also associated with reduced suspension bioavailability. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest population-pharmacokinetic study to date in children, we have found similar covariate effects to those seen in adults, but low bioavailability of suspension in patients with diarrhoea or those taking concurrent proton pump inhibitors, which may in particular limit the use of posaconazole in these patients.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Modelos Biológicos , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/sangue , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lactente , Suspensões , Comprimidos , Triazóis/sangue
18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(2): 316-346, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176176

RESUMO

AIMS: Beta-lactam dose optimization in critical care is a current priority. We aimed to review the pharmacokinetics (PK) of three commonly used beta-lactams (amoxicillin ± clavulanate, piperacillin-tazobactam and meropenem) to compare PK parameters reported in critically and noncritically ill neonates, children and adults, and to investigate whether allometric and maturation scaling principles could be applied to describe changes in PK parameters through life. METHODS: A systematic review of PK studies of the three drugs was undertaken using MEDLINE and EMBASE. PK parameters and summary statistics were extracted and scaled using allometric principles to 70 kg individual for comparison. Pooled data were used to model clearance maturation and decline using a sigmoidal (Hill) function. RESULTS: A total of 130 papers were identified. Age ranged from 29 weeks to 82 years and weight from 0.9-200 kg. PK parameters from critically ill populations were reported with wider confidence intervals than those in healthy volunteers, indicating greater PK variability in critical illness. The standard allometric size and sigmoidal maturation model adequately described increasing clearance in neonates, and a sigmoidal model was also used to describe decline in older age. Adult weight-adjusted clearance was achieved at approximately 2 years postmenstrual age. Changes in volume of distribution were well described by the standard allometric model, although amoxicillin data suggested a relatively higher volume of distribution in neonates. CONCLUSIONS: Critical illness is associated with greater PK variability than in healthy volunteers. The maturation models presented will be useful for optimizing beta-lactam dosing, although a prospective, age-inclusive study is warranted for external validation.

19.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 30(1): 1-10, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585835

RESUMO

: Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces death because of bleeding in patients with trauma and postpartum haemorrhage. However, in some settings intravenous injection is not feasible. To find different routes of administration, we first need to determine the minimal concentration of TXA in the blood that is required to inhibit fibrinolysis.We conducted a systematic review of in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacodynamics studies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, OviSP, and ISI Web of Science from database inception to November 2017 for all in-vitro (including simulated clotting models) or in-vivo studies reporting the relationship between the TXA concentration in blood or plasma and any reliable measure of fibrinolysis.We found 21 studies of which 20 were in vitro and one was in vivo. Most in-vitro studies stimulated fibrinolysis with tissue plasminogen activator and measured fibrinolysis using viscoelastic, optical density, or immunological assays. TXA concentrations between 10 and 15 mg/l resulted in substantial inhibition of fibrinolysis, although concentrations between 5 and 10 mg/l were partly inhibitory.TXA concentrations of 10-15 mg/l may be suitable targets for pharmacokinetic studies, although TXA concentrations above 5 mg/l may also be effective.


Assuntos
Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tranexâmico/sangue , Antifibrinolíticos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/farmacologia , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(4): 415-422, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576264

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of healthcare-associated multidrug resistant bacterial infections, particularly due to carbapenem resistant organisms, has been on the rise globally. Among these are the carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae, which have been responsible for numerous outbreaks in neonatal units. The polymyxins (colistin and polymyxin B) are considered to be the last resort antibiotics for treating such infections. However, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on the use of polymyxins in neonates and children are very limited, and there are safety concerns. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors summarize the global burden of multidrug resistance, particularly carbapenem resistance, in the neonatal and paediatric population, and the potential wider use of polymyxins in treating these infections. EXPERT OPINION: Both colistin and polymyxin B have similar efficacy in treating multidrug resistant infections but have safety concerns. However, polymyxin B appears to be a better therapeutic option, with more rapid and higher steady state concentrations achieved compared to colistin and less reported nephrotoxicity. There is virtually no data in neonates and children currently; there is therefore an urgent need for pharmacokinetic and safety trials in these populations to determine the optimal drug and dosing regimens and provide recommendations for their use against carbapenem resistant infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Polimixinas/uso terapêutico , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Criança , Colistina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Polimixina B/uso terapêutico
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