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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12675, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481742

RESUMO

While the association between early life determinants and the development of the gut microbiome composition in infancy has been widely investigated, a potential persistent influence of early life determinants on the gut microbial community after its stabilization at later childhood remains largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the association between several early life determinants and the gut microbiome composition in six-year-old children from the LISA birth cohort. A total number of 166 fecal samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based barcoding to assess bacterial diversity pattern. The bacterial profiles were investigated for their association with maternal smoking during pregnancy, mode of delivery, breastfeeding, antibiotic treatment between one and two years of age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES). While alpha and beta diversity of the infants' gut microbiome remained unaffected, amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) annotated to Firmicutes and Actinobacteria responded to early life determinants, mostly to feeding practice and antibiotics use. ASVs associated to Bacteriodetes remained unaffected. Our findings indicate that early life determinants could have a long-term sustainable effect on the gut microflora of six-year-old children, however, associations with early life determinates are weaker than reported for infants.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113264, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is thought to be associated with diseases via inflammatory response, the association between exposure to ozone, an oxidative pollutant, and inflammation has been less investigated. AIM: We analyzed associations between short-term exposure to ozone and three inflammatory biomarkers among children and adolescents. METHODS: These cross-sectional analyses were based on two follow-ups of the GINIplus and LISA German birth cohorts. We included 1330 10-year-old and 1591 15-year-old participants. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were available for both age groups while interleukin (IL)-6 was measured at 10 years only. Maximum 8-h averages of ozone and daily average concentrations of NO2 and PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) were adopted from two background monitoring stations 0 (same day), 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days prior to the FeNO measurement or blood sampling. To assess associations, we utilized linear regression models for FeNO, and logistic regressions for IL-6 and hs-CRP, adjusting for potential covariates and co-pollutants NO2 and PM10. RESULTS: We found that short-term ozone exposure was robustly associated with higher FeNO in adolescents at age 15, but not at age 10. No consistent associations were observed between ozone and IL-6 in children aged 10 years. The relationship between hs-CRP levels and ozone was J-shaped. Relatively low ozone concentrations (e.g., <120 µg/m³) were associated with reduced hs-CRP levels, while high concentrations (e.g., ≥120 µg/m³) tended to be associated with elevated levels for both 10- and 15-year-old participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates significant associations between short-term ozone exposure and FeNO at 15 years of age and a J-shaped relationship between ozone and hs-CRP. The finding indicates that high ozone exposure may favor inflammatory responses in adolescents, especially regarding airway inflammation.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of GWAS-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity, and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of thirty studies consisting of up to 13,005 cases (≥95th percentile of BMI achieved 2-18 years old) and 15,599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1,888 cases and 4,689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing eighteen previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene: METTL15). The variant was nominally associated in only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than ten SNPs (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

5.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

6.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although dental trauma and its unfavorable sequelae are considered major public health problems worldwide, the published data on the prevalence of traumatic crown injuries (TCIs) in Germany are lacking. Therefore, the present study assessed the prevalence of TCIs among adolescents in Bavaria, Germany. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ethical approval and parental consents were obtained, and population-based information from 10- (N = 1158), 12- (N = 416), and 15-year-olds (N = 1302) from two different cohort studies performed in Bavaria (GINIplus/LISA and LAGZ) were examined for the presence of TCIs, dental caries, and restorations. Statistical comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: The prevalence of TCIs was 6.3% in the 10- and 12-year-old children and 14.0% in 15-year-old children, and a higher prevalence was observed in boys than in girls. Most (87.5%) of the traumatized teeth were maxillary incisors. The caries prevalence was low in all three populations. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TCIs in Bavarian adolescents at a low risk for caries was found to be low. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dental trauma is a prevalent event in children and adolescents, and incisors are the most affected teeth. Therefore, dental practitioners should be able to manage the spectrum of traumatic injuries.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 818, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saturated fatty acids (SFA) have been reported to promote inflammation. Nevertheless, evidence linking dietary SFA and low-grade inflammation in adolescents is scarce and inconsistent. The modulatory role of physical activity (PA) on fat metabolism and inflammation may provide a potential explanation. Thus, we assessed the association of dietary SFA with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of low-grade inflammation, in 15-year-olds, and evaluated possible interactions between dietary SFA and different levels of PA. METHODS: Children participating in the 15-year follow-ups of the GINIplus and LISA German birth cohort studies were included (N = 824). SFA intake was estimated by means of a food frequency questionnaire and PA recorded by accelerometers. Average daily minutes of PA were classified into "sedentary", "light" and "moderate-to-vigorous" (MVPA), using Freedson's cut-offs. HsCRP concentrations were measured in serum and categorized into 3 sex-specific levels (below detection limit (I), above 75th percentile (III), in between (II)). Sex-stratified cross-sectional associations between SFA and hsCRP were assessed using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Interaction terms were included between SFA and the different PA levels; and if significant interactions were observed, analyses stratified by tertiles of the relevant PA levels were performed. Relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were presented for a 1% increase in SFA. RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between SFA intake and hsCRP (II vs. I) in males (RRR = 0.85 [95%CI = 0.76;0.96], p = 0.008), whereas no significant association was observed in females. A significant interaction was observed with "sedentary" and "light" PA but not with MVPA in both sexes (p < 0.05). Stratified analyses indicated a significant inverse association between SFA and medium hsCRP levels in males in the highest light PA tertile (hsCRP II vs. I: 0.67 [0.517;0.858], p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support a detrimental role of dietary SFA in low-grade inflammation among adolescents. In males, higher dietary SFA was associated with lower hsCRP, although this should be interpreted in the context of possibly correlated nutrients. Children spending the most time in light PA drove the observed inverse association, suggesting a synergistic effect of SFA and lifestyle PA in the resultant inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exercício/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino
8.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
10.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 179(2): 152-157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in relation to allergic endpoints can shed light on both the mechanisms of allergic disease development and early non-communicable disease prevention. However, only a few epidemiological studies so far have investigated the relationship in children and adolescents, and the results were mixed. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the interrelation between hs-CRP levels and allergic outcomes using a larger population size and a longitudinal study design. METHODS: Complete data were available on 1,955 participants from the 15-years follow-up of the 2 large population-based German birth cohorts - GINIplus and LISA. Serum hs-CRP concentrations were measured using the immunoturbidimetric high-sensitive assay. Six allergic endpoints were used - doctor-diagnosed asthma, doctor-diagnosed eczema, doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, food sensitization, aeroallergen sensitization, and any sensitization. We used generalized estimation equation models to assess the associations between hs-CRP levels and allergic endpoints. RESULTS: Our longitudinal analyses did not detect any significant association between hs-CRP levels and any of the studied allergic outcomes (e.g., asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis, food sensitization, aeroallergen sensitization, and any sensitization). The results were consistent in a series of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that there is no association between hs-CRP levels and any of the allergic endpoints in German adolescents. However, whether allergic diseases are inflammatory conditions and which markers might be most sensitive, remain to be confirmed in future studies.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Hipersensibilidade/sangue , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Alérgenos/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5053, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911015

RESUMO

Childhood obesity prevalence is rising in countries worldwide. A variety of etiologic factors contribute to childhood obesity but little is known about underlying biochemical mechanisms. We performed an individual participant meta-analysis including 1,020 pre-pubertal children from three European studies and investigated the associations of 285 metabolites measured by LC/MS-MS with BMI z-score, height, weight, HOMA, and lipoprotein concentrations. Seventeen metabolites were significantly associated with BMI z-score. Sphingomyelin (SM) 32:2 showed the strongest association with BMI z-score (P = 4.68 × 10-23) and was also closely related to weight, and less strongly to height and LDL, but not to HOMA. Mass spectrometric analyses identified SM 32:2 as myristic acid containing SM d18:2/14:0. Thirty-five metabolites were significantly associated to HOMA index. Alanine showed the strongest positive association with HOMA (P = 9.77 × 10-16), while acylcarnitines and non-esterified fatty acids were negatively associated with HOMA. SM d18:2/14:0 is a powerful marker for molecular changes in childhood obesity. Tracing back the origin of SM 32:2 to dietary source in combination with genetic predisposition will path the way for early intervention programs. Metabolic profiling might facilitate risk prediction and personalized interventions in overweight children.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1825-1834.e12, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether early life food sensitization (as opposed to aeroallergen sensitization) is associated with subsequent poor lung function. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between food sensitization in the first 2 years of life and lung function at 12 to 18 years and whether these observed associations are mediated through aeroallergen sensitization or asthma. METHODS: We used data from a high-risk cohort (Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study [MACS]) and a population-based "Influence of life-style-related factors on the development of the Immune System and Allergies in East and West Germany plus the influence of traffic emissions and genetics" (LISAplus) cohort. Food sensitization was assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months in MACS and 24 months in LISAplus. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry at 12 and 18 years in MACS and 15 years in LISAplus. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association with sensitization (food and/or aeroallergen) while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Sensitization to food without aeroallergen at 6 months was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at both 12 years (-153 mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -256 mL, -51 mL) and 18 years (-206 mL; 95% CI = -347 mL, -65 mL) in MACS. Similar results were observed for sensitization measured at 12 months but not at 24 months. Early-life asthma (but not aeroallergen sensitization) partially mediated these associations. Both cohorts showed that only aeroallergen sensitization at 24 months but not food sensitization was associated with lower adolescent lung function. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that food sensitization at 6 and 12 months was associated with reduced FEV1 in adolescence. Our finding that this link is not completely mediated by either subsequent asthma or aeroallergen sensitization is novel and suggests that early food sensitization itself can be used to identify high-risk groups for poor lung health.

14.
Environ Res ; 170: 73-81, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with air pollution, as reported by animal and epidemiological studies. However, the relationship between ozone exposure and depression, especially among adolescents, is scarcely investigated. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to analyze associations between ozone exposure and depressive symptoms among German adolescents. METHODS: The analyses were based on 2827 adolescents aged 15 from Munich and Wesel areas of the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts. The depressive symptoms were assessed by the Depression Screener for Teenagers (DesTeen). Long-term ozone exposure was estimated by optimal interpolation techniques and assigned to home addresses. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 µm (PM10) were assessed by land use regression models. For short-term exposure, maximum 8-h averages of ozone and daily average concentrations of NO2 and PM10 from the background monitoring sites 0 (same day), 1, 2, 3, and 7 days prior to depressive symptoms assessment were adopted. The cross-sectional analyses were conducted by adjusted logistic regression models controlling for residuals of NO2 and PM10, and covariates identified by a directed acyclic graph. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms ranged from 10.9% to 13.8% depending on regions. Overall, long- and short-term exposure to ozone were not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms. However, subgroup analysis showed inconsistent significant protective associations for short-term exposure to ozone lag 0 day (same day) and depressive symptoms in Wesel (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: (0.59, 0.98)), but not in Munich (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: (0.83, 1.21)). CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support the hypothesis that ambient ozone exposure might increase the prevalence of depressive symptoms in German adolescents. Nevertheless, due to a lack of similar studies, these results need to be replicated in other samples.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 245: 71-76, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have reported the association between greenspace and academic performance at school level. We examined associations between both residential and school greenspace and individual school grades in German adolescents. METHODS: German and maths grades from the latest school certificate, residential and school greenspace, and covariates were available for 1351 10 and 15 years old Munich children and 1078 Wesel children from two German birth cohorts - GINIplus and LISA. Residential and school greenspace was assessed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), tree cover, and (in Munich only) proportion of agricultural land, forest, and urban green space in 500-m and 1000-m circular buffers. Longitudinal associations between each exposure-outcome pair were assessed by logistic mixed effects models with person and school as random intercepts and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: No associations were observed between any of the greenspace variables and grades in Wesel children. Several statistically significant associations were observed with German and maths grades in Munich children, however associations were inconsistent across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of an association of higher greenspace at residence, school or combined with improved academic performance in German adolescents from the GINIplus and LISA longitudinal studies.

17.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301151

RESUMO

This study performed comparative analyses in two pediatric cohorts to identify dietary patterns during primary school years and examined their relevance to body composition development. Nutritional and anthropometric data at the beginning of primary school and two or four years later were available from 298 and 372 participants of IDEFICS-Germany (Identification and prevention of Dietary-induced and lifestyle-induced health Effects In Children and infants Study) and the KOPS (Kiel Obesity Prevention Study) cohort, respectively. Principal component analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to identify dietary patterns at baseline and patterns of change in food group intake during primary school years. RRR extracted patterns explaining variations in changes in body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and waist-to-height-ratio (WtHR). Associations between pattern adherence and excess gain in BMI, FMI, or WtHR (>75th percentile) during primary school years were examined using logistic regression. Among PCA patterns, only a change towards a more Mediterranean food choice during primary school years were associated with a favorable body composition development in IDEFICS-Germany (p < 0.05). In KOPS, RRR patterns characterized by a frequent consumption of fast foods or starchy carbohydrate foods were consistently associated with an excess gain in BMI and WtHR (all p < 0.005). In IDEFICS-Germany, excess gain in BMI, FMI, and WtHR were predicted by a frequent consumption of nuts, meat, and pizza at baseline and a decrease in the consumption frequency of protein sources and snack carbohydrates during primary school years (all p < 0.01). The study confirms an adverse impact of fast food consumption on body composition during primary school years. Combinations of protein and carbohydrate sources deserve further investigation.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15055, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305651

RESUMO

Accelerometers objectively monitor physical activity, and ongoing research suggests they can also detect patterns of body movement. However, different types of signal (uniaxial, captured by older studies, vs. the newer triaxial) and or/device (validated Actigraph used by older studies, vs. others) may lead to incomparability of results from different time periods. Standardization is desirable. We establish whether uniaxial signals adequately monitor routine activity, and whether triaxial accelerometry can detect sport-specific variations in movement pattern. 1402 adolescents wore triaxial Actigraphs (GT3X) for one week and diaried sport. Uni- and triaxial counts per minute were compared across the week and between over 30 different sports. Across the whole recording period 95% of variance in triaxial counts was explained by the vertical axis (5th percentile for R2, 91%). Sport made up a small fraction of daily routine, but differences were visible: even when total acceleration was comparable, little was vertical in horizontal movements, such as ice skating (uniaxial counts 41% of triaxial) compared to complex movements (taekwondo, 55%) or ambulation (soccer, 69%). Triaxial accelerometry captured differences in movement pattern between sports, but so little time was spent in sport that, across the whole day, uni- and triaxial signals correlated closely. This indicates that, with certain limitations, uniaxial accelerometric measures of routine activity from older studies can be feasibly compared to triaxial measures from newer studies. Comparison of new studies based on raw accelerations to older studies based on proprietary devices and measures (epochs, counts) will require additional efforts which are not addressed in this paper.

19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351340

RESUMO

International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definition was classified as complete, partial and impossible for 70%, 15% and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered. In birth cohorts of asthma and allergies, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible and may achieve high inferential comparability. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.

20.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257483

RESUMO

The role of consuming different types of fatty acids (FA) at the expense of carbohydrates (CHO), on the blood lipid profile of adolescents is largely unknown, as is the modulating effect of different levels of physical activity (PA). Children from the GINIplus and LISA birth cohorts, with complete data on dietary FA (assessed by food-frequency questionnaires), objectively-measured PA (assessed by accelerometers) and blood lipids (lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) at age 15 years, were included (N = 837). Sex-stratified associations between dietary FA and blood lipids were assessed by linear regression in substitution models which represented isocaloric replacements of CHO with saturated FA (SFA), monounsaturated FA (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) or n-6 PUFA. To assess the interactions with PA, analyses were then performed stratified by tertiles of different PA levels (sedentary, lifestyle, moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)). Both sexes presented a significant inverse association between MUFA and triglycerides, and females a direct association between n-3 PUFA and high-density lipoprotein. Stratifying by PA tertiles, associations were mainly restricted to participants with the lowest levels of lifestyle PA, or the highest time spent sedentary. The effects of dietary FA on the lipid profile vary in an activity-specific manner, emphasizing possible synergistic roles of diet and PA.

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