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1.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412574

RESUMO

Coordination-driven suprastructures have attracted much interest due to their unique properties. Among these structures, platinum-based architectures have been broadly studied due to their facile preparation. The resultant two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D) systems have many advantages over their precursors, such as improved emission tuning, sensitivity as sensors, and capture and release of guests, and they have been applied in biomedical diagnosis as well as in catalysis. Herein, we review the recent results related to platinum-based coordination-driven self-assembly (CDSA), and the text is organized to emphasizes both the synthesis of new metallacycles and metallacages and their various applications.

2.
Org Lett ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436714

RESUMO

Stimuli-responsive complexes have attracted significant interest in supramolecular chemistry and material science. In this study, a new organoplatinum-crown supramolecular complex has been successfully constructed via the coordination of benzo-21-crown-7 (B21C7) units and cis-Pt(PEt3)2(OTf)2. The resulting complex displays intriguing lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and anion-sensitive deassembly behavior. This organoplatinum-crown ether complex with dual-responsive behavior is a promising candidate for stimuli-responsive materials.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433874

RESUMO

Introducing self-assembly strategies into the construction of catalysts has been proven to have great advantages in asymmetric catalysis. We constructed two chiral metalla-triangles by highly efficient coordination-driven self-assembly from a chiral 3,3'-dipyridyl-substituted BINOL donor. They were successfully applied in asymmetric conjugate addition of a series of α,ß-unsaturated ketones with trans-styrylboronic acids. The use of these metalla-triangles as supramolecular catalysts is obviously conducive to the enhancement of catalytic activity and stereoselectivity in the presented addition reactions. Under induction of the chiral metalla-triangles, an array of α,ß-enones were converted to chiral γ,δ-unsaturated ketones in medium to quantitative yields (40-98%) with high enantioselectivities (87-96% ee).

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2601-2608, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939661

RESUMO

Singlet oxygen (1O2), as an important active reagent, has found wide applications in photodynamic therapy (PDT), synthetic chemistry, and materials science. Organic conjugated aromatics serving as hosts to capture and release singlet oxygen have been systematically investigated over the last decades. Herein, we present a [6 + 6] organoplatinum(II) metallacycle by using ∼180° dipyridylanthracene donor and ∼120° Pt(II) acceptor as the building blocks, which enables the capture and release of singlet oxygen with relatively high photooxygenation and thermolysis rate constants. The photooxygenation of the metallacycle to the corresponding endoperoxide was performed by sensitized irradiation, and the resulting endoperoxide is stable at room temperature and can be stored under ambient condition over months. Upon simple heating of the neat endoperoxide under inert atmosphere at 120 °C for 4 h, the resulting endoperoxide can be reconverted to the corresponding parent form and singlet oxygen. The photooxygenation and thermolysis products were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis. Density functional theory calculations were conducted in order to reveal the frontier molecular orbital interactions and reactivity. This work provides a new material platform for singlet oxygen related promising applications.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 59(3): 2083-2091, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971781

RESUMO

Control over the stimuli-responsive behavior of smart molecular systems can influence their capability to execute complex functionalities. Herein, we report the development of a suite of spiropyran-based multi-stimuli-responsive self-assembled platinum(II) macrocycles (5-7), rendering coordination-assisted enhanced photochromism relative to the corresponding ligands. 5 showed shrinking and swelling during photoreversal, while 6 and 7 are fast and fatigue-free supramolecular photoswitches. 6 turns out to be a better fatigue-resistant photoswitch and can retain an intact photoswitching ability of up to 20 reversible cycles. The switching behavior of the macrocycles can also be precisely controlled by tuning the pH of the medium. Our present strategy for the construction of rapid stimuli-responsive supramolecular architectures via coordination-driven self-assembly represents an efficient route for the development of smart molecular switches.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 59(11): 7380-7388, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961145

RESUMO

In this report, we describe the synthesis of two porphyrin-containing Pt(II) supramolecular assemblies via coordination-driven self-assembly. X-ray crystallographic analysis on one assembly reveals that the metalla-assembly formation imposes large interchromophore distances, leading to a higher 1O2 generation efficiency, relative to the corresponding small molecular precursors. The metalla-assemblies were examined as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy as the potential reduction of the unfavorable self-aggregation phenomenon. In vivo and in vitro investigations demonstrate that the metalla-assemblies exhibit enhanced anticancer activity with minimal dose requirement and side effects comparable to the small molecule precursors. Thus, our work demonstrates that self-assembly provides a promising methodology for enhancing the therapeutic effectiveness of anticancer agents.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23437-23443, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685638

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance has become one of the major threats to global health. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) develops little antibiotic resistance; thus, it becomes a promising strategy in the control of bacterial infection. During a PDI process, light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage the membrane components, leading to the membrane rupture and bacteria death. Due to the short half-life and reaction radius of ROS, achieving the cell-membrane intercalation of photosensitizers is a key challenge for PDI of bacteria. In this work, a tetraphenylethylene-based discrete organoplatinum(II) metallacycle (1) acts as a photosensitizer with aggregation-induced emission. It self-assembles with a transacting activator of transduction (TAT) peptide-decorated virus coat protein (2) through electrostatic interactions. This assembly (3) exhibits both ROS generation and strong membrane-intercalating ability, resulting in significantly enhanced PDI efficiency against bacteria. By intercalating in the bacterial cell membrane or entering the bacteria, assembly 3 decreases the survival rate of gram-negative Escherichia coli to nearly zero and that of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus to ∼30% upon light irradiation. This study has wide implications from the generation of multifunctional nanomaterials to the control of bacterial infection, especially for gram-negative bacteria.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4599, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601813

RESUMO

Host-guest interactions are of central importance in many biological and chemical processes. However, the investigation of the formation and decomplexation of host-guest systems at the single-molecule level has been a challenging task. Here we show that the single-molecule conductance of organoplatinum(II) metallocycle hosts can be enhanced by an order of magnitude by the incorporation of a C60 guest molecule. Mechanically stretching the metallocycle-C60 junction with a scanning tunneling microscopy break junction technique causes the release of the C60 guest from the metallocycle, and consequently the conductance switches back to the free-host level. Metallocycle hosts with different shapes and cavity sizes show different degrees of flexibility to accommodate the C60 guest in response to mechanical stretching. DFT calculations provide further insights into the electronic structures and charge transport properties of the molecular junctions based on metallocycles and the metallocycle-C60 complexes.


Assuntos
Fulerenos/química , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Eletrodos , Ouro , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia de Tunelamento , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(44): 17909-17917, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617714

RESUMO

Here, we present a method for the building of new bicyclic heterometallic cross-linked supramolecular polymers by hierarchical unification of three types of orthogonal noncovalent interactions, including platinum(II)-pyridine coordination-driven self-assembly, zinc-terpyridine complex, and host-guest interactions. The platinum-pyridine coordination provides the primary driving force to form discrete rhomboidal metallacycles. The assembly does not interfere with the zinc-terpyridine complexes, which link the discrete metallacycles into linear supramolecular polymers, and the conjugation length is extended upon the formation of the zinc-terpyridine complexes, which red-shifts the absorption and emission spectra. Finally, host-guest interactions via bis-ammonium salt binding to the benzo-21-crown-7 (B21C7) groups on the platinum acceptors afford the cross-linked supramolecular polymers. By continuous increase of the concentration of the supramolecular polymer to a relatively high level, supramolecular polymer gel is obtained, which exhibits self-healing properties and reversible gel-sol transitions stimulated by various external stimuli, including temperature, K+, and cyclen. Moreover, the photophysical properties of the supramolecular polymers could be effectively tuned by varying the substituents of the precursor ligands.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20296-20302, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548389

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment procedure that relies on cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the light activation of a photosensitizer. The photophysical and biological properties of photosensitizers are vital for the therapeutic outcome of PDT. In this work a 2D rhomboidal metallacycle and a 3D octahedral metallacage were designed and synthesized via the coordination-driven self-assembly of a Ru(II)-based photosensitizer and complementary Pt(II)-based building blocks. The metallacage showed deep-red luminescence, a large 2-photon absorption cross-section, and highly efficient ROS generation. The metallacage was encapsulated into an amphiphilic block copolymer to form nanoparticles to encourage cell uptake and localization. Upon internalization into cells, the nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the lysosomes, a favorable location for PDT. The nanoparticles are almost nontoxic in the dark, and can efficiently destroy tumor cells via the generation of ROS in the lysosomes under 2-photon near-infrared light irradiation. The superb PDT efficacy of the metallacage-containing nanoparticles was further validated by studies on 3D multicellular spheroids (MCS) and in vivo studies on A549 tumor-bearing mice.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 58(19): 13376-13381, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532649

RESUMO

In this work, we present the formation of two open-ended hexagonal-prism tubular macrocycles by the [6 + 12] self-assembly of the symmetric ∼120° organic ligand donor with ∼90° Pt(II) acceptor in a 1:2 ratio. The assembled structures were characterized by multinuclear NMR (1H NMR, 31P{1H} NMR, and 1H-1H COSY NMR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIM-MS), and transmission electron microscopy. Molecular modeling was further conducted to get insight into their structured characteristics. We also examined their photophysical properties.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(37): 14565-14569, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479260

RESUMO

Light-harvesting is one of the key steps in photosynthesis, but developing artificial light-harvesting systems (LHSs) with high energy transfer efficiencies has been a challenging task. Here we report fluorescent hexagonal Pt(II) metallacycles as a new platform to fabricate artificial LHSs. The metallacycles (4 and 5) are easily accessible by coordination-driven self-assembly of a triphenylamine-based ditopic ligand 1 with di-platinum acceptors 2 and 3, respectively. They possess good fluorescence properties both in solution and in the solid state. Notably, the metallacycles show aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) characteristics in a DMSO-H2O solvent system. In the presence of the fluorescent dye Eosin Y (ESY), the emission intensities of the metallacycles decrease but the emission intensity of ESY increases. The absorption spectrum of ESY and the emission spectra of the metallacycles show a considerable overlap, suggesting the possibility of energy transfer from the metallacycles to ESY, with an energy transfer efficiency as high as 65% in the 4a+ESY system.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(34): 16729-16735, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391305

RESUMO

Discrete Pt(II) metallacycles have potential applications in biomedicine. Herein, we engineered a dual-modal imaging and chemo-photothermal therapeutic nano-agent 1 that incorporates discrete Pt(II) metallacycle 2 and fluorescent dye 3 (emission wavelength in the second near-infrared channel [NIR-II]) into multifunctional melanin dots with photoacoustic signal and photothermal features. Nano-agent 1 has a good solubility, biocompatibility, and stability in vivo. Both photoacoustic imaging and NIR-II imaging in vivo confirmed that 1 can effectively accumulate at tumor sites with good signal-to-background ratio and favorable distribution. Guided by precise dual-modal imaging, nano-agent 1 exhibits a superior antitumor performance and less severe side effects compared with a single treatment because of the high efficiency of the chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. This study shows that nano-agent 1 provides a promising multifunctional theranostic platform for potential applications in biomedicine.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(36): 14005-14020, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419112

RESUMO

Diverse metal-organic complexes (MOCs), shaped as rectangles, triangles, hexagons, prisms, and cages, can be formed by coordination between metal ions (Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Ir, Zn, Co, and Cd) and organic ligands, with potential applications as alternatives to conventional biomedical materials for therapeutic, sensing, and imaging purposes. MOCs have been investigated as anticancer drugs in the treatment of malignant tumors in lung, cervical, breast, colon, liver, prostate, ovarian, brain, stomach, bone, skin, mouth, thyroid, and other cancers. MOCs with one, two, and three cavities have also been investigated as drug carriers and prepared for the loading and release of different drugs. In addition, MOCs can target proteins by the shape effect and recognize sugars and DNA by electrostatic interactions, as well as estradiol by host-guest interactions, etc. This Perspective mainly covers achievements in the biomedical application of MOCs. We aim to identify some key trends in the reported MOC structures in relation to their biomedical activity and potential applications.

15.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(9): 1654-1662, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317343

RESUMO

Coordination-driven self-assembly (CDSA) is increasingly used to synthesize coordination complexes containing metal-centered electron acceptors and typically nitrogen-containing electron donors. Characterization of the structures obtained from CDSA via crystallographic or spectroscopic means is limited due to difficulties in forming single crystals for X-ray studies and overlapping precursor and product signals in NMR. Here, we employ ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), which provides a direct measure of size and shape of the CDSA complexes, to study the intact reaction products of a rhomboid-shaped complex. This approach negates the need for product isolation and crystallization and allows for tracking of the product distribution as a function of time. A potential challenge of IM-MS is that the size/shape of the observed CDSA complexes can vary with internal energy; however, we show that proper tuning of the instrument reduces the effects of collisional activation thereby allowing for retention of ion conformations that reflect solution-phase ion structures. Graphical Abstract.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 11837-11841, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303001

RESUMO

Considerable progress in platinum metallacycle-based supramolecular polymerization has promoted the fabrication and application of supramolecular materials. However, despite recent advances, supramolecular polymers constructed through platinum metallacycle-based host-guest complexation remain rare because of the dynamics of platinum metallacycles. Here, we achieve linear supramolecular polymerization via platinum metallacycle-based host-guest complexation by following the design rule of suppressing the dynamics of the metallacycles. The establishment of the platinum metallacycle-based host-guest system and the realization of this type of supramolecular polymerization are expected to open opportunities for platinum metallacycle-based functional materials.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(24): 9673-9679, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125220

RESUMO

The intrinsic relationship between the properties of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its encapsulated small molecular light machine has spurred many biomimicking studies, aiming at revealing the detailed mechanism and further promoting its wide applications in different disciplines. However, how to build a similar confined microenvironment to mimic the cavity of a ß-barrel and the fluorescence turn-on process is a fundamental challenge for both chemists and biologists. Herein, two distinct exo- and endo-functionalized tetraphenylethylene (TPE)-based M12L24 nanospheres with precise distribution of anchored TPE moieties and unique photophysical properties were constructed by means of a coordination-driven self-assembly strategy. Under dilute conditions, the nanospheres fluoresce more strongly than the corresponding TPE subcomponents. Meanwhile, the endo-functionalized sphere is able to induce a higher local concentration and more restrained motion of the enclosed 24 TPE units compared with exo-functionalized counterpart and thus induces much stronger emission due to the restriction of the rotation of the pendant TPE units. The biomimetic methodology developed here represents a promising way to understand and construct artificial GFP materials on the platforms of supramolecular coordination complexes.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(20): 8058-8063, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066557

RESUMO

A supramolecular polymeric adhesive was prepared from non-viscous, non-polymeric materials by water-participant hydrogen bonds. Pt-pyridine coordination and water-crown ether hydrogen bonding combine to effect the supramolecular polymerization. The supramolecular polymeric adhesive displays strong, reversible adhesion to hydrophilic surfaces, a property that forecasts the application of hydrogen bonding in advanced supramolecular materials.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 58(11): 7141-7145, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094513

RESUMO

A double metallacycle was prepared via the size-selective integrative self-sorting of four different building blocks driven by a reversible metal-ligand coordination interaction. A hydrophobic dendron was placed on a metallacycle and a hydrophilic dendron was attached to the other metallacycle, producing a two-faced Janus-type supramolecule with two distinct functionalities. In aqueous media, hierarchical self-assembly of the supramolecular system was induced by the combination of coordination interactions and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions resulting in the formation of micrometer-sized fiber-like structures, a morphology distinct from metallacycles bearing only one type of functionality. This study provides a versatile approach for the construction of Janus-type molecules and demonstrates that integrative self-sorting of a supramolecular coordination system can be utilized for the preparation of complex supramolecular systems with predesigned functionalities and morphologies.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(16): 6494-6498, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966741

RESUMO

The recent progress in platinum(II) coordination-driven supramolecular polymers has had a substantial effect on the design of functional soft materials. However, the prospect of realizing polymerization induced by platinum(II) metallacycle-based host-guest interactions has received little attention until recently. Here we report the realization of supramolecular polymerization driven by platinum(II) metallacycle-based host-guest interactions both in the solid state and in solution. On the basis of the disclosed polymerization mechanism, we present a new strategy for the preparation of platinum(II) metallacycle-based supramolecular polymers.

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