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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545923

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can originate from severe dysmotility due to enteric neuropathies. Current methods used to demonstrate enteric neuropathies are mainly based on classic qualitative histopathological / immunohistochemical evaluation. This study was designed to identify an objective morphometric method for paraffin-embedded tissue samples to assess the myenteric inter-ganglionic distance, i.e. the micrometer between two adjacent clusters of myenteric neurons immunoreactive for neuron specific enolase, as well as the number of myenteric and submucosal neuronal cell bodies / ganglion in jejunal specimens of patients with severe GI dysmotility. Jejunal full-thickness biopsies were collected from 32 patients (22 females; 16-77 years) with well-characterized severe dysmotility and 8 controls (4 females; 47-73 years). A symptom questionnaire was filled prior to surgery. Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis coupled with Dunn's post-test and non-parametric linear regression tests were used for analyzing morphometric data and clinical correlations, respectively. Compared to controls, patients with severe dysmotility exhibited a significant increase in myenteric inter-ganglionic distance (P=0.0005) along with a decrease in the number of myenteric (P<0.00001) and submucosal (P<0.0004) neurons. A 50% reduction in the number of submucosal and myenteric neurons correlated with an increased inter-ganglionic distance and severity of dysmotility. Our study proposes a relatively simple tool that can be applied for quantitative evaluation of paraffin sections from patients with severe dysmotility. The finding of an increased inter-ganglionic distance may aid diagnosis and limit the direct quantitative analysis of neurons per ganglion in patients with an inter-ganglionic distance within the control range.

2.
Gut ; 68(12): 2238-2250, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563877

RESUMO

Gastroparesis is defined by delayed gastric emptying (GE) and symptoms of nausea, vomiting, bloating, postprandial fullness, early satiety and abdominal pain. Most common aetiologies include diabetes, postsurgical and postinfectious, but in many cases it is idiopathic. Clinical presentation and natural history vary by the aetiology. There is significant morbidity and healthcare utilisation associated with gastroparesis. Mechanistic studies from diabetic animal models of delayed GE as well as human full-thickness biopsies have significantly advanced our understanding of this disorder. An innate immune dysregulation and injury to the interstitial cells of Cajal and other components of the enteric nervous system through paracrine and oxidative stress mediators is likely central to the pathogenesis of gastroparesis. Scintigraphy and 13C breath testing provide the most validated assessment of GE. The stagnant gastroparesis therapeutic landscape is likely to soon see significant changes. Relatively newer treatment strategies include antiemetics (aprepitant), prokinetics (prucalopride, relamorelin) and fundic relaxants (acotiamide, buspirone). Endoscopic pyloromyotomy appears promising over the short term, especially for symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Further controlled trials and identification of the appropriate subgroup with pyloric dysfunction and assessment of long-term outcomes are essential. This review highlights the clinical presentation, diagnosis, mechanisms and treatment advancements for gastroparesis.

3.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(11): e13688, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gut immune, cannabinoid, and opioid systems constitute an integrated network contributing to visceral sensation and pain modulation. We aimed to assess the expression of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR), its ligand ß-endorphin (ß-END), and cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2 ) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and asymptomatic controls (AC) and their correlation with sex and symptom perception. METHODS: Mucosal biopsies were obtained from the left colon of 31 IBS patients (45% women) with predominant constipation (IBS-C, 9) or diarrhea (IBS-D, 10) or with mixed bowel habits (IBS-M, 12) and 32 AC (44% women) and processed for qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS: µ-opioid receptor and CB2 mRNA and protein expression and ß-END protein levels were increased in patients with IBS compared to AC (all Ps=0.021). A significant sex by IBS interaction was found in relation to CB2 mRNA expression (P = .003) with women showing a markedly higher expression to men (P = .035). In contrast, in AC, men had higher expression than women (P = .033). ß-END, MOR, and CB2 immunoreactivities (IR) were localized to CD4+T cells including EMR-1+ eosinophils and CD31+ T cells but not to mast cells. CONCLUSIONS: The increased expression of MOR, ß-END, and CB2 in the mucosa of IBS patients, where they are localized to immune cells, suggests that opioid and cannabinoid systems play an immune-related compensatory role in visceral pain in IBS patients. Further work is necessary to support this hypothesis.

4.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(8): e13652, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare condition due to severe impairment of gut motility responsible for recurrent subocclusive episodes. Although neuromuscular-glial-ICC abnormalities represent the main pathogenetic mechanism, the pathophysiology of CIPO remains poorly understood. Intestinal epithelial and vascular endothelial barrier (IEVB) abnormalities can contribute to neuroepithelial changes by allowing passage of harmful substances. METHODS: To test retrospectively whether IEVB defects occur in patients with CIPO, we measured the jejunal protein expression of the major tight junction (TJ) components. CIPO patients were subdivided according to gut neuromuscular histopathology: apparently normal (AN); with inflammation (INF); or with degenerative alterations (DEG). The presence of occludin/claudin oligomers (index of TJ assembly), the amount of occludin, claudin-4, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and the expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivities were evaluated on jejunal full-thickness biopsies using Western blot. KEY RESULTS: Oligomers were absent in the 73% of CIPO. Total occludin decreased in CIPO with AN and INF changes. Claudin-4 was upregulated in CIPO with INF and DEG features. ZO-1 and VIP expression decreased selectively in DEG group. GFAP increased in CIPO regardless the histopathological phenotype. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: The absence of oligomers demonstrated in our study suggests that IEBV is altered in CIPO. The mechanism leading to oligomerization is occludin-dependent in AN and INF, whereas is ZO-1-dependent in DEG. Our study provides support to IEVB abnormalities contributing to CIPO clinical and histopathological features.

5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 69, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) is a complex disorder with gastrointestinal and nervous system components. The study aim was to assess the economic burden of moderate to severe IBS-C in six European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK). METHODS: An observational, one year retrospective-prospective (6 months each) study of patients diagnosed in the last five years with IBS-C (Rome III criteria) and moderate to severe disease at inclusion (IBS Symptom Severity Scale score ≥ 175). The primary objective was to assess the direct cost to European healthcare systems. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-five patients were included, 60% (range: 43.1-78.8%) suffered from severe IBS-C. During follow-up 11.1-24.0% of patients had a hospitalisation/emergency room (ER) visit, median stay range: 1.5-12.0 days and 41.1-90.4% took prescription drugs for IBS-C. 21.4-50.8% of employed patients took sick leave (mean: 11.6-64.1 days). The mean annual direct cost to the healthcare systems was €937.1- €2108.0. The total direct cost (combined costs to healthcare systems and patient) for IBS-C was €1421.7-€2487.1. CONCLUSIONS: IBS-C is not a life-threatening condition; however, it has large impact on healthcare systems and society. Direct and indirect costs for moderate to severe IBS-C were high with the largest direct cost driver being hospitalisations/ER visits.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Custos de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/economia , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Licença Médica/economia
6.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(9): e13575, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticulosis is a common condition in industrialized countries. Up to 25% of patients with diverticula develop symptoms, a condition termed symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). The aim of the present study was to characterize neuroimmune interactions and nerve fiber plasticity in the colonic mucosa of patients with diverticula. METHODS: Controls, patients with diverticulosis and with SUDD were enrolled in the study. Mucosal biopsies were obtained close to diverticula (diverticular region) and in a normal mucosa (distant site), corresponding to sigmoid and descending colon in the controls. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess mast cells, T cells, macrophages, nerve fibers, and neuronal outgrowth (growth-associated protein 43, GAP43+fibers). KEY RESULTS: No difference emerged in mast cells and T cells among the three groups. Macrophages were increased in patients with SUDD and diverticulosis as compared to controls. Nerve fibers were enhanced in patients with SUDD and diverticulosis in comparison with controls in the diverticular region. GAP43+ fibers were increased only in patients with SUDD as compared to controls and to patients with diverticulosis in the diverticular region. In patients with SUDD, GAP43 density was increased in the diverticular region compared to distant site. Macrophages close to GAP43+ fibers were increased in the diverticular region of patients with SUDD. Significant correlations were found between GAP43+ fibers and immune cells. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Patients with diverticula are characterized by increased macrophage counts, while nerve fiber sprouting is increased only in the diverticular region of patients with SUDD suggesting a role in symptom generation.

7.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(5): e13562, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is a digestive syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying (GE) and by symptoms that are suggestive of gastroduodenal motor disorders. There are three grades of gastroparesis of increasing severity: (a) mild gastroparesis; (b) compensated gastroparesis; and (c) gastric failure. GE abnormalities are partially related to symptom type and severity, and other mechanisms may be involved. AIM: To investigate enteric dysmotility (ED) in patients with suspected gastroparesis. METHODS: Patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis were consecutively included in the study and underwent a 13 C-octanoic acid GE breath test and small bowel manometry (SBM). Clinical features were recorded using predefined, validated questionnaires at entry. KEY RESULTS: The study enrolled 88 patients (71 women; mean age: 37.8 ± 14.3 years). Gastric emptying was delayed in 25 patients (28.4%), and 70 patients (79.5%) presented small bowel motor abnormalities including bursts, abnormal activity fronts, inability to respond to meal ingestion, and hypocontractility. Gastric emptying was delayed in 24 of the 70 patients with ED (34.3% vs 5.5% of patients with normal SBM). Enteric dysmotility was detected in 24 of 25 patients (96%) with delayed GE. Patients with and without delayed GE showed similar moderate/severe gastroparesis manifestations, but patients with ED significantly more often had moderate/severe gastroparesis manifestations than patients with normal SBM (grade 1:14% vs 39%, grade 2:62% vs 56%, grade 3:24% vs 5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Enteric dysmotility was more frequent than delayed GE in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. Gastroparesis severity was associated with small bowel motor abnormalities but not with delayed GE.

8.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 4(1): 41, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385743

RESUMO

Gastroparesis is a disorder characterized by delayed gastric emptying of solid food in the absence of a mechanical obstruction of the stomach, resulting in the cardinal symptoms of early satiety, postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting, belching and bloating. Gastroparesis is now recognized as part of a broader spectrum of gastric neuromuscular dysfunction that includes impaired gastric accommodation. The overlap between upper gastrointestinal symptoms makes the distinction between gastroparesis and other disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, challenging. Thus, a confirmed diagnosis of gastroparesis requires measurement of delayed gastric emptying via an appropriate test, such as gastric scintigraphy or breath testing. Gastroparesis can have idiopathic, diabetic, iatrogenic, post-surgical or post-viral aetiologies. The management of gastroparesis involves: correcting fluid, electrolyte and nutritional deficiencies; identifying and treating the cause of delayed gastric emptying (for example, diabetes mellitus); and suppressing or eliminating symptoms with pharmacological agents as first-line therapies. Several novel pharmacologic agents and interventions are currently in the pipeline and show promise to help tailor individualized therapy for patients with gastroparesis.

9.
F1000Res ; 72018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363819

RESUMO

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a condition characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing foods in the absence of celiac disease and wheat allergy. The diagnosis is cumbersome and currently confirmed only by gluten withdrawal and double-blind placebo challenge protocols. There is great overlap in symptoms between NCGS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders, making a differential diagnosis difficult. The pathophysiology of NCGS is largely unclear, and there are contrasting data on the trigger of this condition. This review will highlight the state-of-the-art knowledge on NCGS and the key open questions.

10.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 6(4): 604-613, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881616

RESUMO

Background: Evidence suggests a role of intestinal microbiota-host interactions in the pathophysiology and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective: The objective of this article is to assess the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 on clinical and gut microbiota-related factors in IBS. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, 18-week, placebo-controlled, pilot trial assessing the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 on symptoms, gut microbiota composition, fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA), immunoglobulin A, and cytokines in IBS. The intestinal microbial ecosystem was characterized by 16S rRNA gene profiling. Results: Forty IBS patients were enrolled from five Italian centers. Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 did not significantly improve IBS symptoms, including primary efficacy variables worst abdominal pain/discomfort and IBS degree of relief. Interestingly, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 induced a significant reduction in genus Ruminococcus, dominated by taxa related to Ruminococcus bromii and Ruminococcus callidus, a significant increase in the SCFAs acetate and butyrate, and a significant reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-15. Conclusions: This pilot study shows that Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 is able to modulate gut microbiota structure/function and reduce immune activation in IBS. As no statistically significant effect on IBS-symptoms was found, further studies are necessary to determine the role of this probiotic in IBS. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov registry under identifier NCT02371499.

11.
Environ Microbiol ; 20(9): 3201-3213, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749705

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, is classified according to bowel habits as IBS with constipation (IBS-C), with diarrhea (IBS-D), with alternating constipation and diarrhea (IBS-M), and unsubtyped (IBS-U). The mechanisms leading to the different IBS forms are mostly unknown. This study aims to evaluate whether specific fecal bacterial taxa and/or short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be used to distinguish IBS subtypes and are relevant for explaining the clinical differences between IBS subcategories. We characterized five fecal samples collected at 4-weeks intervals from 40 IBS patients by 16S rRNA gene profiling and SCFA quantification. Finally, we investigated the potential correlations in IBS subtypes between the fecal microbial signatures and host physiological and clinical parameters. We found significant differences in the distribution of Clostridiales OTUs among IBS subtypes and reduced levels of SCFAs in IBS-C compared to IBS-U and IBS-D patients. Correlation analyses showed that the diverse representation of Clostridiales OTUs between IBS subtypes was associated with altered levels of SCFAs; furthermore, the same OTUs and SCFAs were associated with the fecal cytokine levels and stool consistency. Our results suggest that intestinal Clostridiales and SCFAs might serve as potential mechanistic biomarkers of IBS subtypes and represent therapeutic targets.

12.
J Pediatr ; 195: 128-133.e1, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29352590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that allergic proctocolitis, a cause of self-limiting rectal bleeding in infants, can predispose to the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) later in childhood. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a cohort of 80 consecutive patients diagnosed with allergic proctocolitis. Their sibling or matched children presenting to the same hospital for minor trauma served as controls. Parents of the patients with allergic proctocolitis and controls participated in a telephone interview every 12 months until the child was at least 4 years old. At that time, they were asked to complete the parental Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Rome III version. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 160 subjects (10.0%) included in the study met the Rome III criteria for FGIDs. Among the 80 patients with allergic proctocolitis, 12 (15.0%) reported FGIDs, compared with 4 of 80 (5.0%) controls (P = .035). After adjustment for age and sex, the OR for FGIDs in allergic proctocolitis group was 4.39 (95% CI, 1.03-18.68). FGIDs were significantly associated with iron deficiency anemia, duration of hematochezia, and younger age at presentation. In a multivariate analysis, only the duration of hematochezia was significantly associated with the development of FGIDs (OR, 3.14; 95% CI,1.72-5.74). CONCLUSIONS: We have identified allergic proctocolitis as a new risk factor for the development of FGIDs in children. Our data suggest that not only infection, but also a transient early-life allergic inflammatory trigger may induce persistent digestive symptoms, supporting the existence of "postinflammatory" FGIDs.

13.
Gut ; 67(2): 263-270, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: IBS is a common gut disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. Among other factors, genetics and certain foods are proposed to contribute. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a rare genetic form of disaccharide malabsorption characterised by diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, which are features common to IBS. We tested sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants for their potential relevance in IBS. DESIGN: We sequenced SI exons in seven familial cases, and screened four CSID mutations (p.Val557Gly, p.Gly1073Asp, p.Arg1124Ter and p.Phe1745Cys) and a common SI coding polymorphism (p.Val15Phe) in a multicentre cohort of 1887 cases and controls. We studied the effect of the 15Val to 15Phe substitution on SI function in vitro. We analysed p.Val15Phe genotype in relation to IBS status, stool frequency and faecal microbiota composition in 250 individuals from the general population. RESULTS: CSID mutations were more common in patients than asymptomatic controls (p=0.074; OR=1.84) and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference sequenced individuals (p=0.020; OR=1.57). 15Phe was detected in 6/7 sequenced familial cases, and increased IBS risk in case-control and population-based cohorts, with best evidence for diarrhoea phenotypes (combined p=0.00012; OR=1.36). In the population-based sample, 15Phe allele dosage correlated with stool frequency (p=0.026) and Parabacteroides faecal microbiota abundance (p=0.0024). The SI protein with 15Phe exhibited 35% reduced enzymatic activity in vitro compared with 15Val (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SI gene variants coding for disaccharidases with defective or reduced enzymatic activity predispose to IBS. This may help the identification of individuals at risk, and contribute to personalising treatment options in a subset of patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/enzimologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Complexo Sacarase-Isomaltase/genética , Complexo Sacarase-Isomaltase/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Defecação/genética , Diarreia/etiologia , Éxons , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Genótipo , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Complexo Sacarase-Isomaltase/deficiência , Transfecção
14.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 5(6): 773-788, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29026591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, can be challenging for physicians because of the lack of simple diagnostic tests and the wide variety of treatment approaches available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to outline a simple algorithm for day-to-day clinical practice to help physicians navigate key stages to reaching a positive IBS diagnosis and guidance on how to prioritise the use of specific management strategies. METHODS: This algorithm was based on the opinion of an expert panel evaluating current evidence. RESULTS: The key principles forming the foundation of this evidence-supported algorithm are: confidently naming and explaining an IBS diagnosis for the patient, followed by assessment of key patient characteristics likely to influence the choice of therapy, such as predominant symptoms, and exploring the patient agenda and preferences. Consultation should always include education and reassurance with an explanatory model of IBS tailored to the patient. Individualised lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, pharmacological therapies, psychological strategies or a combination of interventions may be used to optimise treatment for each patient. CONCLUSION: The simple visual tools developed here navigate the key stages to reaching a positive diagnosis of IBS, and provide a stepwise approach to patient-centred management targeted towards the most bothersome symptoms. Establishing a strong patient-physician relationship is central to all stages of the patient journey from diagnosis to effective management.

16.
Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol ; 63(2): 119-129, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28079347

RESUMO

Colonic diverticulosis is a common condition in Western industrialized countries occurring in up to 65% of people over the age of 60 years. Only a minority of these subjects (about 10-25%) experience symptoms, fulfilling Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis (IBS-like symptoms) in 10% to 66% of cases. Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms attributed to diverticula in the absence of macroscopically evident alterations other than the presence of diverticula. Due to the different peak of incidence, the overlap between SUDD and IBS is predominantly present in middle-aged or older patients. In these cases, it is very complex to establish if the symptoms are related to the presence of diverticula or due to an overlapping IBS. In fact, the link between gastrointestinal symptoms and diverticula is unclear, and the mechanism by which diverticula may induce the development of IBS-like symptoms remains to be elucidated. Currently, the etiology and pathophysiology of SUDD, particularly when IBS-like symptoms are present, are not completely understood, and thus these two entities remain a diagnostic challenge not only for the general practitioner but also for the gastroenterologist. Although many issues remain open and unresolved, some minimize the importance of a distinction of these two entities as dietary and pharmacological management may be largely overlapping.


Assuntos
Doenças Diverticulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Diverticulares/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças Diverticulares/etiologia , Doenças Diverticulares/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Incidência , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Itália/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Dig Dis ; 35 Suppl 1: 14-17, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correct diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is quite a challenge. The overlaps between syndromes can complicate the interpretation of clinical data. SUMMARY: The incidence of functional digestive disorders and irritable bowel syndrome are still underestimated with the currently applied diagnostic tools, and the management of the seemingly elusive disease is not satisfactory. For this reason, the "Rome" criteria were created to provide a better understanding and classification of FGIDs. Key Messages: Rome diagnostic criteria and recommendations should be used in the design and performance of clinical studies in the field of functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome.


Assuntos
Dispepsia/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia
19.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 50 Suppl 1: S60-3, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622369

RESUMO

Colonic diverticulosis is an increasingly common condition in Western industrialized countries. About 20% of patients develop symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, and, eventually, diverticulitis or other complications. The management of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) and the prevention of acute diverticulitis remains a challenge for the clinician. The rationale for the use of aminosalicylates, such as mesalazine, is based on the assumption of low-grade inflammation in SUDD and symptoms generation, whereas an overt inflammation may induce diverticulitis in patients with diverticular disease. Clinical scenarios in which the efficacy and safety of mesalazine have been studied include SUDD, prevention of diverticulitis, and of recurrent diverticulitis. Data from uncontrolled studies suggest a benefit of mesalazine on patients with SUDD, whereas data from randomized controlled trials showed some evidence of improvement of symptoms, although contrasting results are reported. The largest study so far published on the efficacy of mesalamine in the prevention of recurrence of diverticulitis showed that mesalamine was not superior to placebo. At this time, the role of mesalazine in the prevention of acute diverticulitis remains to be defined with many issues open and unresolved.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aminossalicílicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Diverticulose Cólica/tratamento farmacológico , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Gastroenterology ; 150(6): 1380-92, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27147122

RESUMO

Symptoms that can be attributed to the gastroduodenal region represent one of the main subgroups among functional gastrointestinal disorders. A slightly modified classification into the following 4 categories is proposed: (1) functional dyspepsia, characterized by 1 or more of the following: postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning, which are unexplained after a routine clinical evaluation; and includes 2 subcategories: postprandial distress syndrome that is characterized by meal-induced dyspeptic symptoms and epigastric pain syndrome that does not occur exclusively postprandially; the 2 subgroups can overlap; (2) belching disorders, defined as audible escapes of air from the esophagus or the stomach, are classified into 2 subcategories, depending on the origin of the refluxed gas as detected by intraluminal impedance measurement belching: gastric and supragastric belch; (3) nausea and vomiting disorders, which include 3 subcategories: chronic nausea and vomiting syndrome; cyclic vomiting syndrome; and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome; and (4) rumination syndrome.


Assuntos
Duodenopatias , Duodenopatias/complicações , Duodenopatias/fisiopatologia , Duodenopatias/terapia , Humanos
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