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1.
Hum Genet ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686214

RESUMO

Haploinsufficiency of FOXF1 causes alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV), a lethal neonatal lung developmental disorder. We describe two similar heterozygous CNV deletions involving the FOXF1 enhancer and re-analyze FOXF1 missense mutation, all associated with an unexpectedly mitigated disease phenotype. In one case, the deletion of the maternal allele of the FOXF1 enhancer caused pulmonary hypertension and histopathologically diagnosed MPV without the typical ACD features. In the second case, the deletion of the paternal enhancer resulted in ACDMPV rather than the expected neonatal lethality. In both cases, FOXF1 expression in lung tissue was higher than usually seen or expected in patients with similar deletions, suggesting an increased activity of the remaining allele of the enhancer. Sequencing of these alleles revealed two rare SNVs, rs150502618-A and rs79301423-T, mapping to the partially overlapping binding sites for TFAP2s and CTCF in the core region of the enhancer. Moreover, in a family with three histopathologically-diagnosed ACDMPV siblings whose missense FOXF1 mutation was inherited from the healthy non-mosaic carrier mother, we have identified a rare SNV rs28571077-A within 2-kb of the above-mentioned non-coding SNVs in the FOXF1 enhancer in the mother, that was absent in the affected newborns and 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients with CNV deletions of this genomic region. Based on the low population frequencies of these three variants, their absence in ACDMPV patients, the results of reporter assay, RNAi and EMSA experiments, and in silico predictions, we propose that the described SNVs might have acted on FOXF1 enhancer as hypermorphs.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal disorder of lung development. ACDMPV is associated with haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor FOXF1, which plays an important role in the development of the lung and intestine. CNVs upstream of the FOXF1 gene have also been associated with an ACDMPV phenotype, but mechanism(s) by which these deletions disrupt lung development are not well understood. The objective of our study is to gain insights into the mechanisms by which CNVs contribute to an ACDMPV phenotype. METHODS: We analysed primary lung tissue from an infant with classic clinical and histological findings of ACDMPV and harboured a 340 kb deletion on chromosome 16q24.1 located 250 kb upstream of FOXF1. RESULTS: In RNA generated from paraffin-fixed lung sections, our patient had lower expression of FOXF1 than age-matched controls. He also had an abnormal pattern of FOXF1 protein expression, with a dramatic loss of FOXF1 expression in the lung. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying these changes, we assessed the epigenetic landscape using chromatin immunoprecipitation, which demonstrated loss of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27Ac), an epigenetic mark of active enhancers, in the region of the deletion. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data suggest that the deletion disrupts an enhancer responsible for directing FOXF1 expression in the developing lung and provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying a fatal developmental lung disorder.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2272-2276, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436901

RESUMO

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal lung developmental disease. Affected infants manifest with severe respiratory distress and refractory pulmonary hypertension and uniformly die in the first month of life. Heterozygous point mutations or copy-number variant deletions involving FOXF1 and/or its upstream lung-specific enhancer on 16q24.1 have been identified in the vast majority of ACDMPV patients. We have previously described two unrelated families with a de novo pathogenic frameshift variant c.691_698del (p.Ala231Argfs*61) in the exon 1 of FOXF1. Here, we present a third unrelated ACDMPV family with the same de novo variant and propose that a direct tandem repeat of eight consecutive nucleotides GCGGCGGC within the ~4 kb CpG island in FOXF1 exon 1 is a novel mutation hotspot causative for ACDMPV.

5.
Clin Genet ; 96(4): 366-370, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309540

RESUMO

The canonical wingless (Wnt) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways involving CTNNB1 and TBX4, respectively, are crucial for the regulation of human development. Perturbations of these pathways and disruptions from biological homeostasis have been associated with abnormal morphogenesis of multiple organs, including the lung. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying genetic cause of abnormal lung growth, pulmonary hypertension (PAH), severe microcephaly, and muscle spasticity in a full-term newborn, who died at 4 months of age due to progressively worsening PAH and respiratory failure. Family trio exome sequencing showed a de novo heterozygous nonsense c.1603C>T (p.Arg535*) variant in CTNNB1 and a paternally inherited heterozygous missense c.1198G>A (p.Glu400Lys) variant in TBX4, both predicted to be likely deleterious. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with CTNNB1 and TBX4 variants and indicate that they could act synergistically to produce a distinct more severe phenotype. Our findings further support a recently proposed complex compound inheritance model in lethal lung developmental diseases and the contention that dual molecular diagnoses can parsimoniously explain blended phenotypes.

6.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 48, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mosaic variation has been known to cause disease for decades, high-throughput sequencing technologies with the analytical sensitivity to consistently detect variants at reduced allelic fractions have only recently emerged as routine clinical diagnostic tests. To date, few systematic analyses of mosaic variants detected by diagnostic exome sequencing for diverse clinical indications have been performed. METHODS: To investigate the frequency, type, allelic fraction, and phenotypic consequences of clinically relevant somatic mosaic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and characteristics of the corresponding genes, we retrospectively queried reported mosaic variants from a cohort of ~ 12,000 samples submitted for clinical exome sequencing (ES) at Baylor Genetics. RESULTS: We found 120 mosaic variants involving 107 genes, including 80 mosaic SNVs in proband samples and 40 in parental/grandparental samples. Average mosaic alternate allele fraction (AAF) detected in autosomes and in X-linked disease genes in females was 18.2% compared with 34.8% in X-linked disease genes in males. Of these mosaic variants, 74 variants (61.7%) were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic and 46 (38.3%) as variants of uncertain significance. Mosaic variants occurred in disease genes associated with autosomal dominant (AD) or AD/autosomal recessive (AR) (67/120, 55.8%), X-linked (33/120, 27.5%), AD/somatic (10/120, 8.3%), and AR (8/120, 6.7%) inheritance. Of note, 1.7% (2/120) of variants were found in genes in which only somatic events have been described. Nine genes had recurrent mosaic events in unrelated individuals which accounted for 18.3% (22/120) of all detected mosaic variants in this study. The proband group was enriched for mosaicism affecting Ras signaling pathway genes. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, an estimated 1.5% of all molecular diagnoses made in this cohort could be attributed to a mosaic variant detected in the proband, while parental mosaicism was identified in 0.3% of families analyzed. As ES design favors breadth over depth of coverage, this estimate of the prevalence of mosaic variants likely represents an underestimate of the total number of clinically relevant mosaic variants in our cohort.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(8): 1045-1056, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199666

RESUMO

Rationale: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal congenital disorder causing respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension shortly after birth. There are no effective treatments for ACDMPV other than lung transplant, and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Although ACDMPV is linked to mutations in the FOXF1 gene, molecular mechanisms through which FOXF1 mutations cause ACDMPV are unknown.Objectives: To identify molecular mechanisms by which S52F FOXF1 mutations cause ACDMPV.Methods: We generated a clinically relevant mouse model of ACDMPV by introducing the S52F FOXF1 mutation into the mouse Foxf1 gene locus using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Immunohistochemistry, whole-lung imaging, and biochemical methods were used to examine vasculature in Foxf1WT/S52F lungs and identify molecular mechanisms regulated by FOXF1.Measurements and Main Results: FOXF1 mutations were identified in 28 subjects with ACDMPV. Foxf1WT/S52F knock-in mice recapitulated histopathologic findings in ACDMPV infants. The S52F FOXF1 mutation disrupted STAT3-FOXF1 protein-protein interactions and inhibited transcription of Stat3, a critical transcriptional regulator of angiogenesis. STAT3 signaling and endothelial proliferation were reduced in Foxf1WT/S52F mice and human ACDMPV lungs. S52F FOXF1 mutant protein did not bind chromatin and was transcriptionally inactive. Furthermore, we have developed a novel formulation of highly efficient nanoparticles and demonstrated that nanoparticle delivery of STAT3 cDNA into the neonatal circulation restored endothelial proliferation and stimulated lung angiogenesis in Foxf1WT/S52F mice.Conclusions: FOXF1 acts through STAT3 to stimulate neonatal lung angiogenesis. Nanoparticle delivery of STAT3 is a promising strategy to treat ACDMPV associated with decreased STAT3 signaling.

8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(9): 1093-1101, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189067

RESUMO

Lethal lung developmental disorders are a rare but important group of pediatric diffuse lung diseases presenting with neonatal respiratory failure. On the basis of histopathological appearance at lung biopsy or autopsy, they have been termed: alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins, acinar dysplasia, congenital alveolar dysplasia, and other unspecified primary pulmonary hypoplasias. However, the histopathological continuum in these lethal developmental disorders has made accurate diagnosis challenging, which has implications for recurrence risk. Over the past decade, genetic studies in infants with alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins have revealed the causative role of the dosage-sensitive FOXF1 gene and its noncoding regulatory variants in the distant lung-specific enhancer at chromosome 16q24.1. In contrast, the molecular bases of acinar dysplasia and congenital alveolar dysplasia have remained poorly understood. Most recently, disruption of the TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathway has been reported in patients with these lethal pulmonary dysplasias. Application of next-generation sequencing techniques, including exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, has demonstrated their complex compound inheritance. These data indicate that noncoding regulatory elements play a critical role in lung development in humans. We propose that for more precise lethal lung developmental disorder diagnosis, a diagnostic pathway including whole-genome sequencing should be implemented.

9.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

10.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 60, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital malformations associated with maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16, upd(16)mat, resemble those observed in newborns with the lethal developmental lung disease, alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV). Interestingly, ACDMPV-causative deletions, involving FOXF1 or its lung-specific upstream enhancer at 16q24.1, arise almost exclusively on the maternally inherited chromosome 16. Given the phenotypic similarities between upd(16)mat and ACDMPV, together with parental allelic bias in ACDMPV, we hypothesized that there may be unknown imprinted loci mapping to chromosome 16 that become functionally unmasked by chromosomal structural variants. RESULTS: To identify parent-of-origin biased DNA methylation, we performed high-resolution bisulfite sequencing of chromosome 16 on peripheral blood and cultured skin fibroblasts from individuals with maternal or paternal upd(16) as well as lung tissue from patients with ACDMPV-causative 16q24.1 deletions and a normal control. We identified 22 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with ≥ 5 consecutive CpG methylation sites and varying tissue-specificity, including the known DMRs associated with the established imprinted gene ZNF597 and DMRs supporting maternal methylation of PRR25, thought to be paternally expressed in lymphoblastoid cells. Lastly, we found evidence of paternal methylation on 16q24.1 near LINC01082 mapping to the FOXF1 enhancer. CONCLUSIONS: Using high-resolution bisulfite sequencing to evaluate DNA methylation across chromosome 16, we found evidence for novel candidate imprinted loci on chromosome 16 that would not be evident in array-based assays and could contribute to the birth defects observed in patients with upd(16)mat or in ACDMPV.

11.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 25, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal triplications (TRP) can contribute to disease etiology via gene dosage effects, gene disruption, position effects, or fusion gene formation. Recently, post-zygotic de novo triplications adjacent to copy-number neutral genomic intervals with runs of homozygosity (ROH) have been shown to result in uniparental isodisomy (UPD). The genomic structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) shows a consistent pattern of an inverted triplication flanked by duplications (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) formed by an iterative DNA replisome template-switching mechanism during replicative repair of a single-ended, double-stranded DNA (seDNA), the ROH results from an interhomolog or nonsister chromatid template switch. It has been postulated that these CGRs may lead to genetic abnormalities in carriers due to dosage-sensitive genes mapping within the copy-number variant regions, homozygosity for alleles at a locus causing an autosomal recessive (AR) disease trait within the ROH region, or imprinting-associated diseases. METHODS: Here, we report a family wherein the affected subject carries a de novo 2.2-Mb TRP followed by 42.2 Mb of ROH and manifests clinical features overlapping with those observed in association with chromosome 14 maternal UPD (UPD(14)mat). UPD(14)mat can cause clinical phenotypic features enabling a diagnosis of Temple syndrome. This CGR was then molecularly characterized by high-density custom aCGH, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and methylation arrays, exome sequencing (ES), and the Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. RESULTS: We confirmed the postulated DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure by multiple orthogonal genomic technologies in the proband. The methylation status of known differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on chromosome 14 revealed that the subject shows the typical methylation pattern of UPD(14)mat. Consistent with these molecular findings, the clinical features overlap with those observed in Temple syndrome, including speech delay. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide experimental evidence that, in humans, triplication can lead to segmental UPD and imprinting disease. Importantly, genotype/phenotype analyses further reveal how a post-zygotically generated complex structural variant, resulting from a replication-based mutational mechanism, contributes to expanding the clinical phenotype of known genetic syndromes. Mechanistically, such events can distort transmission genetics resulting in homozygosity at a locus for which only one parent is a carrier as well as cause imprinting diseases.

13.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(3): e549, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal malrotation is a potentially life-threatening congenital anomaly due to the risk of developing midgut volvulus. The reported incidence is 0.2%-1% and both apparently hereditary and sporadic cases have been reported. Intestinal malrotation is associated with a few syndromes with known genotype but the genetic contribution in isolated intestinal malrotation has not yet been reported. Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in many congenital anomalies, and hence we sought to investigate the potential contribution of rare CNVs in intestinal malrotation. METHODS: Analysis of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from 47 patients with symptomatic intestinal malrotation was performed. RESULTS: We identified six rare CNVs in five patients. Five CNVs involved syndrome loci: 7q11.23 microduplication, 16p13.11 microduplication, 18q terminal deletion, HDAC8 (Cornelia de Lange syndrome type 5 and FOXF1) as well as one intragenic deletion in GALNT14, not previously implicated in human disease. CONCLUSION: In the present study, we identified rare CNVs contributing pathogenic or potentially pathogenic alleles in five patients with syndromic intestinal malrotation, suggesting that CNV screening is indicated in intestinal malrotation with associated malformations or neurological involvements. In addition, we identified intestinal malrotation in two known syndromes (Cornelia de Lange type 5 and 18q terminal deletion syndrome) that has not previously been associated with gastrointestinal malformations.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/genética , Volvo Intestinal/genética , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Lange/patologia , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades do Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Volvo Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Williams/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Williams/patologia
14.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the contribution of rare variants in the genetic background toward variability of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in individuals with rare copy-number variants (CNVs) and gene-disruptive variants. METHODS: We analyzed quantitative clinical information, exome sequencing, and microarray data from 757 probands and 233 parents and siblings who carry disease-associated variants. RESULTS: The number of rare likely deleterious variants in functionally intolerant genes ("other hits") correlated with expression of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in probands with 16p12.1 deletion (n=23, p=0.004) and in autism probands carrying gene-disruptive variants (n=184, p=0.03) compared with their carrier family members. Probands with 16p12.1 deletion and a strong family history presented more severe clinical features (p=0.04) and higher burden of other hits compared with those with mild/no family history (p=0.001). The number of other hits also correlated with severity of cognitive impairment in probands carrying pathogenic CNVs (n=53) or de novo pathogenic variants in disease genes (n=290), and negatively correlated with head size among 80 probands with 16p11.2 deletion. These co-occurring hits involved known disease-associated genes such as SETD5, AUTS2, and NRXN1, and were enriched for cellular and developmental processes. CONCLUSION: Accurate genetic diagnosis of complex disorders will require complete evaluation of the genetic background even after a candidate disease-associated variant is identified.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 1916-1925, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084155

RESUMO

Transposable elements modify human genome by inserting into new loci or by mediating homology-, microhomology-, or homeology-driven DNA recombination or repair, resulting in genomic structural variation. Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal neonatal developmental lung disorder caused by point mutations or copy-number variant (CNV) deletions of FOXF1 or its distant tissue-specific enhancer. Eighty-five percent of 45 ACDMPV-causative CNV deletions, of which junctions have been sequenced, had at least one of their two breakpoints located in a retrotransposon, with more than half of them being Alu elements. We describe a novel ∼35 kb-large genomic instability hotspot at 16q24.1, involving two evolutionarily young LINE-1 (L1) elements, L1PA2 and L1PA3, flanking AluY, two AluSx, AluSx1, and AluJr elements. The occurrence of L1s at this location coincided with the branching out of the Homo-Pan-Gorilla clade, and was preceded by the insertion of AluSx, AluSx1, and AluJr. Our data show that, in addition to mediating recurrent CNVs, L1 and Alu retrotransposons can predispose the human genome to formation of variably sized CNVs, both of clinical and evolutionary relevance. Nonetheless, epigenetic or other genomic features of this locus might also contribute to its increased instability.

16.
Genome Res ; 28(8): 1228-1242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907612

RESUMO

Alu elements, the short interspersed element numbering more than 1 million copies per human genome, can mediate the formation of copy number variants (CNVs) between substrate pairs. These Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMRs) can result in pathogenic variants that cause diseases. To investigate the impact of AAMR on gene variation and human health, we first characterized Alus that are involved in mediating CNVs (CNV-Alus) and observed that these Alus tend to be evolutionarily younger. We then computationally generated, with the assistance of a supercomputer, a test data set consisting of 78 million Alu pairs and predicted ∼18% of them are potentially susceptible to AAMR. We further determined the relative risk of AAMR in 12,074 OMIM genes using the count of predicted CNV-Alu pairs and experimentally validated the predictions with 89 samples selected by correlating predicted hotspots with a database of CNVs identified by clinical chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) on the genomes of approximately 54,000 subjects. We fine-mapped 47 duplications, 40 deletions, and two complex rearrangements and examined a total of 52 breakpoint junctions of simple CNVs. Overall, 94% of the candidate breakpoints were at least partially Alu mediated. We successfully predicted all (100%) of Alu pairs that mediated deletions (n = 21) and achieved an 87% positive predictive value overall when including AAMR-generated deletions and duplications. We provided a tool, AluAluCNVpredictor, for assessing AAMR hotspots and their role in human disease. These results demonstrate the utility of our predictive model and provide insights into the genomic features and molecular mechanisms underlying AAMR.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência
17.
J Hum Genet ; 63(7): 795-801, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691480

RESUMO

Multiple genomic disorders result from recurrent deletions or duplications between low copy repeat (LCR) clusters, mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination. These copy number variants (CNVs) often exhibit variable expressivity and/or incomplete penetrance. However, the population prevalence of many genomic disorders has not been estimated accurately. A subset of genomic disorders similarly characterized by CNVs between LCRs have been studied epidemiologically, including Williams-Beuren syndrome (7q11.23), Smith-Magenis syndrome (17p11.2), velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11.21), Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes (15q11.2q12), 17q12 deletion syndrome, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1/hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (PMP22, 17q11.2). We have generated a method to estimate prevalence of highly penetrant genomic disorders by (1) leveraging epidemiological data for genomic disorders with previously reported prevalence estimates, (2) obtaining chromosomal microarray data on genomic disorders from a large medical genetics clinic; and (3) utilizing these in a linear regression model to determine the prevalence of this syndromic copy number change among the general population. Using our algorithm, the prevalence for five clinically relevant recurrent genomic disorders: 1q21.1 microdeletion (1/6882 live births) and microduplication syndromes (1/6309), 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome (1/5525), and 16p11.2 microdeletion (1/3021) and microduplication syndromes (1/4216), were determined. These findings will inform epidemiological strategies for evaluating those conditions, and our method may be useful to evaluate the prevalence of other highly penetrant genomic disorders.


Assuntos
Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/epidemiologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/epidemiologia , Genoma Humano , Modelos Genéticos , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Williams/epidemiologia , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/genética , Doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Duplicação Cromossômica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Epidemiologia Molecular , Penetrância , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia , Prevalência , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Síndrome de Williams/patologia
18.
Cell ; 172(5): 924-936.e11, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474920

RESUMO

Certain mutations can cause proteins to accumulate in neurons, leading to neurodegeneration. We recently showed, however, that upregulation of a wild-type protein, Ataxin1, caused by haploinsufficiency of its repressor, the RNA-binding protein Pumilio1 (PUM1), also causes neurodegeneration in mice. We therefore searched for human patients with PUM1 mutations. We identified eleven individuals with either PUM1 deletions or de novo missense variants who suffer a developmental syndrome (Pumilio1-associated developmental disability, ataxia, and seizure; PADDAS). We also identified a milder missense mutation in a family with adult-onset ataxia with incomplete penetrance (Pumilio1-related cerebellar ataxia, PRCA). Studies in patient-derived cells revealed that the missense mutations reduced PUM1 protein levels by ∼25% in the adult-onset cases and by ∼50% in the infantile-onset cases; levels of known PUM1 targets increased accordingly. Changes in protein levels thus track with phenotypic severity, and identifying posttranscriptional modulators of protein expression should identify new candidate disease genes.

19.
J Pediatr ; 194: 158-164.e1, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe disease course, histopathology, and outcomes for infants with atypical presentations of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) who underwent bilateral lung transplantation. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed clinical history, diagnostic studies, explant histology, genetic sequence results, and post-transplant course for 6 infants with atypical ACDMPV who underwent bilateral lung transplantation at St. Louis Children's Hospital. We compared their histology with infants with classic ACDMPV and compared their outcomes with infants transplanted for other indications. RESULTS: In contrast with neonates with classic ACDPMV who present with severe hypoxemia and refractory pulmonary hypertension within hours of birth, none of the infants with atypical ACDMPV presented with progressive neonatal respiratory failure. Three infants had mild neonatal respiratory distress and received nasal cannula oxygen. Three other infants had no respiratory symptoms at birth and presented with hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension at 2-3 months of age. Bilateral lung transplantation was performed at 4-20 months of age. Unlike in classic ACDMPV, histopathologic findings were not distributed uniformly and were not diffuse. Three subjects had apparent nonmosaic genetic defects involving FOXF1. Two infants had extrapulmonary anomalies (posterior urethral valves, inguinal hernia). Three transplanted children are alive at 5-16 years of age, similar to outcomes for infants transplanted for other indications. Lung explants from infants with atypical ACDMPV demonstrated diagnostic but nonuniform histopathologic findings. CONCLUSIONS: The 1- and 5-year survival rates for infants with atypical ACDMPV are similar to infants transplanted for other indications. Given the clinical and histopathologic spectra, ACDMPV should be considered in infants with hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension, even beyond the newborn period.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 503-515, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942966

RESUMO

Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24.2. The BPTF variants were found in unrelated individuals aged between 2.1 and 13 years, who manifest variable degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability (10/10), speech delay (10/10), postnatal microcephaly (7/9), and dysmorphic features (9/10). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of bptf in zebrafish to induce a loss of gene function, we observed a significant reduction in head size of F0 mutants compared to control larvae. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone H3 (PH3) staining to assess apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively, showed a significant increase in cell death in F0 mutants compared to controls. Additionally, we observed a substantial increase of the ceratohyal angle of the craniofacial skeleton in bptf F0 mutants, indicating abnormal craniofacial patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate the pathogenic role of BPTF haploinsufficiency in syndromic neurodevelopmental anomalies and extend the clinical spectrum of human disorders caused by ablation of chromatin remodeling complexes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Haploinsuficiência/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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