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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1048-1056, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668703

RESUMO

NTNG2 encodes netrin-G2, a membrane-anchored protein implicated in the molecular organization of neuronal circuitry and synaptic organization and diversification in vertebrates. In this study, through a combination of exome sequencing and autozygosity mapping, we have identified 16 individuals (from seven unrelated families) with ultra-rare homozygous missense variants in NTNG2; these individuals present with shared features of a neurodevelopmental disorder consisting of global developmental delay, severe to profound intellectual disability, muscle weakness and abnormal tone, autistic features, behavioral abnormalities, and variable dysmorphisms. The variants disrupt highly conserved residues across the protein. Functional experiments, including in silico analysis of the protein structure, in vitro assessment of cell surface expression, and in vitro knockdown, revealed potential mechanisms of pathogenicity of the variants, including loss of protein function and decreased neurite outgrowth. Our data indicate that appropriate expression of NTNG2 plays an important role in neurotypical development.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) proteins are part of the thioredoxin protein superfamily. PDIs are involved in the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues during protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and are implicated in stress response pathways. METHODS: Eight children from four consanguineous families residing in distinct geographies within the Middle East and Central Asia were recruited for study. All probands showed structurally similar microcephaly with lissencephaly (microlissencephaly) brain malformations. DNA samples from each family underwent whole exome sequencing, assessment for repeat expansions and confirmatory segregation analysis. RESULTS: An identical homozygous variant in TMX2 (c.500G>A), encoding thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 2, segregated with disease in all four families. This variant changed the last coding base of exon 6, and impacted mRNA stability. All patients presented with microlissencephaly, global developmental delay, intellectual disability and epilepsy. While TMX2 is an activator of cellular C9ORF72 repeat expansion toxicity, patients showed no evidence of C9ORF72 repeat expansions. CONCLUSION: The TMX2 c.500G>A allele associates with recessive microlissencephaly, and patients show no evidence of C9ORF72 expansions. TMX2 is the first PDI implicated in a recessive disease, suggesting a protein isomerisation defect in microlissencephaly.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 844-853, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585108

RESUMO

Lissencephaly is a severe brain malformation in which failure of neuronal migration results in agyria or pachygyria and in which the brain surface appears unusually smooth. It is often associated with microcephaly, profound intellectual disability, epilepsy, and impaired motor abilities. Twenty-two genes are associated with lissencephaly, accounting for approximately 80% of disease. Here we report on 12 individuals with a unique form of lissencephaly; these individuals come from eight unrelated families and have bi-allelic mutations in APC2, encoding adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2. Brain imaging studies demonstrate extensive posterior predominant lissencephaly, similar to PAFAH1B1-associated lissencephaly, as well as co-occurrence of subcortical heterotopia posterior to the caudate nuclei, "ribbon-like" heterotopia in the posterior frontal region, and dysplastic in-folding of the mesial occipital cortex. The established role of APC2 in integrating the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to mediate cellular morphological changes suggests shared function with other lissencephaly-encoded cytoskeletal proteins such as α-N-catenin (CTNNA2) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1). Our findings identify APC2 as a radiographically distinguishable recessive form of lissencephaly.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 689-705, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495489

RESUMO

Sphingomyelinases generate ceramide from sphingomyelin as a second messenger in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Children from 12 unrelated families presented with microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern of the cortex, hypomyelination, cerebellar hypoplasia, congenital arthrogryposis, and early fetal/postnatal demise. Genomic analysis revealed bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in SMPD4, coding for the neutral sphingomyelinase-3 (nSMase-3/SMPD4). Overexpression of human Myc-tagged SMPD4 showed localization both to the outer nuclear envelope and the ER and additionally revealed interactions with several nuclear pore complex proteins by proteomics analysis. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed ER cisternae abnormalities, suspected for increased autophagy, and were more susceptible to apoptosis under stress conditions, while treatment with siSMPD4 caused delayed cell cycle progression. Our data show that SMPD4 links homeostasis of membrane sphingolipids to cell fate by regulating the cross-talk between the ER and the outer nuclear envelope, while its loss reveals a pathogenic mechanism in microcephaly.

5.
Brain ; 142(10): 2965-2978, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412107

RESUMO

Basal ganglia are subcortical grey nuclei that play essential roles in controlling voluntary movements, cognition and emotion. While basal ganglia dysfunction is observed in many neurodegenerative or metabolic disorders, congenital malformations are rare. In particular, dysplastic basal ganglia are part of the malformative spectrum of tubulinopathies and X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia, but neurodevelopmental syndromes characterized by basal ganglia agenesis are not known to date. We ascertained two unrelated children (both female) presenting with spastic tetraparesis, severe generalized dystonia and intellectual impairment, sharing a unique brain malformation characterized by agenesis of putamina and globi pallidi, dysgenesis of the caudate nuclei, olfactory bulbs hypoplasia, and anomaly of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with abnormal corticospinal tract course. Whole-exome sequencing identified two novel homozygous variants, c.26C>A; p.(S9*) and c.752A>G; p.(Q251R) in the GSX2 gene, a member of the family of homeobox transcription factors, which are key regulators of embryonic development. GSX2 is highly expressed in neural progenitors of the lateral and median ganglionic eminences, two protrusions of the ventral telencephalon from which the basal ganglia and olfactory tubercles originate, where it promotes neurogenesis while negatively regulating oligodendrogenesis. The truncating variant resulted in complete loss of protein expression, while the missense variant affected a highly conserved residue of the homeobox domain, was consistently predicted as pathogenic by bioinformatic tools, resulted in reduced protein expression and caused impaired structural stability of the homeobox domain and weaker interaction with DNA according to molecular dynamic simulations. Moreover, the nuclear localization of the mutant protein in transfected cells was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type protein. Expression studies on both patients' fibroblasts demonstrated reduced expression of GSX2 itself, likely due to altered transcriptional self-regulation, as well as significant expression changes of related genes such as ASCL1 and PAX6. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed a global deregulation in genes implicated in apoptosis and immunity, two broad pathways known to be involved in brain development. This is the first report of the clinical phenotype and molecular basis associated to basal ganglia agenesis in humans.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 731-737, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905400

RESUMO

Ciliopathies are clinical disorders of the primary cilium with widely recognized phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. In two Arab consanguineous families, we mapped a ciliopathy phenotype that most closely matches Joubert syndrome (hypotonia, developmental delay, typical facies, oculomotor apraxia, polydactyly, and subtle posterior fossa abnormalities) to a single locus in which a founder homozygous truncating variant in FAM149B1 was identified by exome sequencing. We subsequently identified a third Arab consanguineous multiplex family in which the phenotype of Joubert syndrome/oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD VI) was found to co-segregate with the same founder variant in FAM149B1. Independently, autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing in a consanguineous Turkish family with Joubert syndrome highlighted a different homozygous truncating variant in the same gene. FAM149B1 encodes a protein of unknown function. Mutant fibroblasts were found to have normal ciliogenesis potential. However, distinct cilia-related abnormalities were observed in these cells: abnormal accumulation IFT complex at the distal tips of the cilia, which assumed bulbous appearance, increased length of the primary cilium, and dysregulated SHH signaling. We conclude that FAM149B1 is required for normal ciliary biology and that its deficiency results in a range of ciliopathy phenotypes in humans along the spectrum of Joubert syndrome.

7.
Neuron ; 101(6): 1089-1098.e4, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713029

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) targets neural progenitor cells in the brain, attenuates cell proliferation, and leads to cell death. Here, we describe a role for the ZIKV protease NS2B-NS3 heterodimer in mediating neurotoxicity through cleavage of a host protein required for neurogenesis. Similar to ZIKV infection, NS2B-NS3 expression led to cytokinesis defects and cell death in a protease activity-dependent fashion. Among binding partners, NS2B-NS3 cleaved Septin-2, a cytoskeletal factor involved in cytokinesis. Cleavage of Septin-2 occurred at residue 306 and forced expression of a non-cleavable Septin-2 restored cytokinesis, suggesting a direct mechanism of ZIKV-induced neural toxicity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Citocinese , Mitose , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Septinas/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Zika virus/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Neurogênese , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 707, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755602

RESUMO

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) function to transfer amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules, which are required for protein translation. To date, biallelic mutations in 31 ARS genes are known to cause recessive, early-onset severe multi-organ diseases. VARS encodes the only known valine cytoplasmic-localized aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Here, we report seven patients from five unrelated families with five different biallelic missense variants in VARS. Subjects present with a range of global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy and primary or progressive microcephaly. Longitudinal assessment demonstrates progressive cortical atrophy and white matter volume loss. Variants map to the VARS tRNA binding domain and adjacent to the anticodon domain, and disrupt highly conserved residues. Patient primary cells show intact VARS protein but reduced enzymatic activity, suggesting partial loss of function. The implication of VARS in pediatric neurodegeneration broadens the spectrum of human diseases due to mutations in tRNA synthetase genes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Anticódon , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA de Transferência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
EMBO J ; 37(23)2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420557

RESUMO

A set of glutamylases and deglutamylases controls levels of tubulin polyglutamylation, a prominent post-translational modification of neuronal microtubules. Defective tubulin polyglutamylation was first linked to neurodegeneration in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mouse, which lacks deglutamylase CCP1, displays massive cerebellar atrophy, and accumulates abnormally glutamylated tubulin in degenerating neurons. We found biallelic rare and damaging variants in the gene encoding CCP1 in 13 individuals with infantile-onset neurodegeneration and confirmed the absence of functional CCP1 along with dysregulated tubulin polyglutamylation. The human disease mainly affected the cerebellum, spinal motor neurons, and peripheral nerves. We also demonstrate previously unrecognized peripheral nerve and spinal motor neuron degeneration in pcd mice, which thus recapitulated key features of the human disease. Our findings link human neurodegeneration to tubulin polyglutamylation, entailing this post-translational modification as a potential target for drug development for neurodegenerative disorders.

11.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Putative nucleotidyltransferase MAB21L1 is a member of an evolutionarily well-conserved family of the male abnormal 21 (MAB21)-like proteins. Little is known about the biochemical function of the protein; however, prior studies have shown essential roles for several aspects of embryonic development including the eye, midbrain, neural tube and reproductive organs. OBJECTIVE: A homozygous truncating variant in MAB21L1 has recently been described in a male affected by intellectual disability, scrotal agenesis, ophthalmological anomalies, cerebellar hypoplasia and facial dysmorphism. We employed a combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping to identify the underlying genetic cause in subjects with similar phenotypic features descending from five unrelated consanguineous families. RESULTS: We identified four homozygous MAB21L1 loss of function variants (p.Glu281fs*20, p.Arg287Glufs*14 p.Tyr280* and p.Ser93Serfs*48) and one missense variant (p.Gln233Pro) in 10 affected individuals from 5 consanguineous families with a distinctive autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome. Cardinal features of this syndrome include a characteristic facial gestalt, corneal dystrophy, hairy nipples, underdeveloped labioscrotal folds and scrotum/scrotal agenesis as well as cerebellar hypoplasia with ataxia and variable microcephaly. CONCLUSION: This report defines an ultrarare but clinically recognisable Cerebello-Oculo-Facio-Genital syndrome associated with recessive MAB21L1 variants. Additionally, our findings further support the critical role of MAB21L1 in cerebellum, lens, genitalia and as craniofacial morphogenesis.

12.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 638-647, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify causes of the autosomal-recessive malformation, diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia (DMJD) syndrome. METHODS: Eight families with DMJD were studied by whole-exome or targeted sequencing, with detailed clinical and radiological characterization. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were derived into neural precursor and endothelial cells to study gene expression. RESULTS: All patients showed biallelic mutations in the nonclustered protocadherin-12 (PCDH12) gene. The characteristic clinical presentation included progressive microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, psychomotor disability, epilepsy, and axial hypotonia with variable appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging showed brainstem malformations and with frequent thinned corpus callosum with punctate brain calcifications, reflecting expression of PCDH12 in neural and endothelial cells. These cells showed lack of PCDH12 expression and impaired neurite outgrowth. INTERPRETATION: DMJD patients have biallelic mutations in PCDH12 and lack of protein expression. These patients present with characteristic microcephaly and abnormalities of white matter tracts. Such pathogenic variants predict a poor outcome as a result of brainstem malformation and evidence of white matter tract defects, and should be added to the phenotypic spectrum associated with PCDH12-related conditions. Ann Neurol 2018;84:646-655.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 431-439, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100084

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation, the addition of poly-ADP ribose (PAR) onto proteins, is a response signal to cellular challenges, such as excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. This process is catalyzed by a group of enzymes referred to as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Because the accumulation of proteins with this modification results in cell death, its negative regulation restores cellular homeostasis: a process mediated by poly-ADP ribose glycohydrolases (PARGs) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase proteins (ARHs). Using linkage analysis and exome or genome sequencing, we identified recessive inactivating mutations in ADPRHL2 in six families. Affected individuals exhibited a pediatric-onset neurodegenerative disorder with progressive brain atrophy, developmental regression, and seizures in association with periods of stress, such as infections. Loss of the Drosophila paralog Parg showed lethality in response to oxidative challenge that was rescued by human ADPRHL2, suggesting functional conservation. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP also rescued the phenotype, suggesting the possibility of postnatal treatment for this genetic condition.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1093-1101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013181

RESUMO

Neuronal migration defects, including pachygyria, are among the most severe developmental brain defects in humans. Here, we identify biallelic truncating mutations in CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, in patients with a distinct recessive form of pachygyria. CTNNA2 was expressed in human cerebral cortex, and its loss in neurons led to defects in neurite stability and migration. The αN-catenin paralog, αE-catenin, acts as a switch regulating the balance between ß-catenin and Arp2/3 actin filament activities1. Loss of αN-catenin did not affect ß-catenin signaling, but recombinant αN-catenin interacted with purified actin and repressed ARP2/3 actin-branching activity. The actin-binding domain of αN-catenin or ARP2/3 inhibitors rescued the neuronal phenotype associated with CTNNA2 loss, suggesting ARP2/3 de-repression as a potential disease mechanism. Our findings identify CTNNA2 as the first catenin family member with biallelic mutations in humans, causing a new pachygyria syndrome linked to actin regulation, and uncover a key factor involved in ARP2/3 repression in neurons.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 296-304, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032983

RESUMO

The dynamic shape of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a reflection of its wide variety of critical cell biological functions. Consequently, perturbation of ER-shaping proteins can cause a range of human phenotypes. Here, we describe three affected children (from two consanguineous families) who carry homozygous loss-of-function mutations in LNPK (previously known as KIAA1715); this gene encodes lunapark, which is proposed to serve as a curvature-stabilizing protein within tubular three-way junctions of the ER. All individuals presented with severe psychomotor delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, epilepsy, and corpus callosum hypoplasia, and two of three showed mild cerebellar hypoplasia and atrophy. Consistent with a proposed role in neurodevelopmental disease, LNPK was expressed during brain development in humans and mice and was present in neurite-like processes in differentiating human neural progenitor cells. Affected cells showed the absence of full-length lunapark, aberrant ER structures, and increased luminal mass density. Together, our results implicate the ER junction stabilizer lunapark in establishing the corpus callosum.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(3): 330-339, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343805

RESUMO

Kinesin proteins are critical for various cellular functions such as intracellular transport and cell division, and many members of the family have been linked to monogenic disorders and cancer. We report eight individuals with intellectual disability and microcephaly from four unrelated families with parental consanguinity. In the affected individuals of each family, homozygosity for likely pathogenic variants in KIF14 were detected; two loss-of-function (p.Asn83Ilefs*3 and p.Ser1478fs), and two missense substitutions (p.Ser841Phe and p.Gly459Arg). KIF14 is a mitotic motor protein that is required for spindle localization of the mitotic citron rho-interacting kinase, CIT, also mutated in microcephaly. Our results demonstrate the involvement of KIF14 in development and reveal a wide phenotypic variability ranging from fetal lethality to moderate developmental delay and microcephaly.

18.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 48-54, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transport protein particle (TRAPP) is a multisubunit complex that regulates membrane trafficking through the Golgi apparatus. The clinical phenotype associated with mutations in various TRAPP subunits has allowed elucidation of their functions in specific tissues. The role of some subunits in human disease, however, has not been fully established, and their functions remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to expand the range of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mutations in TRAPP subunits by exome sequencing of consanguineous families. METHODS: Linkage and homozygosity mapping and candidate gene analysis were used to identify homozygous mutations in families. Patient fibroblasts were used to study splicing defect and zebrafish to model the disease. RESULTS: We identified six individuals from three unrelated families with a founder homozygous splice mutation in TRAPPC6B, encoding a core subunit of the complex TRAPP I. Patients manifested a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by microcephaly, epilepsy and autistic features, and showed splicing defect. Zebrafish trappc6b morphants replicated the human phenotype, displaying decreased head size and neuronal hyperexcitability, leading to a lower seizure threshold. CONCLUSION: This study provides clinical and functional evidence of the role of TRAPPC6B in brain development and function.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Efeito Fundador , Estudos de Associação Genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Epilepsia/complicações , Homozigoto , Humanos , Microcefalia/complicações , Fenótipo , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 552-563, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965847

RESUMO

The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway is a key signaling pathway orchestrating embryonic development, mainly of the CNS and limbs. In vertebrates, SHH signaling is mediated by the primary cilium, and genetic defects affecting either SHH pathway members or ciliary proteins cause a spectrum of developmental disorders. SUFU is the main negative regulator of the SHH pathway and is essential during development. Indeed, Sufu knock-out is lethal in mice, and recessive pathogenic variants of this gene have never been reported in humans. Through whole-exome sequencing in subjects with Joubert syndrome, we identified four children from two unrelated families carrying homozygous missense variants in SUFU. The children presented congenital ataxia and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia with elongated superior cerebellar peduncles (mild "molar tooth sign"), typical cranio-facial dysmorphisms (hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, frontal bossing), and postaxial polydactyly. Two siblings also showed polymicrogyria. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted random movements of the mutated residues, with loss of the native enveloping movement of the binding site around its ligand GLI3. Functional studies on cellular models and fibroblasts showed that both variants significantly reduced SUFU stability and its capacity to bind GLI3 and promote its cleavage into the repressor form GLI3R. In turn, this impaired SUFU-mediated repression of the SHH pathway, as shown by altered expression levels of several target genes. We demonstrate that germline hypomorphic variants of SUFU cause deregulation of SHH signaling, resulting in recessive developmental defects of the CNS and limbs which share features with both SHH-related disorders and ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Genes Recessivos , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Doenças Renais Císticas/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Retina/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Cerebelo/patologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Anormalidades do Olho/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Doenças Renais Císticas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(3): 441-450, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823706

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group of recessive developmental disorders characterized by impaired growth of the pons and cerebellum, which frequently follows a degenerative course. Currently, there are 10 partially overlapping clinical subtypes and 13 genes known mutated in PCH. Here, we report biallelic TBC1D23 mutations in six individuals from four unrelated families manifesting a non-degenerative form of PCH. In addition to reduced volume of pons and cerebellum, affected individuals had microcephaly, psychomotor delay, and ataxia. In zebrafish, tbc1d23 morphants replicated the human phenotype showing hindbrain volume loss. TBC1D23 localized at the trans-Golgi and was regulated by the small GTPases Arl1 and Arl8, suggesting a role in trans-Golgi membrane trafficking. Altogether, this study provides a causative link between TBC1D23 mutations and PCH and suggests a less severe clinical course than other PCH subtypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Homozigoto , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Animais , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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