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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 99: 307-316, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the US, and women of low socioeconomic status (SES) show markedly poorer outcomes than those of high SES. SES may influence health through inflammation, although links between SES and inflammatory biomarkers have not been investigated in women with breast cancer. This study tested the hypothesis that breast cancer patients of lower SES would show higher levels of inflammation than those of higher SES. BMI was examined as a mediator of this association. METHODS: Women recently diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer (N = 194) were recruited before neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. Participants completed questionnaires and provided blood samples for immune assessment. SES was indexed by participants' self-reported education and annual household income, BMI was determined by height and weight measurements, and blood was assayed for inflammatory biomarkers linked with cancer outcomes: IL-6, CRP, TNF-α, and sTNF-RII. General linear models tested associations between SES and inflammation, and mediation models examined indirect effects through BMI. RESULTS: Consistent with hypotheses, education status was associated with CRP, (F(2,185) = 4.72, p = 0.001), and sTNF-RII, (F(2,185) = 4.19, p = 0.02), such that lower education was associated with higher levels of both biomarkers. Further, BMI mediated the associations between education and CRP, (95% CIs [-0.62, -0.11; -0.76, -0.21]), sTNF-RII, (95% CIs [-0.09, -0.01; -0.10, -0.02]), and IL-6, (95% CIs [-0.32, -0.05; -0.38, -0.09]). Annual household income was not significantly associated with inflammation (ps > 0.25), and indirect effects on inflammation through BMI were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Lower education was associated with higher levels of inflammation in this sample, which may presage poor breast cancer-related and clinical outcomes. SES should inform the development of interventions targeting BMI and inflammation in breast cancer.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 722, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During, shortly after, and sometimes for years after hematopoietic stem cell transplant, a large proportion of hematological cancer patients undergoing transplant report significant physical and psychological symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life. To address these survivorship problems, we developed a low-burden, brief psychological intervention called expressive helping that includes two theory- and evidence-based components designed to work together synergistically: emotionally expressive writing and peer support writing. Building on evidence from a prior randomized control trial showing reductions in physical symptoms and distress in long-term transplant survivors with persistent survivorship problems, the Writing for Insight, Strength, and Ease (WISE) trial will evaluate the efficacy of expressive helping when used during transplant and in the early post-transplant period, when symptoms peak, and when intervention could prevent development of persistent symptoms. METHODS: WISE is a multi-site, two-arm randomized controlled efficacy trial. Adult hematological cancer patients scheduled for a hematopoietic stem cell transplant will complete baseline measures and then, after hospitalization but prior to transplant, they will be randomized to complete either expressive helping or a time and attention "neutral writing" task. Both expressive helping and neutral writing involve four brief writing sessions, beginning immediately after randomization and ending approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Measures of symptom burden (primary outcome), distress, health-related quality of life, and fatigue (secondary outcomes) will be administered in seven assessments coinciding with medically relevant time points from baseline and to a year post-intervention. DISCUSSION: The steady and continuing increase in use of stem cell transplantation has created growing need for efficacious, accessible interventions to reduce the short- and long-term negative physical and psychosocial effects of this challenging but potentially life-saving treatment. Expressive helping is a psychological intervention that was designed to fill this gap. It has been shown to be efficacious in long-term transplant survivors but could have even greater impact if it is capable of reducing symptoms during and soon after transplant. The WISE study will evaluate these benefits in a rigorous randomized controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov NCT03800758 . Registered January 11, 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sobreviventes , Redação
3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(9): e30950, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer among Asian American women. Chinese American immigrant breast cancer survivors face unique challenges because of cultural and socioecological factors. They report emotional distress and the need for social, emotional, and spiritual support. However, culturally and linguistically appropriate information for managing survivorship health care is often unavailable. OBJECTIVE: To improve the health outcomes for this underserved and understudied population, we developed, designed, and launched a randomized controlled trial to test the health benefits of a culturally sensitive social support intervention (Joy Luck Academy). In this paper, we describe the research protocol. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial will enroll Chinese-speaking, stage 0 to 3 breast cancer survivors who have completed treatment within the previous 36 months using a community-based participatory research approach. We will randomly assign 168 participants to the intervention or control group. The intervention arm will attend 7 weekly 3.5-hour peer mentor and educational sessions. The control group will receive the educational information. We will assess health outcomes at baseline, immediately after the Joy Luck Academy, and at 1- and 4-month follow-ups. The primary outcome is quality of life, as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale. Secondary outcomes include depressive symptoms, positive affect, fatigue, and perceived stress. We will also explore how the intervention influences cortisol levels. To identify how and to whom the program is effective, we will measure social and personal resources and theorized mechanisms and perform qualitative interviews with a subsample of participants to enhance the interpretation of quantitative data. RESULTS: Recruitment began in February 2015, and data collection was completed in February 2019. We expect to complete data management by August 2021 and publish results in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: If the Joy Luck Academy is demonstrated to be effective, it may be easily disseminated as an intervention for other groups of Asian American immigrant breast cancer survivors. Furthermore, similar programs could be integrated into other diverse communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02946697; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02946697. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/30950.

4.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 611-626, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410738

RESUMO

Asian Americans are the fastest growing U.S. immigrant group, projected to become the largest immigrant group by 2065, but the quantity of research on Asian Americans' health has not mirrored changing demographics. Asian Americans have been understudied for more than 25 years, with only 0.17% of National Institutes of Health (NIH) expenditures allocated to projects including Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander populations (Ðoàn et al., 2019). This disproportionality may result in part from the model minority stereotype (MMS) being extended to health, perpetuating the ideas that Asian Americans are well-positioned with regard to health status and that associated research is not essential. Accordingly, the aims for this article are threefold: (a) bring attention to the inadequate representation of the Asian American population in health-related science, (b) question the MMS in health, and (c) outline potential pathways through which the MMS limits what is knowable on Asian American health issues and needs. We discuss the limited meaningfulness of nonrepresentative aggregated statistics purporting the model minority image and provide counterexamples. We also present a stereotype-constraints model with the MMS contributing to a bottleneck for Asian American health-related knowledge, accompanied by present-day circumstances (e.g., sparse data, few psychologists/behavioral medicine scientists focused on Asian American health). We conclude with initial recommendations for addressing MMS-associated constraints in psychology and more broadly. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Nível de Saúde , Grupos Minoritários , Estereotipagem , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
5.
Health Psychol ; 40(6): 408-417, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uveal melanoma, a rare eye cancer, presents potential vision loss and life threat. This prospective, longitudinal study interrogated the predictive utility of visual impairment, as moderated by optimism/pessimism, on depressive symptoms in 299 adults undergoing diagnostic evaluation. METHOD: Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), subjective (Measure of Outcome in Ocular Disease vision subscale) and objective (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) visual impairment, and optimism/pessimism (Life Orientation Test-Revised) were assessed before diagnostic evaluation and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after diagnosis. Multilevel modeling, with repeated measures (Level 1) nested within individuals (Level 2) and imputation of missing data (Blimp software), was performed. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms were significantly more elevated 1 week after diagnosis in cancer patients (n = 107) versus patients not diagnosed with cancer (n = 192). Higher subjective (but not objective) visual impairment predicted greater depressive symptoms (p < .001). Across the entire sample, the two-way (Optimism/Pessimism × Subjective Visual Impairment) interactions were statistically significant (ps < .05), but not the three-way interaction (with diagnosis). The positive association between subjective visual impairment and depressive symptoms was significant at low and moderate levels of optimism (ps < .001), but not at high optimism (p > .05). The association was significant at high and moderate levels (ps < .001), but not low (p > .05) levels of pessimism. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated depressive symptoms are evident in adults who do (vs. do not) receive a diagnosis of uveal melanoma but appear to remit within 3 months. Perceived impaired vision, especially coupled with low optimism or high pessimism, predicts depressive symptoms over time, with implications for intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão , Melanoma , Otimismo , Pessimismo , Neoplasias Uveais , Transtornos da Visão , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uveais/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia
6.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(4): 327-340, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety symptoms are common among cancer survivors. This study evaluated whether an acceptance-based group intervention delivered by social workers in community oncology clinics improved anxiety and related symptoms, and healthcare use, relative to enhanced usual care (EUC). METHOD: This multi-site trial included 135 survivors of various cancers with moderate to high anxiety about cancer/survivorship, 1.5-24 months after treatment. Participants were randomized 1:1 to a 7-session acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based group (Valued Living) or EUC (access to onsite supportive care plus resource list). Questionnaires were administered at baseline, 1, 2, 5, and 8 months post-randomization, diagnostic interviews at baseline, 2, and 8 months, and healthcare use tracked throughout. Outcomes included anxiety symptoms (primary), related symptoms, and healthcare use. Putative moderators included age, anxiety, and avoidance. RESULTS: In intent-to-treat comparisons to EUC, Valued Living (VL) showed a nonsignificant pattern of greater improvement on anxiety symptoms (p = .08), improved significantly more on cancer-related post-traumatic stress (p = .002), fear of recurrence (p = .003), and energy/fatigue (p = .02), and missed significantly fewer medical appointments (p < .05). Conditions improved similarly on depressive symptoms, sense of meaning, and most severe anxiety or depressive disorder. Effects were moderated: VL participants with higher baseline anxiety or avoidance (+1SD) improved more on anxiety, meaning (ps ≤ .01), and disorder severity (p = .05) than their EUC counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: An acceptance-based group intervention delivered in community oncology clinics enhanced psychological recovery and energy levels, and reduced missed medical appointments for anxious cancer survivors, with stronger effects for more distressed participants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Ansiedade/terapia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e24277, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With conflicting information about COVID-19, the general public may be uncertain about how to proceed in terms of precautionary behavior and decisions about whether to return to activity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the factors associated with COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. METHODS: National survey data were obtained from the Democracy Fund + UCLA Nationscape Project, an ongoing cross-sectional weekly survey. The sample was provided by Lucid, a web-based market research platform. Three outcomes were evaluated: (1) COVID-19-related concerns, (2) precautionary behaviors, and (3) willingness to return to activity. Key independent variables included age, gender, race or ethnicity, education, household income, political party support, religion, news consumption, number of medication prescriptions, perceived COVID-19 status, and timing of peak COVID-19 infections by state. RESULTS: The data included 125,508 responses from web-based surveys conducted over 20 consecutive weeks during the COVID-19 pandemic (comprising approximately 6250 adults per week), between March 19 and August 5, 2020, approved by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Institutional Review Board for analysis. A substantial number of participants were not willing to return to activity even after the restrictions were lifted. Weighted multivariate logistic regressions indicated the following groups had different outcomes (all P<.001): individuals aged ≥65 years (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.93-2.18; precautionary behaviors: OR 2.38, 95% CI 2.02-2.80; return to activity: OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.37-0.46 vs 18-40 years); men (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.70-0.75; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81; return to activity: OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.88-2.12 vs women); taking ≥4 medications (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.40-1.54; precautionary behaviors: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.555; return to activity: OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.69-0.81 vs <3 medications); Republicans (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.38-0.42; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.40-0.50; return to activity: OR 2.22, 95% CI 2.09-2.36 vs Democrats); and adults who reported having COVID-19 (COVID-19-related concerns: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.39; precautionary behaviors: OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81; return to activity: OR 3.99, 95% CI 3.48-4.58 vs those who did not). CONCLUSIONS: Participants' age, party affiliation, and perceived COVID-19 status were strongly associated with their COVID-19-related concerns, precautionary behaviors, and willingness to return to activity. Future studies need to develop and test targeted messaging approaches and consider political partisanship to encourage preventative behaviors and willingness to return to activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Política , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 43: 101374, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of written expressive disclosure (WED) to health are documented in a variety of healthy and clinical populations. This study investigates the effect of WED on health-related outcomes in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: Adults (N = 189) meeting Rome III criteria for IBS were randomly assigned to write about their: (1) deepest thoughts and feelings about the most stressful life event of the past five years (n = 67), (2) deepest thoughts and feelings about their IBS (n = 61) or (3) daily activities in an objective manner (control condition; n = 61). Participants completed four 20-min writing sessions over 2-6 weeks. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, healthcare utilization, health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), pain catastrophizing, and pain self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, one month post-writing completion, and three months post-writing completion. RESULTS: A significant group (combined WED vs. control) X time interaction was detected for healthcare utilization, F(1,147) = 6.16, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.04. Specifically, number of GI-related medical appointments significantly increased from baseline to 3-month follow-up in the control group, while no significant change was observed in the combined WED group. Among the WED group, individuals assigned to write about their IBS experienced greater improvements in pain self-efficacy than those assigned to write about a life stressor, F(1,92) = 3.89, p = 0.024, η2 = 0.08. GI symptom severity, HR-QOL, and pain catastrophizing improved significantly across groups over time, with no significant between-group differences. CONCLUSION: Writing about one's deepest thoughts and feelings about IBS may increase pain self-efficacy and reduce healthcare utilization compared to control writing in adults with IBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Adulto , Revelação , Emoções , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Redação
9.
Psychosom Med ; 83(3): 291-299, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive difficulties are a common complaint among patients with breast cancer and may adversely affect psychological well-being. In particular, problems with executive functioning (EF) may interfere with coping, which is known to influence depressive symptoms. The current study was designed to examine correlations between EF, coping, and depressive symptoms in breast cancer survivors and to longitudinally test the hypothesis that coping mediates the relationship between EF and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Participants included 171 women with early-stage breast cancer assessed at the end of primary treatment with surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy and at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after treatment follow-ups as part of the Mind-Body Study. Participants completed questionnaires to assess subjective EF, approach and avoidant coping, and depressive symptoms, and neuropsychological testing was conducted to assess objective EF. Bivariate correlations were used to examine associations between EF, coping, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analyses were conducted using a bootstrapping approach (PROCESS). RESULTS: At 1 year after treatment, objective and subjective EFs were correlated with avoidant coping (r = -0.172 [p = .024] and r = 0.297 [p < .001], respectively). In longitudinal analyses, use of the avoidant strategy behavioral disengagement at 1 year mediated the association between objective (95% bootstrap confidence interval = -0.282 to -0.042) and subjective (95% bootstrap confidence interval = 0.020 to 0.254) EFs at 6 months and depressive symptoms at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights how problems with EF during survivorship are associated with avoidant coping and depressive symptoms. Thus, these findings identify potential cognitive and affective targets for depression intervention in this population.


Assuntos
Depressão , Neoplasias , Adaptação Psicológica , Depressão/etiologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(9): 1288-1302, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428530

RESUMO

Background: Younger women with chronic disease (<60 years of age), especially women with stereotypically "men's" heart disease (HD), are understudied. Unique difficulties may occur with HD, which is less commonly associated with women, compared with breast cancer (BC). Similarities may also exist across younger women, as chronic disease is less normative in younger people. Intersections of gender, age, and the specific disease experience require greater attention for improving women's health. This exploratory qualitative study compared younger women's experiences of HD or BC. Methods: Semistructured interviews with 20 women (n = 10 per disease) were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Results: Amidst building careers, intimate relationships, and families, women felt thwarted by disease-related functional problems. Cognitive-behavioral coping strategies spurred resilience, including integrating the illness experience with self-identity. Barriers arose when medical professionals used representativeness heuristics (e.g., chronic disease occurs in older age). Important experiences in HD included worsened self-image from disability, negative impact of illness invisibility, and persisting isolation from lacking peer availability. Initial medical care reported by women with HD may reflect gender biases (e.g., HD missed in emergency settings and initial diagnostics). New information provided by the younger women includes limited illness-related optimism in women with HD facing age and gender stereotypes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of peer availability in BC. Conclusions: Greater public awareness of younger women with chronic disease, alongside structural support and connection with similarly challenged peers, is suggested. As advocacy for BC awareness and action has strengthened over past decades, similar efforts are needed for younger women with HD.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Cardiopatias , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Behav Sleep Med ; 19(6): 814-827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470847

RESUMO

Objective: Insomnia and fatigue are common, although not inevitable, during breast cancer. This study is one of the first aiming to describe distinct trajectory classes of insomnia and fatigue symptoms, and their correlates, from diagnosis through treatment.Methods: This longitudinal cohort study was conducted at a comprehensive cancer center and community oncology practices. Participants (N = 460) were women diagnosed with any stage of breast cancer in the previous 4 months. Primary outcomes for this ancillary study of the existing cohort were self-reported insomnia and fatigue symptoms assessed repeatedly across 12 months.Results: Four distinct classes of insomnia symptoms emerged: persistently very high, clinically elevated symptoms (13.7%); high, clinically elevated symptoms (65.9%); stable low (17.2%) or very low (2.6%) symptoms. Five fatigue symptom classes included high, increasing fatigue (9.6%), two recovery classes starting at high (26.3%), or moderate (18.0%) severity at diagnosis, stable low (33.3%) or very low (12.2%) classes. In multivariate analyses, higher depressive symptoms, anxiety, and chronic life stress were associated with being in the very high insomnia class versus the low symptom class. Oncologic factors were not associated with insomnia class membership. Receiving chemotherapy was linked significantly to high and recovery fatigue symptom classes versus the low class. Higher chronic life stress was associated with more persistent fatigue symptoms.Conclusions: Distinct classes of insomnia and fatigue symptoms were evident; 79.6% of the women had clinically elevated, persistent insomnia symptoms, 53.9% had elevated fatigue. A substantial minority evidenced low symptoms, suggesting targeted or stepped-care approaches to symptom management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Depressão , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
12.
J Behav Med ; 44(1): 131-137, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939680

RESUMO

Little is known about contributors to the psychosocial impact of uveal melanoma, a rare cancer. Predictors and outcomes of benefit finding, a potentially favorable outcome, were investigated. Adults (n = 107) completed assessments prior to diagnosis of uveal melanoma and one week, three months and 12 months after diagnosis. Path analyses with the full information maximum likelihood estimation method were conducted. Objective disease impact on vision did not predict benefit finding (p > .05). Approach-oriented coping prior to diagnosis and one week later significantly predicted greater benefit finding 12 months later (p < .01). Avoidance-oriented coping at three months moderated the concurrent relationship of benefit finding and positive affect at 12 months (p < .001). This first study of predictors of benefit finding in uveal melanoma patients suggests that greater approach-oriented coping prospectively predicts higher benefit finding. Further, avoidance may condition the association of benefit finding with psychosocial outcomes.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Uveais , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Melanoma/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Uveais/complicações , Neoplasias Uveais/diagnóstico
14.
J Behav Med ; 44(1): 1-17, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535673

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine whether: (a) cancer-related coping profiles change across time; (b) coping profile transition types predict changes in depressive and physical symptoms. Latent transition analysis was conducted with repeated measures of seven cancer-related coping processes from 460 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. In multilevel models, coping profile transition groups were entered as predictors of symptoms across 12 months. Three coping profiles emerged at study entry, with two profiles at later assessments. Forty-eight percent of women maintained high-moderate approach-oriented coping over time. Specific factors (e.g., age, acceptance of emotions) differentiated the transition groups. Women who increased and then maintained high-moderate approach-oriented coping had relatively high initial depressive symptoms that declined steeply. When cancer-related acceptance predominated, women experienced increasing physical symptoms. Distinct cancer-related coping patterns are related to the level of and change in depressive and physical symptoms longitudinally. Early intervention to increase approach-oriented coping strategies could yield favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adaptação Psicológica , Depressão/diagnóstico , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos
15.
Health Psychol ; 39(7): 589-599, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (a) examine the relationships of 3 facets of spirituality (i.e., meaning, peace, faith), and their interaction, with depressive symptoms among Black, Latino, and White cancer survivors; and (b) test fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) and social support (SS) as mediators of these relationships. METHOD: Data were analyzed from the American Cancer Society's Study of Cancer Survivors-I, a longitudinal population-based study of cancer survivors' quality of life. A national sample of Black (n = 194), Latino (n = 90), and White (n = 2,775) survivors of the top 10 incident cancers completed measures 1 year (Time 1, T1), 2 years (Time 2, T2), and 9 years (Time 3, T3) postdiagnosis. RESULTS: After controlling for T1 depressed mood and demographic and medical characteristics, T1 lower meaning and lower peace, but not faith, predicted greater depressive symptoms at T3 in the total sample. A significant interaction showed that higher faith predicted greater depressive symptoms specifically in the context of lower meaning. Race/ethnicity did not affect these relationships. FCR at T2 partially mediated the relationships of T1 meaning and peace with T3 depressive symptoms, and SS partially mediated the relationship between T1 meaning and T3 depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors with greater meaning and peace appear better able to integrate the cancer experience into their lives. An interaction between T1 meaning and faith on T3 depressive symptoms replicated previous findings. Future research should treat spirituality as a multidimensional construct and focus on identifying and influencing malleable mechanisms of the associations between spirituality and mental health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Aging ; 35(4): 591-603, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271069

RESUMO

Emotional approach coping involves active attempts at emotional expression and processing in response to stressful circumstances. This study tested whether dispositional emotional approach coping processes predict changes in physical and mental health in community-dwelling older adults, particularly within the context of higher perceived stress. To test this, older adults (N = 150) completed assessments of emotional expression and emotional processing at study entry. They also completed measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and ill-health (a composite of subjective and objective physical health indicators, which included blood draw for collection of biomarkers), every 6 months over 4.5 years. Emotional processing and emotional expression were not related significantly to ill-health at study entry. However, emotional processing (but not emotional expression) significantly predicted changes in ill-health. At higher levels of emotional processing, ill-health remained low and stable; at lower levels of emotional processing, ill-health increased over time. However, when perceived stress was high, higher emotional processing and emotional expression were related to lower depressive symptoms at study entry, but higher emotional processing was associated with increasing depressive symptoms over time. Emotional approach coping processes evidence prospective relations with health outcomes, which are partially conditioned by stress perceptions. Emotional processing appears to have a protective impact against declining physical health. Predictive relationships for depressive symptoms are more complex. Older adults with chronically high perceived stress might benefit from interventions that target emotion-regulating coping processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(5): 443-465, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As new targeted oral antineoplastic therapies have emerged in recent years, the development of effective strategies that promote optimal adherence to cancer medication regimens has become an important priority. METHODS: We conducted a scoping literature review to search for English language articles published through July 15, 2019, to identify studies that reported the testing and/or evaluation of interventions to improve adherence to oral antineoplastic agents. RESULTS: A total of 56 articles were selected for review. Of the studies evaluated, 14 were randomized trials. All interventions except two targeted adult patients. Thirty-three studies enrolled fewer than 100 patients. Most interventions were education- and counseling-based and centered on provision of information about the drug and strategies to manage side effects. Only eight studies used an mHealth tool and/or text messages to target nonadherence. Among studies with a comparison sample, fewer than one-half (44.7%) reported statistically significant improvements in adherence or persistence associated with the intervention; however, some pharmacist-directed programs, particularly those that integrated monitoring or routine follow-up with a provider, did demonstrate efficacy. CONCLUSION: Although the development of adherence-promoting interventions for oral antineoplastic therapies has increased recently, few have been rigorously tested. The nascent literature suggests those that are pharmacist directed and use regular monitoring show promise, though additional prospective studies are needed. Study methodology, population selection, and potential challenges that may be encountered in the implementation and dissemination phases should be considered when developing new interventions to address nonadherence to oral antineoplastic treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(9): 4425-4433, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925530

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite cancer survivors' frequent endorsement of anxiety symptoms, assessing the full range of anxiety disorders (AD), their timing of onset relative to cancer diagnosis, co-morbidity with mood disorder, and predictors of post-cancer onset, is rare or absent to date. This study provides a step toward addressing these gaps. METHODS: Cancer survivors at re-entry after primary treatment completion who screened positively for anxiety symptoms (N = 133) and sought care through an intervention trial completed standardized diagnostic interviews, dimensional assessment of disorder severity, and timing of disorder onset relative to cancer diagnosis. We evaluated sociodemographic and medical predictors of developing a first AD after cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Most ADs began after cancer diagnosis (58%); for 68% of affected patients, this represented their first AD episode. The most common was generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 41%), where "cancer-focused GAD" was distinguished from "typical GAD"; the next most common were specific phobia (14%) and social anxiety disorder (13%). A minority (31%) of ADs were comorbid with major depression. Relative to having no AD, experiencing more lingering treatment side effects predicted developing a first AD after cancer diagnosis. Relative to having an AD that began before cancer diagnosis, reporting a higher cancer stage predicted developing a first AD after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors at re-entry seeking care for anxiety symptoms manifested a broad range of ADs which most commonly developed after cancer diagnosis and were prompted by the experience of cancer. Such disorders represent an unusually late-life, cancer-linked etiology that warrants further investigation and clinical attention.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(3): 431-436, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal adherence with endocrine treatment for breast cancer is influenced by a number of factors but remains poorly understood. We sought to describe the prior knowledge about and expectations of breast cancer treatments among older women retrospecting on their diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Thematic analysis was used to systematically analyze data obtained with face-to-face, open-ended interviews conducted with 54 women who had filled at least one prescription for an aromatase inhibitor. The average age was 71.9 (65-93) years at diagnosis. RESULTS: Three salient themes were described: the sources of information on which preknowledge and expectations surrounding treatment were founded, and two phases of treatment, primary (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy) and anti-hormonal. The main source of information was from family and friends who had been treated for cancer. These peers reported both positive and negative experiences and in many cases contributed to the women having some degree of misinformation. A foundational knowledge of primary treatments was evident (necessity, duration, intensity, side-effects) and that receiving one or more treatments was needed. Compared to primary treatments, anti-hormonal treatment (AHT) was unexpected, the women knew less about it, and felt comparatively under-prepared for this treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The transition from primary treatments to adjuvant AHT therapy with receiving a prescription for an aromatase inhibitor caught many participants off guard. Our findings elucidate areas to enhance clinical practice, expand the research agenda to more thoroughly explore AHT information and design of an age-appropriate supportive intervention to improve continuation with AHT.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase , Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 83: 126-134, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure, is a feature of depression and transdiagnostic construct in psychopathology. Theory and compelling evidence from preclinical models implicates stress-induced inflammation as a psychobiological pathway to anhedonic behavior; however, this pathway has not been tested in human models. Further, although anhedonia may reflect dysregulation in multiple dimensions of reward, the extent to which stress-induced inflammation alters these dimensions is unclear. Thus, the current experimental study used a standardized laboratory stressor task to elicit an inflammatory response and evaluate effects of stress-induced inflammation on multiple behavioral indices of reward processing. METHODS: Healthy young women (age 18-25) completed behavioral reward tasks assessing reward learning, motivation, and sensitivity and were randomized to undergo an acute psychosocial stressor (n = 37) or a no-stress active control (n = 17). Tasks were re-administered 90-120 min post-stress to coincide with the peak of the stress-induced inflammatory response. Blood samples were collected for assessment of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) at baseline and 90 and 120 min post stressor. RESULTS: Stress-induced IL-6 was associated with increased response bias during reward learning and increased motivation when probability of receiving a reward was low. Sensitivity to reward in the context of a motivation task was not altered in association with stress-induced IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to hypotheses, mild increases in IL-6 following acute stress were associated with increased reward responsiveness during reward learning and selective increases in motivation. Results contribute to an emerging and nuanced literature linking inflammation to reward processing, and demonstrate that behavioral effects of stress-induced inflammation may be detected in the laboratory setting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03828604.


Assuntos
Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/psicologia , Motivação , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anedonia , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Aprendizagem , Adulto Jovem
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