*PLoS One ; 14(3): e0211234, 2019.*

##### RESUMO

This paper presents the first empirical investigation that compares Euler and linear diagrams when they are used to represent set cardinality. A common approach is to use area-proportional Euler diagrams but linear diagrams can exploit length-proportional straight-lines for the same purpose. Another common approach is to use numerical annotations. We first conducted two empirical studies, one on Euler diagrams and the other on linear diagrams. These suggest that area-proportional Euler diagrams with numerical annotations and length-proportional linear diagrams without numerical annotations support significantly better task performance. We then conducted a third study to investigate which of these two notations should be used in practice. This suggests that area-proportional Euler diagrams with numerical annotations most effectively supports task performance and so should be used to visualize set cardinalities. However, these studies focused on data that can be visualized reasonably accurately using circles and the results should be taken as valid within that context. Future work needs to determine whether the results generalize both to when circles cannot be used and for other ways of encoding cardinality information.

##### Assuntos

Biologia Computacional/métodos , Computação Matemática , Algoritmos , Gráficos por Computador , Computadores , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Software , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas*Cogn Process ; 20(1): 103-115, 2019 Feb.*

##### RESUMO

Research in psychology about reasoning has often been restricted to relatively inexpressive statements involving quantifiers (e.g. syllogisms). This is limited to situations that typically do not arise in practical settings, like ontology engineering. In order to provide an analysis of inference, we focus on reasoning tasks presented in external graphic representations where statements correspond to those involving multiple quantifiers and unary and binary relations. Our experiment measured participants' performance when reasoning with two notations. The first notation used topological constraints to convey information via node-link diagrams (i.e. graphs). The second used topological and spatial constraints to convey information (Euler diagrams with additional graph-like syntax). We found that topo-spatial representations were more effective for inferences than topological representations alone. Reasoning with statements involving multiple quantifiers was harder than reasoning with single quantifiers in topological representations, but not in topo-spatial representations. These findings are compared to those in sentential reasoning tasks.

##### Assuntos

Apresentação de Dados , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos*IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(1): 56-69, 2014 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

Area-proportional Euler diagrams representing three sets are commonly used to visualize the results of medical experiments, business data, and information from other applications where statistical results are best shown using interlinking curves. Currently, there is no tool that will reliably visualize exact area-proportional diagrams for up to three sets. Limited success, in terms of diagram accuracy, has been achieved for a small number of cases, such as Venn-2 and Venn-3 where all intersections between the sets must be represented. Euler diagrams do not have to include all intersections and so permit the visualization of cases where some intersections have a zero value. This paper describes a general, implemented, method for visualizing all 40 Euler-3 diagrams in an area-proportional manner. We provide techniques for generating the curves with circles and convex polygons, analyze the drawability of data with these shapes, and give a mechanism for deciding whether such data can be drawn with circles. For the cases where nonconvex curves are necessary, our method draws an appropriate diagram using nonconvex polygons. Thus, we are now always able to automatically visualize data for up to three sets.

##### Assuntos

Pesquisa Biomédica , Gráficos por Computador , Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador*IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(1): 88-100, 2011 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.

##### Assuntos

Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Software*IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 17(7): 1020-32, 2011 Jul.*

##### RESUMO

Euler diagrams are effective tools for visualizing set intersections. They have a large number of application areas ranging from statistical data analysis to software engineering. However, the automated generation of Euler diagrams has never been easy: given an abstract description of a required Euler diagram, it is computationally expensive to generate the diagram. Moreover, the generated diagrams represent sets by polygons, sometimes with quite irregular shapes that make the diagrams less comprehensible. In this paper, we address these two issues by developing the theory of piercings, where we define single piercing curves and double piercing curves. We prove that if a diagram can be built inductively by successively adding piercing curves under certain constraints, then it can be drawn with circles, which are more esthetically pleasing than arbitrary polygons. The theory of piercings is developed at the abstract level. In addition, we present a Java implementation that, given an inductively pierced abstract description, generates an Euler diagram consisting only of circles within polynomial time.