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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646703

RESUMO

We recently described a new neurodevelopmental syndrome (TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome) (MIM# 300966) caused by pathogenic variants involving the X-linked gene TAF1, which participates in RNA polymerase II transcription. The initial study reported eleven families, and the syndrome was defined as presenting early in life with hypotonia, facial dysmorphia, and developmental delay that evolved into intellectual disability (ID) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have now identified an additional 27 families through a genotype-first approach. Familial segregation analysis, clinical phenotyping, and bioinformatics were capitalized on to assess potential variant pathogenicity, and molecular modelling was performed for those variants falling within structurally characterized domains of TAF1. A novel phenotypic clustering approach was also applied, in which the phenotypes of affected individuals were classified using 51 standardized Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) terms. Phenotypes associated with TAF1 variants show considerable pleiotropy and clinical variability, but prominent among previously unreported effects were brain morphological abnormalities, seizures, hearing loss, and heart malformations. Our allelic series broadens the phenotypic spectrum of TAF1/MRXS33 intellectual disability syndrome and the range of TAF1 molecular defects in humans. It also illustrates the challenges for determining the pathogenicity of inherited missense variants, particularly for genes mapping to chromosome X. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029541, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in genomic technology have allowed better delineation of renal conditions, the identification of new kidney disease genes and subsequent targets for therapy. To date, however, the utility of genomic testing in a clinically ascertained, prospectively recruited kidney disease cohort remains unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of genomic testing within a national cohort of patients with suspected genetic kidney disease who attend multidisciplinary renal genetics clinics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective observational cohort study performed at 16 centres throughout Australia. Patients will be included if they are referred to one of the multidisciplinary renal genetics clinics and are deemed likely to have a genetic basis to their kidney disease by the multidisciplinary renal genetics team. The expected cohort consists of 360 adult and paediatric patients recruited by December 2018 with ongoing validation cohort of 140 patients who will be recruited until June 2020. The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients who receive a molecular diagnosis via genomic testing (diagnostic rate) compared with usual care. Secondary outcomes will include change in clinical diagnosis following genomic testing, change in clinical management following genomic testing and the cost-effectiveness of genomic testing compared with usual care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has received ethics approval from the Melbourne Health Human Research Ethics Committee as part of the Australian Genomics Health Alliance protocol: HREC/16/MH/251. All participants will provide written informed consent for data collection and to undergo clinically relevant genetic/genomic testing. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will also be presented at national and international conferences.

4.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 330, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is a common clinical presentation, the diagnostic workup for which involves many non-invasive and invasive investigations. We report on two siblings that highlight the clinically relevant functional role of cubulin for albumin resorption in the proximal tubule and supports the use of genomic sequencing early in the diagnostic work up of patients who present with proteinuria. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy was referred with an incidental finding of proteinuria. All preliminary investigations were unremarkable. Further assessment revealed consanguineous family history and a brother with isolated proteinuria. Renal biopsy demonstrated normal light microscopy and global glomerular basement membrane thinning on electron microscopy. Chromosomal microarray revealed long continuous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) representing ~ 4.5% of the genome. Shared regions of LCSH between the brothers were identified and their further research genomic analysis implicated a homozygous stop-gain variant in CUBN (10p12.31). CONCLUSIONS: CUBN mutations have been implicated as a hereditary cause of megaloblastic anaemia and variable proteinuria. This is the second reported family with isolated proteinuria due to biallelic CUBN variants in the absence of megaloblastic anaemia, demonstrating the ability of genomic testing to identify genetic causes of nephropathy within expanding associated phenotypic spectra. Genomic sequencing, undertaken earlier in the diagnostic trajectory, may reduce the need for invasive investigations and the time to definitive diagnosis for patients and families.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(12): 1791-1799, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320747

RESUMO

Diagnostic exome sequencing (ES) can be performed on the proband only (singleton; sES) or with additional samples, often including both biological parents with the proband (trio; tES). In this study we sought to compare the efficiencies of exome sequencing (ES) by trio (tES) versus singleton (sES) approach, determine costs, and identify factors to consider when deciding on optimal implementation strategies for the diagnosis of monogenic disorders. We undertook ES in 30 trios and analysed each proband's sES and tES data in parallel. Two teams were randomly allocated to either sES or tES analysis for each case and blinded to each other's work. Each task was timed and cost analyses were based on time taken and diagnostic yield. We modelled three scenarios to determine the factors to consider in the implementation of tES. sES diagnosed 11/30 (36.7%) cases and tES identified one additional diagnosis (12/30 (40.0%)). tES obviated the need for Sanger segregation, reduced the number of variants for curation, and had lower cost-per-diagnosis when considering analysis alone. When sequencing costs were included, tES nearly doubled the cost of sES. Reflexing to tES in those who remain undiagnosed after sES was cost-saving over tES in all as first-line. This approach requires a large differential in diagnostic yield between sES and tES for maximal benefit given current sequencing costs. tES may be preferable when scaling up laboratory throughput due to efficiency gains and opportunity cost considerations. Our findings are relevant to clinicians, laboratories and health services considering tES over sES.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(12): 1821-1826, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358953

RESUMO

Rapid genomic testing is a valuable new diagnostic tool for acutely unwell infants, however exome sequencing does not deliver clinical-grade mitochondrial genome sequencing and may fail to diagnose mitochondrial disorders caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants. Rapid mitochondrial genome sequencing and analysis are not routinely available in rapid genomic diagnosis programmes. We present two critically ill neonates with transfusion-dependent anaemia and persistent lactic acidosis who underwent rapid mitochondrial genome sequencing in tandem with exome sequencing as part of an exome sequencing-based rapid genomic diagnosis programme. No diagnostic variants were identified on examination of the nuclear exome data for either infant. Mitochondrial genome sequencing identified a large mtDNA deletion in both infants, diagnosing Pearson syndrome within 74 and 55 h, respectively. Early diagnosis in the third week of life allowed the avoidance of a range of other investigations and appropriate treatment planning. Rapid mitochondrial genome analysis provides additional diagnostic and clinical utility and should be considered as an adjunct to exome sequencing in rapid genomic diagnosis programmes.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 7-14, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271757

RESUMO

Australian Genomics is a national collaborative research partnership of more than 80 organizations piloting a whole-of-system approach to integrating genomics into healthcare that is based on federation principles. The aim of Australian Genomics is to assess the application of genomic testing in healthcare at the translational interface between research and clinical delivery, with an emphasis on robust evaluation of outcomes. It encompasses two bodies of work: a research program prospectively providing genomic testing through exemplar clinical projects in rare diseases, cancers, and reproductive carrier screening and interdependent programs for advancing the diagnostic, health informatics, regulatory, ethical, policy, and workforce infrastructure necessary for the integration of genomics into the Australian health system.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1493-1501, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148592

RESUMO

We investigated the attitudes of intensive care physicians and genetics professionals towards rapid genomic testing in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (NICU/PICU). A mixed-methods study (surveys and interviews) was conducted at 13 Australian hospitals and three laboratories involved in multi-center implementation of rapid genomic testing. We investigated experience and confidence with genomic tests among intensivists; perceived usefulness of genomic diagnostic results; preferences for service delivery models; and implementation readiness among genetic services. The overall survey response rate was 59%, 47% for intensivists (80/170), and 75% (91/121) for genetics professionals. Intensivists reported moderate confidence with microarray tests and lower confidence with genomic tests. The majority of intensivists (77%), clinical geneticists (87%) and genetic counsellors (82%) favoured a clinical genetics-led service delivery model of genomic testing. Perceived clinical utility of genomic results was lower in the intensivist group compared to the genetics professionals group (20 v 50%, p < 0.001). Interviews (n = 6 intensivists; n = 11 genetic counselors) demonstrated support for implementation, with concerns relating to implementation environment and organizational readiness. Overall, our findings support initial implementation of genomic testing in NICU/PICU as part of an interdisciplinary service delivery model that promotes gradual adoption of genomics by the intensive care workforce while ensuring safety, sustainability, and efficiency.

9.
Brain ; 142(8): e40, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243445
10.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2586-2593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110331

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To undertake the first end-to-end cost-effectiveness analysis of exome sequencing (ES) in rare disease diagnosis. METHODS: A cohort of 80 infants who underwent ES and usual diagnostic care in parallel were used to model incremental cost and health outcomes (quality adjusted life-years, QALYs) attributable to ES diagnosis over a 20-year horizon. Three models were developed: (1) outcomes in patients only, (2) outcomes in patients and first-degree relatives as a result of cascade testing, and (3) outcomes in patients and first-degree relatives including parental reproductive outcomes. RESULTS: When the directly observed cost and health outcomes of the cohort participants were projected, the use of ES resulted in a gain of 7.39 QALYs and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of AU$31,144.35 (i.e., cost per additional QALY gained). When cascade testing in first-degree relatives was added, cost-effectiveness increased, to a gain of 11.62 QALYs and an ICER of AU$20,839.57. When parental reproductive outcomes were added, cost-effectiveness increased again, with 36.00 QALYs gained and an ICER of AU$14,235.28. CONCLUSION: Use of ES in suspected monogenic disorders becomes increasingly cost-effective as the benefits of ES data reanalysis, cascade testing in first-degree relatives, and parental reproductive outcomes are incorporated into modeling.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959842

RESUMO

: This study describes monozygotic (MZ) male twins with fragile X syndrome (FXS), mosaic for normal size (NS: <44 CGGs), premutation (PM: 55­199 CGG) and full mutation (FM alleles ≥ 200) alleles, with autism. At 4 years of age chromosomal microarray confirmed monozygosity with both twins showing an XY sex complement. Normal size (30 CGG), PM (99 CGG) and FM (388­1632 CGGs) alleles were detected in Twin 1 (T1) by standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot testing, while only PM (99 CGG) and FM (672­1025) alleles were identified in Twin 2 (T2). At ~5 years, T2 had greater intellectual impairments with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) of 55 and verbal IQ (VIQ) of 59, compared to FSIQ of 62 and VIQ of 78 for T1. This was consistent with the quantitative FMR1 methylation testing, revealing 10% higher methylation at 80% for T2; suggesting that less active unmethylated alleles were present in T2 as compared to T1. AmplideX methylation PCR also identified partial methylation, including an unmethylated NS allele in T2, undetected by standard testing. In conclusion, this report demonstrates significant differences in intellectual functioning between the MZ twins mosaic for NS, PM and FM alleles with partial FMR1 promoter methylation.

12.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 55(11): 1309-1314, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756437

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the diagnostic and service impact of chromosomal microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective medical record review of NICU patients referred for genetics consultation at three time points over a 9-year period at a single centre to determine referral indications, genetic consultation outcomes and time to diagnosis. RESULTS: The number of NICU patients referred for genetics consultation increased from 44 in 2007 to 95 in 2015. The proportion of NICU patients suspected of having a genetic condition following clinical geneticist assessment remained stable, averaging 5.3% of all admissions. The proportion of patients receiving a confirmed diagnosis rose from 21% in 2007 to 53% in 2015, with a shift from primarily chromosomal abnormalities to a broad range of monogenic disorders, increasingly diagnosed by WES as a first-tier test. The average age at diagnosis in 2015 was 19 days (range 12-38 days) for chromosomal abnormalities and 138 days (range 10-309 days) for monogenic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of new genetic technologies at our centre has increased the proportion of patients receiving a confirmed genetic diagnosis. This study provides important benchmark data to measure further improvements as turn-around times for genomic testing decrease.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 150-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614194

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominant multisystemic malformation syndrome due to mutations in five genes-NIPBL, SMC1A, HDAC8, SMC3, and RAD21. The characteristic facial dysmorphisms include microcephaly, arched eyebrows, synophrys, short nose with depressed bridge and anteverted nares, long philtrum, thin lips, micrognathia, and hypertrichosis. Most affected individuals have intellectual disability, growth deficiency, and upper limb anomalies. This study looked at individuals from diverse populations with both clinical and molecularly confirmed diagnoses of CdLS by facial analysis technology. Clinical data and images from 246 individuals with CdLS were obtained from 15 countries. This cohort included 49% female patients and ages ranged from infancy to 37 years. Individuals were grouped into ancestry categories of African descent, Asian, Latin American, Middle Eastern, and Caucasian. Across these populations, 14 features showed a statistically significant difference. The most common facial features found in all ancestry groups included synophrys, short nose with anteverted nares, and a long philtrum with thin vermillion of the upper lip. Using facial analysis technology we compared 246 individuals with CdLS to 246 gender/age matched controls and found that sensitivity was equal or greater than 95% for all groups. Specificity was equal or greater than 91%. In conclusion, we present consistent clinical findings from global populations with CdLS while demonstrating how facial analysis technology can be a tool to support accurate diagnoses in the clinical setting. This work, along with prior studies in this arena, will assist in earlier detection, recognition, and treatment of CdLS worldwide.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 13-20, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609404

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing is rapidly transitioning into clinical practice, and implementation into healthcare systems has been supported by substantial government investment, totaling over US$4 billion, in at least 14 countries. These national genomic-medicine initiatives are driving transformative change under real-life conditions while simultaneously addressing barriers to implementation and gathering evidence for wider adoption. We review the diversity of approaches and current progress made by national genomic-medicine initiatives in the UK, France, Australia, and US and provide a roadmap for sharing strategies, standards, and data internationally to accelerate implementation.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Genética Médica/métodos , Genética Médica/organização & administração , Genômica/tendências , Cooperação Internacional , Austrália , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , França , Genética Médica/economia , Genética Médica/tendências , Genômica/economia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Setor Privado , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
15.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 273-282, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663825

RESUMO

As genomic sequencing has become available in pediatric clinical genetics settings, genetic counselors have been called upon to support individuals and families through the testing process. Technological and bioinformatic advancements, along with the availability of analytical expertise, have significantly reduced genomic sequencing turnaround times, enabling this powerful diagnostic tool to be used in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in place of or alongside traditional diagnostic strategies. It is important that pretest counseling for genomic sequencing prepares parents of critically unwell infants for the potential impacts of achieving a diagnosis, such as rare or ultra-rare diagnoses with limited disease-specific information, or the diagnosis of a life-limiting condition. Genetic counseling experiences and challenges arising in rapid genomic sequencing settings are yet to be discussed in the literature in detail. This paper uses illustrative cases as the basis to describe and discuss the emerging role of genetic counselors in NICU multidisciplinary care teams and the challenges and considerations which arise when facilitating ultra-rapid genomic diagnoses in acutely unwell neonates. Counseling issues discussed include providing pre- and posttest counseling in the medicalized NICU setting, facilitating informed decision-making at a time of acute distress for families, and special considerations around the possibility of ultra-rare diagnoses in neonates at the beginning of their diagnostic trajectory. As technology continues to drive practice, it is important genetic counselors remain abreast of these issues in order to appropriately support families through the genomic sequencing process and beyond.

16.
Pediatrics ; 143(Suppl 1): S14-S21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600266

RESUMO

NICUs are a priority implementation area for genomic medicine. Rapid genomic testing in the NICU is expected to be genomic medicine's "critical application," providing such clear benefits that it drives the adoption of genomics more broadly. Studies from multiple centers worldwide have now demonstrated the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of rapid genomic sequencing in this setting, paving the way for widespread implementation. However, the introduction of this potentially powerful tool for predicting future impairment in the NICU also raises profound ethical challenges. Developing models of good practice that incorporate the identification, exploration, and analysis of ethical issues will be critical for successful implementation. In this article, we analyze 3 such issues: (1) the value and meaning of gaining consent to a complex test in a stressful, emotionally charged environment; (2) the effect of rapid diagnosis on parent-child bonding and its implications for medical and family decisions, particularly in relation to treatment limitation; and (3) distributive justice (ie, whether the substantial cost and diversion of resources to deliver rapid genomic testing in the NICU can be justified).

17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(9): 2083-2093, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557699

RESUMO

Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'­O­methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Apart from an impaired learning capacity these mice presented with several statistically significantly altered features related to behaviour, pain sensing, bone and energy metabolism, the immune and the hormone system as well as gene expression. These findings show that Ftsj1 deficiency in mammals is not phenotypically restricted to the brain but affects various organ systems. Re-examination of ID patients with FTSJ1 mutations from two previously reported families showed that several features observed in the mouse model were recapitulated in some of the patients. Though the clinical spectrum related to Ftsj1 deficiency in mouse and man is variable, we suggest that an increased pain threshold may be more common in patients with FTSJ1 deficiency. Our findings demonstrate novel roles for Ftsj1 in maintaining proper cellular and tissue functions in a mammalian organism.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520571

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c.347delT p.(Ile116Lysfs*25), c.2170_2171insGGTA p.(Ile724Argfs*8), c.1607dupT p.(Leu536Phefs*7), c.2063delA p.(Lys688Serfs*26) and found that PPP1R21 was absent in fibroblasts of an affected individual, supporting the allele's loss of function effect. PPP1R21 function had not been studied except that a large scale affinity proteomics approach suggested an interaction with PIBF1 defective in Joubert syndrome. Our co-Immunoprecipitation studies did not confirm this but in contrast defined the localization of PPP1R21 to the early endosome. Consistent with the subcellular expression pattern and the clinical phenotype exhibiting features of storage diseases, we found patient fibroblasts exhibited a delay in clearance of transferrin-488 while uptake was normal. In summary, we delineate a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by bi-allelic PPP1R21 loss of function variants, and suggest a role of PPP1R21 within the endosomal sorting process or endosome maturation pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377434

RESUMO

Background: Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks CD25, the high affinity alpha subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor. Daclizumab therapy targets T regulatory cell and activated effector T cell proliferation to suppress autoimmune disease activity, in inflammatory conditions like relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis. Here, we present the first report of agranulocytosis with daclizumab therapy in a patient with relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis. Case presentation: Our patient was a 24-year-old Australian female with a clinical history of atopy, lymphocytic enteritis complicated by B12 deficiency, relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, vulval/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and melanoma. She was commenced on daclizumab therapy after failing several lines of treatment for relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis. During a hospital admission for lymphocytic enteritis, she was incidentally diagnosed with combined immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinaemia and declined proposed regular intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. Following six months of daclizumab therapy, our patient presented to hospital with febrile neutropenia. No clear infective cause was found, despite numerous investigations. However, bone marrow biopsy revealed agranulocytosis with an apparent maturation block at the myeloblasts stage. Neustrophil recovery occurred following cessation of daclizumab and the initiation of T cell immunosuppressive agents including systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate. The patient was further investigated for combined immunodeficiency and whole exome sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous missense variant in cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), leading to a diagnosis of CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency with autoimmune infiltration (CHAI). Conclusion: This case demonstrates that autoimmune disease may be the presenting feature of primary immunodeficiency and should be appropriately investigated prior to the commencement of immunotherapy. Genetic clarification of underlying primary immunodeficiency may provide critical clinical information that alters the safety of the proposed treatment strategy.

20.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

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