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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e011813, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280637

RESUMO

Background The effect of implantable cardioverter defibrillators ( ICD ) in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices ( LVAD s) on outcomes has not been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Methods and Results This is a retrospective single-center study that included patients who underwent continuous flow LVAD implantation at the Cleveland Clinic between October 2004 and March 2017. Patients were evaluated according to the presence or absence of ICD at the time of LVAD insertion. Among 486 patients in the study cohort, 387 (79.6%) had an ICD before LVAD insertion. Patients with ICD before LVAD were older and had lower use of pre- LVAD inotropes, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and mechanical ventilation. There were 81 patients (21.4% of patients with ICD ) who required 93 procedures after LVAD : 74 generator exchanges, 12 lead revisions, and 7 complete system removals because of infection. Of the 99 patients without ICD , 52 (53%) underwent ICD implantation: 29 for primary prevention and 23 for secondary prevention. Patients were followed for a median of 401 (interquartile range 150-966) days. The presence of a pre- LVAD ICD was not associated with mortality in a multivariable model (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.73-1.93, P=0.492), nor was the presence of an ICD at any point when analyzed as a time-varying covariate (hazard ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.50-2.20, P=0.907). Conclusions There is no apparent mortality benefit associated with an ICD in a contemporary cohort of patients with continuous flow LVAD s to balance considerable morbidity involving ICD -related procedures and complications.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318170

RESUMO

AIMS: The risk of HeartMate II (HMII) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) thrombosis has been reported, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of haemolysis, increases secondary to LVAD thrombosis. This study evaluated longitudinal measurements of LDH post-LVAD implantation, hypothesizing that LDH trends could timely predict future LVAD thrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: From October 2004 to October 2014, 350 HMIIs were implanted in 323 patients at Cleveland Clinic. Of these, patients on 339 HMIIs had at least one post-implant LDH value (7996 total measurements). A two-step joint model combining longitudinal biomarker data and pump thrombosis events was generated to assess the effect of changing LDH on thrombosis risk. Device-specific LDH trends were first smoothed using multivariate boosted trees, and then used as a time-varying covariate function in a multiphase hazard model to analyse time to thrombosis. Pre-implant variables associated with time-varying LDH values post-implant using boostmtree were also investigated. Standardized variable importance for each variable was estimated as the difference between model-based prediction error of LDH when the variable was randomly permuted and prediction error without permuting the values. The larger this difference, the more important a variable is for predicting the trajectory of post-implant LDH. Thirty-five HMIIs (10%) had either confirmed (18) or suspected (17) thrombosis, with 15 (43%) occurring within 3 months of implant. LDH was associated with thrombosis occurring both early and late after implant (P < 0.0001 for both hazard phases). The model demonstrated increased probability of HMII thrombosis as LDH trended upward, with steep changes in LDH trajectory paralleling trajectories in probability of pump thrombosis. The most important baseline variables predictive of the longitudinal pattern of LDH were higher bilirubin, higher pre-implant LDH, and older age. The effect of some pre-implant variables such as sodium on the post-implant LDH longitudinal pattern differed across time. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal trends in surveillance LDH for patients on HMII support are useful for dynamic prediction of pump thrombosis, both early after implant and late. Incorporating upward and downward trends in LDH that dynamically update a model of LVAD thrombosis risk provides a useful tool for clinical management and decisions.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(1): 36-51, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CTOT-11 (Prevention of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Using Rituximab Therapy in Cardiac Transplantation [Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-11]) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, double-blinded clinical trial in nonsensitized primary heart transplant (HTX) recipients. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine whether B cell depletion therapy would attenuate the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. METHODS: A total of 163 HTX recipients were randomized to rituximab 1,000 mg intravenous or placebo on days 0 and 12 post-transplant. Primary outcome was change in percent atheroma volume (PAV) from baseline to 1 year measured by intravascular ultrasound. Secondary outcomes included treated episodes of acute rejection, de novo anti-HLA antibodies (including donor-specific antibodies), and phenotypic differentiation of B cells. RESULTS: There were no significant differences at study entry between the rituximab and placebo groups. Paired intravascular ultrasound measures were available at baseline and 1 year in 86 subjects (49 rituximab, 37 placebo). The mean ± SD change in PAV at 12 months was +6.8 ± 8.2% rituximab versus +1.9 ± 4.4% placebo (p = 0.0019). Mortality at 12 months was 3.4% rituximab versus 6.8% placebo (p = 0.47); there were no retransplants or post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. The rate of treated rejection was 24.7% rituximab versus 32.4% placebo (p = 0.28). Rituximab therapy effectively eliminated CD20+/CD19+ B cells followed by a gradual expansion of a CD19- cell population in the rituximab-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: A marked, unexpected increase in coronary artery PAV with rituximab was observed during the first year in HTX recipients. One-year mortality was not impacted; however, longer-term follow-up and mechanistic explanations are required. (Prevention of Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Using Rituximab [Rituxan] Therapy in Cardiac Transplantation; NCT01278745).

6.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

7.
J Card Fail ; 25(9): 703-711, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) is closely associated with prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). As a result, there has been great interest measuring it during the course of treatment. The prognostic implications in both short-term and follow-up changes in NTproBNP need further clarification. METHODS: Baseline, 48-72 hour, and 30-day NTproBNP levels were measured in 795 subjects in the ASCEND-HF trial. Multivariable logistic and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to test the association between static, relative, and absolute changes in NTproBNP with outcomes during and after ADHF. RESULTS: The median NTproBNP at baseline was 5773 (2981-11,579) pg/mL; at 48-72 hours was 3036 (1191-6479) pg/mL; and at 30 days was 2914 (1364-6667) pg/mL. Absolute changes in NTproBNP by 48-72 hours were not associated with 30-day heart failure rehospitalization or mortality (P = .065), relative changes in NTproBNP were nominally associated (P = .046). In contrast, both absolute and relative changes in NTproBNP from baseline to 48-72 hours and to 30 days were closely associated with 180-day mortality (P < .02 for all) with increased discrimination compared to the multivariable models with baseline NTproBNP (P <.05 for models with relative and absolute change at both time points). CONCLUSIONS: Although the degree of absolute change in NTproBNP was dependent on baseline levels, both short-term absolute and relative changes in NTproBNP were independently and incrementally associated with long-term clinical outcomes. Changes in NTproBNP levels at 30-days were particularly well associated with long-term clinical outcomes.

8.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(4): 459-466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the burden of atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial flutter (AFL) in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and to evaluate the impact of rhythm control strategies. BACKGROUND: AF and AFL among patients with LVADs are poorly characterized. METHODS: Retrospective multivariable survival analysis of all LVAD recipients at the Cleveland Clinic from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2016 examining the association of death, thromboembolism, and major bleeding with AF/AFL and exposure to rhythm control measures. RESULTS: Among 418 patients (median age: 58 [interquartile range: 50 to 67] years, 80% male) with median follow-up of 445 (interquartile range: 165 to 936) days, AF (n = 287 of 418, 69%) and AFL (n = 61 of 418, 15%) were highly prevalent. Patients with AF/AFL (n = 302 of 418, 72%) and without AF/AFL (n = 116 of 418, 28%) had similar mortality (39% vs. 38%; p = 0.88) and major bleeding (46% vs. 49%; p = 0.53); AF/AFL patients had fewer thromboembolic events (13% vs. 23%; p < 0.01). Paroxysmal or persistent AF/AFL was present in 238 patients (57%), and rhythm control exposure (n = 166, 70%) was not associated with decreased mortality (39% vs. 43%; p = 0.57), thromboembolism (13% vs. 17%; p = 0.41), or bleeding (49% vs. 39%; p = 0.16). In the multivariable survival analysis only prior valve surgery (hazard ratio: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 3.0; p = 0.002) was associated with increased hazard; AF/AFL had no association with risk of death, thromboembolism, or bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Though highly prevalent among LVAD patients, AF/AFL was not associated with increased mortality, thromboembolism, or bleeding, and among paroxysmal/persistent AF patients, rhythm control measures were not associated with improved outcomes.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(3): 552-554, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968544

RESUMO

Cardiogenic shock from biventricular failure that requires acute mechanical circulatory support carries high 30 day mortality. Acute mechanical circulatory support can serve as bridge to orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) in selected patients. We report a patient with biventricular failure secondary to rapidly progressive cardiac sarcoidosis refractory to medical management who was bridged to OHT with Impella 5.0 and Impella RP-temporary left and right ventricular assist devices, respectively. This is the first successful bridge to transplantation using these devices in biventricular heart failure and cardiogenic shock. We discuss considerations for using this strategy over veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or surgically implanted assist devices in patients with cardiogenic shock and biventricular failure as a bridge to OHT.

10.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(5): 553-579, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744922

RESUMO

This document is the second of 2 companion appropriate use criteria (AUC) documents developed by the American College of Cardiology, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. The first document1 addresses the evaluation and use of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis and management of valvular heart disease, whereas this document addresses this topic with regard to structural (nonvalvular) heart disease. While dealing with different subjects, the 2 documents do share a common structure and feature some clinical overlap. The goal of the companion AUC documents is to provide a comprehensive resource for multimodality imaging in the context of structural and valvular heart disease, encompassing multiple imaging modalities. Using standardized methodology, the clinical scenarios (indications) were developed by a diverse writing group to represent patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included common applications and anticipated uses. Where appropriate, the scenarios were developed on the basis of the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Clinical Practice Guidelines. A separate, independent rating panel scored the 102 clinical scenarios in this document on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that a modality is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Midrange scores of 4 to 6 indicate that a modality may be appropriate for the clinical scenario, and scores of 1 to 3 indicate that a modality is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario. The primary objective of the AUC is to provide a framework for the assessment of these scenarios by practices that will improve and standardize physician decision making. AUC publications reflect an ongoing effort by the American College of Cardiology to critically and systematically create, review, and categorize clinical situations in which diagnostic tests and procedures are utilized by physicians caring for patients with cardiovascular diseases. The process is based on the current understanding of the technical capabilities of the imaging modalities examined.

12.
ASAIO J ; 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688690

RESUMO

We observed different temporal patterns of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD) thrombosis regarding clinical manifestations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) trends. We propose nomenclature for classification of LVAD thrombosis and compare patient characteristics and outcomes in each pattern of LVAD thrombosis. We reviewed electronic medical records of 362 consecutive HeartMate II devices implanted at Cleveland Clinic from October 2008 to July 2014. We categorized clinical courses of confirmed device thrombosis based on clinical manifestations and LDH patterns. Patients' characteristics, clinical variables, and outcomes were collected for comparison. From a total of 19 confirmed device thromboses, we categorized the patterns of thrombosis into three distinctive types; abrupt thrombosis (Type 1), subacute thrombosis (Type 2), and asymptomatic hemolysis (Type 3). Abrupt thrombosis (Type 1) tended to be the most morbid clinical course with acute-onset thrombosis at 56.5 (interquartile range: 44-71) days, all New York Heart Association functional class III or IV at presentation. Death and need for surgical intervention were not different in each pattern. Asymptomatic hemolysis had unique comorbidities of preexisting cardiac thrombi and preoperative bacteremia. Confirmed LVAD thrombosis has different patterns of clinical presentation and each pattern of thrombosis has unique characteristics and clinical manifestations.

14.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(1): e005377, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Before consideration of advanced cardiac therapies, guidelines recommend a comprehensive multidisciplinary examination, including psychosocial assessment. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT) has emerged as a highly reproducible tool to assess for psychosocial impairment and is associated with negative medical and psychosocial outcomes after transplantation. We sought to assess the association between SIPAT and outcomes after left ventricular assist device. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 128 patients implanted with a first left ventricular assist device at the Cleveland Clinic from 2013 to 2017 who underwent a prospectively collected quantitative psychosocial assessment using SIPAT. Several survival analyses were performed testing the association between SIPAT score and mortality, first adverse event (defined as hospitalization, device exchange, or death), and recurring adverse events after multivariable adjustment. Median SIPAT score was 14 (interquartile range, 9.5-22.5), with higher values (representing more impairment) seen in patients implanted as destination therapy. After a median follow-up of 349 (interquartile range, 178-684) days, there were 319 adverse events (18 deaths, 10 device exchanges, and 291 readmissions) with 2.5±2.4 events per patient. Higher preimplant SIPAT scores were not associated with mortality ( P=0.764) or time to a first adverse event ( P=0.589) but were associated with cumulative adverse events (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.09-1.58; P=0.005 per Δ10 in score). In addition, SIPAT was associated with days alive outside of the hospital ( P=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: A standardized assessment of psychosocial impairment after left ventricular assist device using the SIPAT score was not associated with mortality or time to first adverse event but was associated with cumulative adverse cardiac events. This score may provide insight when structuring mitigation strategies for high-risk patients and should be further tested in a prospective multicenter study.

15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 157(4): e153-e182, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635178
16.
Am J Transplant ; 19(5): 1518-1528, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549425

RESUMO

Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-18 (CTOT-18) is a follow-up analysis of the 200-subject multicenter heart transplant CTOT-05 cohort. CTOT-18 aimed to identify clinical, epidemiologic, and biologic markers associated with adverse clinical events past 1 year posttransplantation. We examined various candidate biomarkers including serum antibodies, angiogenic proteins, blood gene expression profiles, and T cell alloreactivity. The composite endpoint (CE) included death, retransplantation, coronary stent, myocardial infarction, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The mean follow-up was 4.5 ± SD 1.1 years. Subjects with serum anti-cardiac myosin (CM) antibody detected at transplantation and at 12 months had a higher risk of meeting the CE compared to those without anti-CM antibody (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9, P = .046). Plasma VEGF-A and VEGF-C levels pretransplant were associated with CE (odds ratio [OR] = 13.24, P = .029; and OR = 0.13, P = .037, respectively). Early intravascular ultrasound findings or other candidate biomarkers were not associated with the study outcomes. In conclusion, anti-CM antibody and plasma levels of VEGF-A and VEGF-C were associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Although this multicenter report supports further evaluation of the mechanisms through which anti-CM antibody and plasma angiogenesis proteins lead to allograft injury, we could not identify additional markers of adverse events or potential novel therapeutic targets.

17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 87-97, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553904

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and liver disease often co-exist. This is because systemic disorders and diseases affect both organs (alcohol abuse, drugs, inflammation, autoimmunity, infections) and because of complex cardiohepatic interactions. The latter, which are the focus of this review, include the development of acute cardiogenic liver injury and congestive hepatopathy in HF as well as cardiac dysfunction and failure in the setting of liver cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and sequelae following liver transplantation. The emerging role of altered liver X receptor signaling in the pathogenesis of HF comorbidities as well as of the intestinal microbiome and its metabolites in HF and liver disease are fruitful areas for future research.

18.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 46(5-6): 213-217, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are frequent complications among those with left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Scarce data exist regarding the prevalence of acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) and treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in this setting. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively collected data of LVAD patient registry from a single, tertiary center from October 2004 to November 2016. Among those with AIS complications, patients were divided into early stroke (during implantation hospitalization) and late stroke (post-discharge) groups, and neuroimaging was reviewed and data on acute stroke therapy were collected. RESULTS: Of 477 persons with LVAD, 49 (10.3%) AIS occurred. The majority (29/49, 59%) of AIS occurred in-hospital. Thirty-two (65%) persons had international normalized ratios less than 1.7 at the time of AIS, but none qualified to receive acute intravenous thrombolysis. Of 25 (51%) persons who underwent CT angiography (CTA), 33% (16/49) had acute LVOs. Thirty-one percent (5/16) of persons with acute LVOs underwent intra-arterial endovascular therapy. All of 5 cases presented with middle cerebral artery syndrome with a median pre-procedural National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of 13 (interquartile range 10-18). Successful recanalization was achieved in all 5 cases. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital strokes and acute LVOs are common in LVAD-associated AIS. Prompt evaluation with CTA and endovascular therapy should be pursued for these critically ill patients.

19.
ASAIO J ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312211

RESUMO

Despite the common occurrence left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-associated intracranial hemorrhage, the etiology of intracranial hemorrhage is uncertain. We aim to explore the impact of infection and international normalized ratio (INR) on intracranial hemorrhage in a case-crossover study. We reviewed consecutive patients with intracranial hemorrhage in a prospectively collected data of LVAD patients from a single, tertiary center from October 2004 to December 2016. Information on infection and INR values were collected at the time and 1 month before the intracranial hemorrhage as controls. Of 477 persons with LVAD, 47 (10%) developed intracranial hemorrhage (27 intracerebral, 14 subarachnoid, and six subdural hemorrhages). Of 47 (median age 58; 39 males), 27 (54%) persons had active infection at the time of intracranial hemorrhage; seven (21%) of 44 LVADs had infection at 1 month before intracranial hemorrhage. The relative risk of intracranial hemorrhage because of active infection compared with the infections at 1 month was 2.3 (95% CI: 1.5-3.4; p < 0.0001). The mean INRs at the time of intracranial hemorrhage were also significantly higher at the time of hemorrhage compared with those at 1 month (2.6 ± 1.9 vs. 1.8 ± 0.8; p = 0.01). Of 13 persons with cerebral angiogram (seven subarachnoid and six intracerebral hemorrhages), four (57%) infectious intracranial aneurysms were identified only in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who also had bloodstream infections. Active infection and elevated INR were associated with LVAD-associated intracranial hemorrhage. The occurrence of both bloodstream infection and subarachnoid hemorrhage may indicate the presence of infectious intracranial aneurysm in LVAD.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, the authors tested the hypotheses that the systolic stretch index (SSI) developed by computer modeling and applied using echocardiographic strain imaging may characterize the electromechanical substrate predictive of outcome following cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). They included patients with QRS width 120 to 149 ms or non-left bundle branch block (LBBB), where clinical uncertainty for CRT exists. They further tested the hypothesis that global longitudinal strain (GLS) has additional prognostic value. BACKGROUND: Response to CRT is variable. Guidelines favor patient selection by electrocardiographic LBBB with QRS width ≥150 ms. METHODS: The authors studied 442 patients enrolled in the Adaptive CRT 94-site randomized trial with New York Heart Association functional class III-IV heart failure, ejection fraction ≤35%, and QRS ≥120 ms. A novel computer program semiautomatically calculated the SSI from strain curves as the sum of posterolateral prestretch percent before aortic valve opening and the septal rebound stretch percent during ejection. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for heart failure (HF) or death, and the secondary endpoint was death over 2 years after CRT. RESULTS: In all patients, high longitudinal SSI (≥ group median of 3.1%) was significantly associated with freedom from the primary endpoint of HF hospitalization or death (hazard ratio [HR] for low SSI: 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45 to 3.24, p < 0.001) and secondary endpoint of death (HR for low SSI: 4.06; 95% CI: 1.95 to 8.45, p < 0.001). Among the 203 patients with QRS 120 to 149 ms or non-LBBB, those with high longitudinal SSI (≥ group median of 2.6%) had significantly fewer HF hospitalizations or deaths (HR for low SSI: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.27 to 3.41, p = 0.004) and longer survival (HR for low SSI: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.94 to 13.31, p < 0.001), similar to patients with LBBB ≥150 ms. SSI by circumferential strain had similar associations with clinical outcomes, and GLS was additive to SSI in predicting clinical events (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Systolic stretch by strain imaging characterized the myocardial substrate associated with favorable CRT response, including in the important patient subgroup with QRS width 120 to 149 ms or non-LBBB. GLS had additive prognostic value.

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