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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619348

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies reporting associations between cognitive performance and subsequent incident dementia have been subject to attrition bias. Furthermore, the extent to which established risk factors account for such associations requires further elucidation. METHODS: We used UK Biobank baseline cognitive data (n ≤ 488,130) and electronically linked hospital inpatient and death records during three- to eight-year follow-up, to estimate risk of total dementia (n = 1051), Alzheimer's disease (n = 352), and vascular dementia (n = 169) according to four brief cognitive tasks, with/without adjustment for constitutional and modifiable risk factors. RESULTS: We found associations of cognitive task performance with all-cause and cause-specific dementia (P <  .01); these were not accounted for by established risk factors. Cognitive data added up to 5% to the discriminative accuracy of receiver operating characteristic curve models; areas under the curve ranged from 82% to 86%. DISCUSSION: This study offers robust evidence that brief cognitive testing could be a valuable addition to dementia prediction models.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 248, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591380

RESUMO

Recent advances in genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling for smoking behaviour have given rise to a new, molecular biomarker of smoking exposure. It is unclear whether a smoking-associated DNAm (epigenetic) score has predictive value for ageing-related health outcomes which is independent of contributions from self-reported (phenotypic) smoking measures. Blood DNA methylation levels were measured in 895 adults aged 70 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) study using the Illumina 450K assay. A DNA methylation score based on 230 CpGs was used as a proxy for smoking exposure. Associations between smoking variables and health outcomes at age 70 were modelled using general linear modelling (ANCOVA) and logistic regression. Additional analyses of smoking with brain MRI measures at age 73 (n = 532) were performed. Smoking-DNAm scores were positively associated with self-reported smoking status (P < 0.001, eta-squared ɳ2 = 0.63) and smoking pack years (r = 0.69, P < 0.001). Higher smoking DNAm scores were associated with variables related to poorer cognitive function, structural brain integrity, physical health, and psychosocial health. Compared with phenotypic smoking, the methylation marker provided stronger associations with all of the cognitive function scores, especially visuospatial ability (P < 0.001, partial eta-squared ɳp2 = 0.022) and processing speed (P < 0.001, ɳp2 = 0.030); inflammatory markers (all P < 0.001, ranges from ɳp2 = 0.021 to 0.030); dietary patterns (healthy diet (P < 0.001, ɳp2 = 0.052) and traditional diet (P < 0.001, ɳp2 = 0.032); stroke (P = 0.006, OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12, 1.96); mortality (P < 0.001, OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.42, 1.79), and at age 73; with MRI volumetric measures (all P < 0.001, ranges from ɳp2 = 0.030 to 0.052). Additionally, education was the most important life-course predictor of lifetime smoking tested. Our results suggest that a smoking-associated methylation biomarker typically explains a greater proportion of the variance in some smoking-related morbidities in older adults, than phenotypic measures of smoking exposure, with some of the accounted-for variance being independent of phenotypic smoking status.

3.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 766-779, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393145

RESUMO

Hearing impairment is associated with poorer cognitive function in later life. We tested for the potential contribution of childhood cognitive ability to this relationship. Childhood cognitive ability is strongly related to cognitive function in older age, and may be related to auditory function through its association with hearing impairment risk factors. Using data from the Lothian Birth Cohort, 1936, we tested whether childhood cognitive ability predicted later-life hearing ability then whether this association was mediated by demographic or health differences. We found that childhood cognitive ability was negatively associated with hearing impairment risk at age 76 (odds ratio = .834, p = .042). However, this association was nonsignificant after subsequent adjustment for potentially mediating demographic and health factors. Next, we tested whether associations observed in older age between hearing impairment and general cognitive ability level or change were accounted for by childhood cognitive ability. At age 76, in the minimally adjusted model, hearing impairment was associated with poorer general cognitive ability level (ß = -.119, p = .030) but was not related to decline in general cognitive ability. The former association became nonsignificant after additional adjustment for childhood cognitive ability (ß = -.068, p = .426) suggesting that childhood cognitive ability contributes (potentially via demographic and health differences) to the association between levels of hearing and cognitive function in older age. Further work is needed to test whether early life cognitive ability also contributes to the association (documented in previous studies) between older-age hearing impairment and cognitive decline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 642-657, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mean speed of responding is the most commonly used measure in the assessment of reaction time (RT). An alternative measure is intraindividual variability (IIV): the inconsistency of responding across multiple trials of a test. IIV has been suggested as an important indicator of central nervous system functioning, and as such, there has been increasing interest in the associations between IIV and brain imaging metrics. Results however, have been inconsistent. The present seeks to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the associations between a variety of measures of brain white matter integrity and individual differences in choice RT (CRT) IIV. METHOD: MRI brain scans of members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 were assessed to obtain measures of the volume and severity of white matter hyperintensities, and the integrity of brain white matter tracts. CRT was assessed with a 4 CRT task on a separate occasion. Data were analyzed using multiple regression (N range = 358-670). RESULTS: Greater volume of hyperintensities and more severe hyperintensities in frontal regions were associated with higher CRT IIV. White matter tract integrity, as assessed by both fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, showed the smallest effect sizes in associations with CRT IIV. Associations with hyperintensities were attenuated and no longer significant after controlling for M CRT. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that IIV was not incrementally predictive of white matter integrity over mean speed. This is in contrast to previous reports, and highlights the need for further study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Clin Neuropsychol ; : 1-13, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154933

RESUMO

Objective: Apathy is a prominent syndrome across neurodegenerative diseases. The Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) assesses three apathy subtypes-executive, emotional, and initiation-and is sensitive and valid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease. This study describes the development of the brief DAS (b-DAS), which will enable apathy to be swiftly detected in the clinic. Method: 102 ALS and 102 AD patients' previously collected data were used. Mokken analyses were performed on item-level data of each informant/carer-rated DAS subscale (executive, emotional, and initiation) for the initial scale reduction. Item-total correlational analyses against standard apathy (convergent validity criteria) and depression (divergent validity criteria) measures and qualitative examination of items aided final item selection. Receiver operating curve analysis determined optimal cutoffs for the reduced subscales. Results: Mokken analyses suggested unidimensionality of each DAS subscale. Three items were removed that failed to satisfy monotone homogeneity model requirements, three items were removed due to validity criteria not being met, and six items were removed due to a combination of lower item scalability and item-total correlations. Item-theme examination further reduced the b-DAS to nine items, three per subscale, with a supplemental awareness deficit assessment being added. Sensitivity- and specificity-based optimal cutoffs were calculated for each b-DAS subscale. Conclusions: This study presents the b-DAS, an informant/carer-based robust yet short multidimensional apathy instrument with good convergent and divergent validity, with recommended clinical cutoffs. The b-DAS is appropriate for use in the clinic and for research to quickly and comprehensively screen for apathy subtype impairments.

6.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250262

RESUMO

Brain iron deposits (IDs) are indicative of microvessel dysfunction which may predispose to small vessel disease (SVD) brain damage and worsen cognition later in life. Visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semiovale (CSO-PVS) are SVD features linked with microvessel dysfunction. We examined possible associations of CSO-PVS volume and count with brain IDs and cognitive abilities in 700 community-dwelling individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who underwent detailed cognitive testing and multimodal brain MRI at mean age 72.7 years. Brain IDs were assessed automatically followed by manual editing. PVS were automatically assessed in the centrum semiovale and deep corona radiata supraventricular. General factors of overall cognitive function (g), processing speed (g-speed) and memory (g-memory) were used in the analyses. Median (IQR) volumes of IDs and CSO-PVS expressed as a percentage of intracranial volume were 0.0021 (0.011) and 0.22 (0.13)% respectively. Median count of CSO-PVS was 410 (IQR = 201). Total volumes of CSO-PVS and ID, adjusted for head size, were correlated (Spearman ρ = 0.13, p < 0.001). CSO-PVS volume, despite being correlated with all three cognitive measures, was only associated with g-memory (B = -114.5, SE = 48.35, p = 0.018) in general linear models, adjusting for age, sex, vascular risk factors, childhood intelligence and white matter hyperintensity volume. The interaction of CSO-PVS count with diabetes (B = -0.0019, SE = 0.00093, p = 0.041) and volume with age (B = 1.57, SE = 0.67, p = 0.019) were also associated with g-memory. Linear regression models did not replicate these associations. Therefore, it does not seem that CSO-PVS burden is directly associated with general cognitive ability in older age.

8.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6320, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004095

RESUMO

Research has suggested that the retinal vasculature may act as a surrogate marker for diseased cerebral vessels. Retinal vascular parameters were measured using Vessel Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the Retina (VAMPIRE) software in two cohorts: (i) community-dwelling older subjects of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 603); and (ii) patients with recent minor ischaemic stroke of the Mild Stroke Study (n = 155). Imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD) (white matter hyperintensities [WMH] on structural MRI, visual scores and volume; perivascular spaces; lacunes and microbleeds), and vascular risk measures were assessed in both cohorts. We assessed associations between retinal and brain measurements using structural equation modelling and regression analysis. In the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 arteriolar fractal dimension accounted for 4% of the variance in WMH load. In the Mild Stroke Study lower arteriolar fractal dimension was associated with deep WMH scores (odds ratio [OR] 0.53; 95% CI, 0.32-0.87). No other retinal measure was associated with SVD. Reduced fractal dimension, a measure of vascular complexity, is related to SVD imaging features in older people. The results provide some support for the use of the retinal vasculature in the study of brain microvascular disease.

10.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(10): 1134-1138, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883719

RESUMO

Epigenetics has classically been recognized as crucial to neurodevelopment and neurodevelopmental disorders. More recently its role in ageing processes, including neurodegenerative disorders has emerged, although far more research is required in this area, particularly in humans. Epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression comprise strata of DNA modification (e.g. methylation), histone modification (e.g. histone acetylation), and mRNA translation (e.g. by microRNAs). These strata are progressively more fluid whereby changes in DNA methylation may persist for many years whilst expression of microRNAs fluctuates over short periods. There is considerable 'cross-talk' between these epigenetic strata. Epigenetic mechanisms are open to parental imprinting and thus they are candidates for linking diseases, not just over the life course, but also intergenerationally. There is a genetic overlap between intellectual disability and cognitive ageing. Epigenetic pathways may strengthen the links between neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: DNA methylation has relevance to both neurological development and neurodegeneration. Links between epigenetics, genotype and phenotype are emerging.

11.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 49(1): 12-22, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults living in long-term care are a significant and complex population who are under-represented in research using traditional methodologies. METHODS: The aim of this study was to provide the first description of the adult care home population and their homes, using routinely collected data. A retrospective descriptive analysis was performed using the Scottish Care Home Census (SCHC) between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2016. RESULTS: Data are from 1,299 care home services (79.3-89.7% completeness), including 34,399-39,311 residents per year across all regions of Scotland. A total of 68% of residents are female, with median age 84 years. 27% fund their own care. Over 85% of self-funded residents receive free personal care allowance. Around 60% require care from a registered nurse and 49% have a formal diagnosis of dementia. The majority of admissions come from hospital (46%). Between 13 and 17% of residents die annually, with a median time to death of 596-653 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the most comprehensive descriptive data of UK care home residents available. There is scope to enhance the information available through linkage to other routine sources.

12.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-6, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental risk factors for dementia are poorly understood. Aluminium and fluorine in drinking water have been linked with dementia but uncertainties remain about this relationship.AimsIn the largest longitudinal study in this context, we set out to explore the individual effect of aluminium and fluoride in drinking water on dementia risk and, as fluorine can increase absorption of aluminium, we also examine any synergistic influence on dementia. METHOD: We used Cox models to investigate the association between mean aluminium and fluoride levels in drinking water at their residential location (collected 2005-2012 by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland) with dementia in members of the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 cohort who were alive in 2005. RESULTS: A total of 1972 out of 6990 individuals developed dementia by the linkage date in 2012. Dementia risk was raised with increasing mean aluminium levels in women (hazard ratio per s.d. increase 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.15, P < 0.001) and men (1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.21, P = 0.004). A dose-response pattern of association was observed between mean fluoride levels and dementia in women (1.34, 95% CI 1.28-1.41, P < 0.001) and men (1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.39, P < 0.001), with dementia risk more than doubled in the highest quartile compared with the lowest. There was no statistical interaction between aluminium and fluoride levels in relation with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of aluminium and fluoride were related to dementia risk in a population of men and women who consumed relatively low drinking-water levels of both.Declaration of interestNone.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760887

RESUMO

Polygenic scores can be used to distil the knowledge gained in genome-wide association studies for prediction of health, lifestyle, and psychological factors in independent samples. In this preregistered study, we used fourteen polygenic scores to predict variation in cognitive ability level at age 70, and cognitive change from age 70 to age 79, in the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. The polygenic scores were created for phenotypes that have been suggested as risk or protective factors for cognitive ageing. Cognitive abilities within older age were indexed using a latent general factor estimated from thirteen varied cognitive tests taken at four waves, each three years apart (initial n = 1091 age 70; final n = 550 age 79). The general factor indexed over two-thirds of the variance in longitudinal cognitive change. We ran additional analyses using an age-11 intelligence test to index cognitive change from age 11 to age 70. Several polygenic scores were associated with the level of cognitive ability at age-70 baseline (range of standardized ß-values = -0.178 to 0.302), and the polygenic score for education was associated with cognitive change from childhood to age 70 (standardized ß = 0.100). No polygenic scores were statistically significantly associated with variation in cognitive change between ages 70 and 79, and effect sizes were small. However, APOE e4 status made a significant prediction of the rate of cognitive decline from age 70 to 79 (standardized ß = -0.319 for carriers vs. non-carriers). The results suggest that the predictive validity for cognitive ageing of polygenic scores derived from genome-wide association study summary statistics is not yet on a par with APOE e4, a better-established predictor.

14.
Sleep ; 42(4)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668819

RESUMO

We examined associations between self-reported sleep measures and cognitive level and change (age 70-76 years) in a longitudinal, same-year-of-birth cohort study (baseline N = 1091; longitudinal N = 664). We also leveraged GWAS summary data to ascertain whether polygenic scores (PGS) of chronotype and sleep duration related to self-reported sleep, and to cognitive level and change. Shorter sleep latency was associated with significantly higher levels of visuospatial ability, processing speed, and verbal memory (ß ≥ |0.184|, SE ≤ 0.075, p ≤ 0.003). Longer daytime sleep duration was significantly associated slower processing speed (ß = -0.085, SE = 0.027, p = 0.001), and with steeper 6-year decline in visuospatial reasoning (ß = -0.009, SE = 0.003, p = 0.008), and processing speed (ß = -0.009, SE = 0.002, p < 0.001). Only longitudinal associations between longer daytime sleeping and steeper cognitive declines survived correction for important health covariates and false discovery rate (FDR). PGS of chronotype and sleep duration were nominally associated with specific self-reported sleep characteristics for most SNP thresholds (standardized ß range = |0.123 to 0.082|, p range = 0.003 to 0.046), but neither PGS predicted cognitive level or change following FDR. Daytime sleep duration is a potentially important correlate of cognitive decline in visuospatial reasoning and processing speed in older age, whereas cross-sectional associations are partially confounded by important health factors. A genetic propensity toward morningness and sleep duration were weakly, but consistently, related to self-reported sleep characteristics, and did not relate to cognitive level or change.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17605, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514905

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of transcription. Genetic control of DNA methylation is a potential candidate for explaining the many identified SNP associations with disease that are not found in coding regions. We replicated 52,916 cis and 2,025 trans DNA methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) using methylation from whole blood measured on Illumina HumanMethylation450 arrays in the Brisbane Systems Genetics Study (n = 614 from 177 families) and the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined n = 1366). The trans mQTL SNPs were found to be over-represented in 1 Mbp subtelomeric regions, and on chromosomes 16 and 19. There was a significant increase in trans mQTL DNA methylation sites in upstream and 5' UTR regions. The genetic heritability of a number of complex traits and diseases was partitioned into components due to mQTL and the remainder of the genome. Significant enrichment was observed for height (p = 2.1 × 10-10), ulcerative colitis (p = 2 × 10-5), Crohn's disease (p = 6 × 10-8) and coronary artery disease (p = 5.5 × 10-6) when compared to a random sample of SNPs with matched minor allele frequency, although this enrichment is explained by the genomic location of the mQTL SNPs.

16.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 159, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic age acceleration (an older methylation age compared to chronological age) correlates strongly with various age-related morbidities and mortality. Chronic systemic inflammation is thought to be a hallmark of ageing, but the relationship between an increased epigenetic age and this likely key phenotype of ageing has not yet been extensively investigated. METHODS: We modelled the trajectories of the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP; measured using both a high- and low-sensitivity assay) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) over the eighth decade in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Using linear mixed models, we investigated the association between CRP and immune cell profiles imputed from the methylation data and examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between the inflammatory biomarkers and two measures of epigenetic age acceleration, derived from the Horvath and Hannum epigenetic clocks. RESULTS: We found that low-sensitivity CRP declined, high-sensitivity CRP did not change, and IL-6 increased over time within the cohort. CRP levels inversely associated with CD8+T cells and CD4+T cells and positively associated with senescent CD8+T cells, plasmablasts and granulocytes. Cross-sectionally, the Hannum, but not the Horvath, measure of age acceleration was positively associated with each of the inflammatory biomarkers, including a restricted measure of CRP (≤ 10 mg/L) likely reflecting levels relevant to chronic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: We found a divergent relationship between inflammation and immune system parameters in older age. We additionally report the Hannum measure of epigenetic age acceleration associated with an elevated inflammatory profile cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Granulócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Plasmócitos/imunologia
17.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382528

RESUMO

Episodic memory is particularly sensitive to normative aging; however, studies investigating the structure-function relationships that support episodic memory have primarily been limited to gross volumetric measures of brain tissue health. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is an emerging non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technique that uniquely quantifies brain viscoelasticity, and as such, provides a more specific measure of neural microstructural integrity. Recently, a significant double dissociation between orbitofrontal cortex-fluid intelligence and hippocampal-relational memory structure-function relationships was observed in young adults, highlighting the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function. However, the structure-function relationship observed by MRE has not yet been explored in healthy older adults. In this study, we examined the relationship between hippocampal (HC) viscoelasticity and episodic memory in cognitively healthy adults aged 66-73 years (N = 11), as measured with the verbal-paired associates (VPA) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-R). Given the particular dependence of verbal memory tasks on the left HC, unilateral HC MRE measurements were considered for the first time. A significant negative correlation was found between left HC damping ratio, ξ and VPA recall score (rs = -0.77, p = 0.009), which is consistent with previous findings of a relationship between HC ξ and memory performance in young adults. Conversely, correlations between right HC ξ with VPA recall score were not significant. These results highlight the utility of MRE to study cognitive decline and brain aging and suggest its possible use as a sensitive imaging biomarker for memory-related impairments.

18.
Qual Life Res ; 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Quality of life (QoL) decreases in very old age, and is strongly related to health outcomes and mortality. Understanding the predictors of QoL and change in QoL amongst the oldest old may suggest potential targets for intervention. This study investigated change in QoL from age 79 to 90 years in a group of older adults in Scotland, and identified potential predictors of that change. METHOD: Participants were members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 who attended clinic visits at age 79 (n = 554) and 90 (n = 129). Measures at both time points included QoL (WHOQOL-BREF: four domains and two single items), anxiety and depression, objective health, functional ability, self-rated health, loneliness, and personality. RESULTS: Mean QoL declined from age 79 to 90. Participants returning at 90 had scored significantly higher at 79 on most QoL measures, and exhibited better objective health and functional ability, and lower anxiety and depression than non-returners. Hierarchical multiple regression models accounted for 20.3-56.3% of the variance in QoL at age 90. Baseline QoL was the strongest predictor of domain scores (20.3-35.6% variance explained), suggesting that individual differences in QoL judgements remain largely stable. Additional predictors varied by the QoL domain and included self-rated health, loneliness, and functional and mood decline between age 79 and 90 years. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified potential targets for interventions to improve QoL in the oldest old. Further research should address causal pathways between QoL and functional and mood decline, perceived health and loneliness.

19.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e023929, 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We used logistic regression to investigate whether health literacy and cognitive ability independently predicted whether participants have ever smoked and, in ever smokers, whether participants still smoked nowadays. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study used data from Wave 2 (2004-05) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which is a cohort study of adults who live in England and who, at baseline, were aged 50 years and older. PARTICIPANTS: 8734 (mean age=65.31 years, SD=10.18) English Longitudinal Study of Ageing participants who answered questions about their current and past smoking status, and completed cognitive ability and health literacy tests at Wave 2. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were whether participants reported ever smoking at Wave 2 and whether ever smokers reported still smoking at Wave 2. RESULTS: In models adjusting for age, sex, age left full-time education and occupational social class, limited health literacy (OR=1.096, 95% CI 0.988 to 1.216) and higher general cognitive ability (OR=1.000, 95% CI 0.945 to 1.057) were not associated with reporting ever smoking. In ever smokers, limited compared with adequate health literacy was associated with greater odds of being a current smoker (OR=1.194, 95% CI 1.034 to 1.378) and a 1 SD higher general cognitive ability score was associated with reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR=0.878, 95% CI 0.810 to 0.951), when adjusting for age, sex, age left full-time education and occupational social class. CONCLUSIONS: When adjusting for education and occupation variables, this study found that health literacy and cognitive ability were independently associated with whether ever smokers continued to smoke nowadays, but not with whether participants had ever smoked.

20.
Psychol Sci ; : 956797618804501, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359210

RESUMO

We examined reciprocal, time-ordered associations between age-related changes in fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,091 community-dwelling older adults from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study who were assessed repeatedly at 3-year intervals between the ages of 70 and 79 years. On average, fluid intelligence and depressive symptoms worsened with age. There was also a dynamic-coupling effect, in which low fluid intelligence at a given age predicted increasing depressive symptoms across the following 3-year interval, whereas the converse did not hold. Model comparisons showed that this coupling parameter significantly improved overall fit and had a correspondingly moderately strong effect size, accounting on average for an accumulated 0.9 standard-deviation increase in depressive symptoms, following lower cognitive performance, across the observed age range. Adjustment for sociodemographic and health-related covariates did not significantly attenuate this association. This implies that monitoring for cognitive decrements in later life may expedite interventions to reduce related increases in depression risk.

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