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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5006, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408135

RESUMO

Obesity is a strong risk factor for cancer progression, posing obesity-related cancer as one of the leading causes of death. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that endow cancer cells with metastatic properties in patients affected by obesity remain unexplored.Here, we show that IL-6 and HGF, secreted by tumor neighboring visceral adipose stromal cells (V-ASCs), expand the metastatic colorectal (CR) cancer cell compartment (CD44v6 + ), which in turn secretes neurotrophins such as NGF and NT-3, and recruits adipose stem cells within tumor mass. Visceral adipose-derived factors promote vasculogenesis and the onset of metastatic dissemination by activation of STAT3, which inhibits miR-200a and enhances ZEB2 expression, effectively reprogramming CRC cells into a highly metastatic phenotype. Notably, obesity-associated tumor microenvironment provokes a transition in the transcriptomic expression profile of cells derived from the epithelial consensus molecular subtype (CMS2) CRC patients towards a mesenchymal subtype (CMS4). STAT3 pathway inhibition reduces ZEB2 expression and abrogates the metastatic growth sustained by adipose-released proteins. Together, our data suggest that targeting adipose factors in colorectal cancer patients with obesity may represent a therapeutic strategy for preventing metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Reprogramação Celular , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(14): 15959-15972, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797220

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the tumor cell subpopulation responsible for resistance to chemotherapy, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. An efficient therapy must act on low proliferating quiescent-CSCs (q-CSCs). We here investigate the effect of magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) in combination with local chemotherapy as a dual therapy to inhibit patient-derived colorectal qCR-CSCs. We apply iron oxide nanocubes as MHT heat mediators, coated with a thermoresponsive polymer (TR-Cubes) and loaded with DOXO (TR-DOXO) as a chemotherapeutic agent. The thermoresponsive polymer releases DOXO only at a temperature above 44 °C. In colony-forming assays, the cells exposed to TR-Cubes with MHT reveal that qCR-CSCs struggle to survive the heat damage and, with a due delay, restart the division of dormant cells. The eradication of qCR-CSCs with a complete stop of the colony formation was achieved only with TR-DOXO when exposed to MHT. The in vivo tumor formation study confirms the combined effects of MHT with heat-mediated drug release: only the group of animals that received the CR-CSCs pretreated, in vitro, with TR-DOXO and MHT lacked the formation of tumor even after several months. For DOXO-resistant CR-CSCs cells, the same results were shown, in vitro, when choosing the drug oxaliplatin rather than DOXO and applying MHT. These findings emphasize the potential of our nanoplatforms as an effective patient-personalized cancer treatment against qCR-CSCs.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Hipertermia Induzida , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos
4.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 316, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767160

RESUMO

The prognosis of locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently unsatisfactory. This is mainly due to drug resistance, recurrence, and subsequent metastatic dissemination, which are sustained by the cancer stem cell (CSC) population. The main driver of the CSC gene expression program is Wnt signaling, and previous reports indicate that Wnt3a can activate p38 MAPK. Besides, p38 was shown to feed into the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Here we show that patient-derived locally advanced CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) are characterized by increased expression of p38α and are "addicted" to its kinase activity. Of note, we found that stage III CRC patients with high p38α levels display reduced disease-free and progression-free survival. Extensive molecular analysis in patient-derived CRC-SC tumorspheres and APCMin/+ mice intestinal organoids revealed that p38α acts as a ß-catenin chromatin-associated kinase required for the regulation of a signaling platform involved in tumor proliferation, metastatic dissemination, and chemoresistance in these CRC model systems. In particular, the p38α kinase inhibitor ralimetinib, which has already entered clinical trials, promoted sensitization of patient-derived CRC-SCs to chemotherapeutic agents commonly used for CRC treatment and showed a synthetic lethality effect when used in combination with the MEK1 inhibitor trametinib. Taken together, these results suggest that p38α may be targeted in CSCs to devise new personalized CRC treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673003

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease that can currently be subdivided into four distinct consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) based on gene expression profiling. The CMS4 subtype is marked by high expression of mesenchymal genes and is associated with a worse overall prognosis compared to other CMSs. Importantly, this subtype responds poorly to the standard therapies currently used to treat CRC. We set out to explore what regulatory signalling networks underlie the CMS4 phenotype of cancer cells, specifically, by analysing which kinases were more highly expressed in this subtype compared to others. We found AKT3 to be expressed in the cancer cell epithelium of CRC specimens, patient derived xenograft (PDX) models and in (primary) cell cultures representing CMS4. Importantly, chemical inhibition or knockout of this gene hampers outgrowth of this subtype, as AKT3 controls expression of the cell cycle regulator p27KIP1. Furthermore, high AKT3 expression was associated with high expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes, and this observation could be expanded to cell lines representing other carcinoma types. More importantly, this association allowed for the identification of CRC patients with a high propensity to metastasise and an associated poor prognosis. High AKT3 expression in the tumour epithelial compartment may thus be used as a surrogate marker for EMT and may allow for a selection of CRC patients that could benefit from AKT3-targeted therapy.

7.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumour spreading and relapse. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) and a potential target in tumours carrying the gene amplification. Our aim was to define the expression of HER2 in colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs) and its possible role as therapeutic target in CRC resistant to anti- epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. DESIGN: A collection of primary sphere cell cultures obtained from 60 CRC specimens was used to generate CR-CSC mouse avatars to preclinically validate therapeutic options. We also made use of the ChIP-seq analysis for transcriptional evaluation of HER2 activation and global RNA-seq to identify the mechanisms underlying therapy resistance. RESULTS: Here we show that in CD44v6-positive CR-CSCs, high HER2 expression levels are associated with an activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which promotes the acetylation at the regulatory elements of the Erbb2 gene. HER2 targeting in combination with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces CR-CSC death and regression of tumour xenografts, including those carrying Kras and Pik3ca mutation. Requirement for the triple targeting is due to the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which release cytokines able to confer CR-CSC resistance to PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In contrast, targeting of PI3K/AKT as monotherapy is sufficient to kill liver-disseminating CR-CSCs in a model of adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: While PI3K targeting kills liver-colonising CR-CSCs, the concomitant inhibition of PI3K, HER2 and MEK is required to induce regression of tumours resistant to anti-EGFR therapies. These data may provide a rationale for designing clinical trials in the adjuvant and metastatic setting.

8.
Cell Stem Cell ; 27(4): 501-502, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007230

RESUMO

The role of Hippo pathway in colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression has been controversial. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Cheung et al. (2020) shed new light on a distinct function of the transcriptional co-activator YAP as a tumor suppressor and Wnt pathway inhibitor in CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição , Via de Sinalização Wnt
9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486505

RESUMO

Although improvement in early diagnosis and treatment ameliorated life expectancy of cancer patients, metastatic disease still lacks effective therapeutic approaches. Resistance to anticancer therapies stems from the refractoriness of a subpopulation of cancer cells-termed cancer stem cells (CSCs)-which is endowed with tumor initiation and metastasis formation potential. CSCs are heterogeneous and diverge by phenotypic, functional and metabolic perspectives. Intrinsic as well as extrinsic stimuli dictated by the tumor microenvironment (TME)have critical roles in determining cell metabolic reprogramming from glycolytic toward an oxidative phenotype and vice versa, allowing cancer cells to thrive in adverse milieus. Crosstalk between cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment occurs through the interchange of metabolites, miRNAs and exosomes that drive cancer cells metabolic adaptation. Herein, we identify the metabolic nodes of CSCs and discuss the latest advances in targeting metabolic demands of both CSCs and stromal cells with the scope of improving current therapies and preventing cancer progression.

10.
Oncogene ; 39(5): 987-1003, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591478

RESUMO

Despite intense research and clinical efforts, patients affected by advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) have still a poor prognosis. The discovery of colorectal (CR) cancer stem cell (CSC) as the cell compartment responsible for tumor initiation and propagation may provide new opportunities for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Given the reduced sensitivity of CR-CSCs to chemotherapy and the ability of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) to promote colonic stem cell differentiation, we aimed to investigate whether an enhanced variant of BMP7 (BMP7v) could sensitize to chemotherapy-resistant CRC cells and tumors. Thirty-five primary human cultures enriched in CR-CSCs, including four from chemoresistant metastatic lesions, were used for in vitro studies and to generate CR-CSC-based mouse avatars to evaluate tumor growth and progression upon treatment with BMP7v alone or in combination with standard therapy or PI3K inhibitors. BMP7v treatment promotes CR-CSC differentiation and recapitulates the cell differentiation-related gene expression profile by suppressing Wnt pathway activity and reducing mesenchymal traits and survival of CR-CSCs. Moreover, in CR-CSC-based mouse avatars, BMP7v exerts an antiangiogenic effect and sensitizes tumor cells to standard chemotherapy regardless of the mutational, MSI, and CMS profiles. Of note, tumor harboring PIK3CA mutations were affected to a lower extent by the combination of BMP7v and chemotherapy. However, the addition of a PI3K inhibitor to the BMP7v-based combination potentiates PIK3CA-mutant tumor drug response and reduces the metastatic lesion size. These data suggest that BMP7v treatment may represent a useful antiangiogenic and prodifferentiation agent, which renders CSCs sensitive to both standard and targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Mutação , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6082304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236409

RESUMO

MRI guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) has shown to be effective therapeutic modality for non-invasive clinical interventions in ablating of uterine fibroids, in bone metastasis palliative treatments, and in breast, liver, and prostate cancer ablation. MRgFUS combines high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with MRI images for treatment planning and real time thermometry monitoring, thus enabling non-invasive ablation of tumor tissue. Although in the literature there are several studies on the Ultrasound (US) effects on cell in culture, there is no systematic evidence of the biological effect of Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) treatment on osteosarcoma cells, especially in lower dose regions, where tissues receive sub-lethal acoustic power. The effect of MRgFUS treatment at different levels of acoustic intensity (15.5-49 W/cm2) was investigated on Mg-63 and Saos-2 cell lines to evaluate the impact of the dissipation of acoustic energy delivered outside the focal area, in terms of cell viability and osteogenic differentiation at 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days after treatment. Results suggested that the attenuation of FUS acoustic intensities from the focal area (higher intensities) to the "far field" (lower intensities) zones might determine different osteosarcoma cell responses, which range from decrease of cell proliferation rates (from 49 W/cm2 to 38.9 W/cm2) to the selection of a subpopulation of heterogeneous and immature living cells (from 31.1 W/cm2 to 15.5 W/cm2), which can clearly preserve bone tumor cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Termometria/métodos , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Osteogênese/efeitos da radiação , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos
13.
Epigenomics ; 11(6): 587-604, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066579

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the genome-wide methylation of genetically characterized colorectal cancer stem cell (CR-CSC) lines. Materials & methods: Eight CR-CSC lines were isolated from primary colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, cultured and characterized for aneuploidy, mutational status of CRC-related genes and microsatellite instability (MSI). Genome-wide DNA methylation was assessed by MethylationEPIC microarray. Results: We describe a distinctive methylation pattern that is maintained following in vivo passages in immune-compromised mice. We identified an epigenetic CR-CSC signature associated with MSI. We noticed that the preponderance of the differentially methylated positions do not reside at CpG islands, but spread to shelf and open sea regions. Conclusion: Given that CRCs with MSI-high status have a lower metastatic potential, the identification of a MSI-related methylation signature could provide new insights and possible targets into metastatic CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Metilação de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Epigênese Genética , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos
14.
Mol Cancer ; 18(1): 70, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927908

RESUMO

In the last decades, the role of the microenvironment in tumor progression and therapeutic outcome has gained increasing attention. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have emerged as key players among stromal cells, owing to their abundance in most solid tumors and their diverse tumor-restraining/promoting roles. The interplay between tumor cells and neighboring CAFs takes place by both paracrine signals (cytokines, exosomes and metabolites) or by the multifaceted functions of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Here, we dissect the most recent identified mechanisms underlying CAF-mediated control of tumor progression and therapy resistance, which include induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), activation of survival pathways or stemness-related programs and metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells. Importantly, the recently unveiled heterogeneity in CAFs claims tailored therapeutic efforts aimed at eradicating the specific subset facilitating tumor progression, therapy resistance and relapse. However, despite the large amount of pre-clinical data, much effort is still needed to translate CAF-directed anti-cancer strategies from the bench to the clinic.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Comunicação Parácrina , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 7: 16, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834247

RESUMO

Notwithstanding cancer patients benefit from a plethora of therapeutic alternatives, drug resistance remains a critical hurdle. Indeed, the high mortality rate is associated with metastatic disease, which is mostly incurable due to the refractoriness of metastatic cells to current treatments. Increasing data demonstrate that tumors contain a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) able to establish primary tumor and metastasis. CSCs are endowed with multiple treatment resistance capabilities comprising a highly efficient DNA damage repair machinery, the activation of survival pathways, enhanced cellular plasticity, immune evasion and the adaptation to a hostile microenvironment. Due to the presence of distinct cell populations within a tumor, cancer research has to face the major challenge of targeting the intra-tumoral as well as inter-tumoral heterogeneity. Thus, targeting molecular drivers operating in CSCs, in combination with standard treatments, may improve cancer patients' outcomes, yielding long-lasting responses. Here, we report a comprehensive overview on the most significant therapeutic advances that have changed the known paradigms of cancer treatment with a particular emphasis on newly developed compounds that selectively affect the CSC population. Specifically, we are focusing on innovative therapeutic approaches including differentiation therapy, anti-angiogenic compounds, immunotherapy and inhibition of epigenetic enzymes and microenvironmental cues.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 144(2): 366-371, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151914

RESUMO

Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have become an important asset in translational cancer research. However, to provide a robust preclinical platform, PDXs need to accommodate the tumor heterogeneity that is observed in patients. Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be stratified into four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) with distinct biological and clinical features. Surprisingly, using a set of CRC patients, we revealed the partial representation of tumor heterogeneity in PDX models. The epithelial subtypes, the largest subgroups of CRC subtype, were very ineffective in establishing PDXs, indicating the need for further optimization to develop an effective personalized therapeutic approach to CRC. Moreover, we showed that tumor cell proliferation was associated with successful PDX establishment and able to distinguish patient with poor clinical outcomes within CMS2 group.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 1176, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote tumor progression by interacting with tumor cells and other stroma cells in the complex network of the tumor microenvironment. We characterized MSCs isolated and expanded from tumor tissues of pediatric patients diagnosed with neuroblastomas (NB-MSCs) to define interactions with the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: Specimens were obtained from 7 pediatric patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma (NB). Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation capacity, proliferative growth, expression of stemness and neural differentiation markers were evaluated. Moreover, the ability of cells to modulate the immune response, i.e. inhibition of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and natural killer (NK) cytotoxic function, was examined. Gene expression profiles, known to be related to tumor cell stemness, Wnt pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis were also evaluated. Healthy donor bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSC) were employed as controls. RESULTS: NB-MSCs presented the typical MSC morphology and phenotype. They showed a proliferative capacity superimposable to BM-MSCs. Stemness marker expression (Sox2, Nanog, Oct3/4) was comparable to BM-MSCs. NB-MSC in vitro osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was similar to BM-MSCs, but NB-MSCs lacked adipogenic differentiation capacity. NB-MSCs reached senescence phases at a median passage of P7 (range, P5-P13). NB-MSCs exhibited greater immunosuppressive capacity on activated T lymphocytes at a 1:2 (MSC: PBMC) ratio compared with BM-MSCs (p = 0.018). NK cytotoxic activity was not influenced by co-culture, either with BM-MSCs or NB-MSCs. Flow-cytometry cell cycle analysis showed that NB-MSCs had an increased number of cells in the G0-G1 phase compared to BM-MSCs. Transcriptomic profiling results indicated that NB-MSCs were enriched with EMT genes compared to BM-MSCs. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the biological features, the immunomodulatory capacity and the gene expression profile of NB-MSCs. The NB-MSC gene expression profile and their functional properties suggest a potential role in promoting tumor escape, invasiveness and metastatic traits of NB cancer cells. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying the interactions between NB cells and NB-derived MSCs should shed new light on potential novel therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Ciclo Celular , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Separação Celular/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Neuroblastoma/epidemiologia , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Nat Cell Biol ; 20(10): 1193-1202, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177776

RESUMO

Solid malignancies have been speculated to depend on cancer stem cells (CSCs) for expansion and relapse after therapy. Here we report on quantitative analyses of lineage tracing data from primary colon cancer xenograft tissue to assess CSC functionality in a human solid malignancy. The temporally obtained clone size distribution data support a model in which stem cell function in established cancers is not intrinsically, but is entirely spatiotemporally orchestrated. Functional stem cells that drive tumour expansion predominantly reside at the tumour edge, close to cancer-associated fibroblasts. Hence, stem cell properties change in time depending on the cell location. Furthermore, although chemotherapy enriches for cells with a CSC phenotype, in this context functional stem cell properties are also fully defined by the microenvironment. To conclude, we identified osteopontin as a key cancer-associated fibroblast-produced factor that drives in situ clonogenicity in colon cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
19.
Cell Death Differ ; 25(3): 616-633, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305587

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease both from a molecular and clinical perspective. Several distinct molecular entities, such as microsatellite instability (MSI), have been defined that make up biologically distinct subgroups with their own clinical course. Recent data indicated that CRC can be best segregated into four groups called consensus molecular subtypes (CMS1-4), each of which has a unique biology and gene expression pattern. In order to develop improved, subtype-specific therapies and to gain insight into the molecular wiring and origin of these subtypes, reliable models are needed. This study was designed to determine the heterogeneity and identify the presence of CMSs in a large panel of CRC cell lines, primary cultures and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). We provide a repository encompassing this heterogeneity and moreover describe that a large part of the models can be robustly assigned to one of the four CMSs, independent of the stromal contribution. We subsequently validate our CMS stratification by functional analysis which for instance shows mesenchymal enrichment in CMS4 and metabolic dysregulation in CMS3. Finally, we observe a clear difference in sensitivity to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, specifically between CMS2 and CMS4. This relates to the in vivo efficacy of chemotherapy, which delays outgrowth of CMS2, but not CMS4 xenografts. Combined our data indicate that molecular subtypes are faithfully modelled in CRC cell cultures and PDXs, representing tumour cell intrinsic and stable features. This repository provides researchers with a platform to study CRC using the existing heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
20.
Gut ; 67(5): 903-917, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumour formation and spreading, and their targeting is required for tumour eradication. There are limited therapeutic options for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly for tumours carrying RAS-activating mutations. The aim of this study was to identify novel CSC-targeting strategies. DESIGN: To discover potential therapeutics to be clinically investigated as single agent, we performed a screening with a panel of FDA-approved or investigational drugs on primary CRC cells enriched for CSCs (CRC-SCs) isolated from 27 patients. Candidate predictive biomarkers of efficacy were identified by integrating genomic, reverse-phase protein microarray (RPPA) and cytogenetic analyses, and validated by immunostainings. DNA replication stress (RS) was increased by employing DNA replication-perturbing or polyploidising agents. RESULTS: The drug-library screening led to the identification of LY2606368 as a potent anti-CSC agent acting in vitro and in vivo in tumour cells from a considerable number of patients (∼36%). By inhibiting checkpoint kinase (CHK)1, LY2606368 affected DNA replication in most CRC-SCs, including RAS-mutated ones, forcing them into premature, lethal mitoses. Parallel genomic, RPPA and cytogenetic analyses indicated that CRC-SCs sensitive to LY2606368 displayed signs of ongoing RS response, including the phosphorylation of RPA32 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated serine/threonine kinase (ATM). This was associated with mutation(s) in TP53 and hyperdiploidy, and made these CRC-SCs exquisitely dependent on CHK1 function. Accordingly, experimental increase of RS sensitised resistant CRC-SCs to LY2606368. CONCLUSIONS: LY2606368 selectively eliminates replication-stressed, p53-deficient and hyperdiploid CRC-SCs independently of RAS mutational status. These results provide a strong rationale for biomarker-driven clinical trials with LY2606368 in patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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