Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 11 de 11
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(30): 6697-6706, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296731

RESUMO

Enantiomers of a few new amides containing two stereogenic centers have been derived from d- and l-α-amino acids as guests for chiral recognition by 1H NMR spectroscopy. A variety of chiral amides with two or more stereogenic centers often exist in the products of catalytic asymmetric synthesis, natural products or their total synthetic products, and chiral drugs. It would be a challenging and meaningful work to explore their chiral recognition. For this purpose, a class of novel chiral bisthiourea derivatives 1-9 has been synthesized from (1S,2S)-(+)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane, d-α-amino acids, and isothiocyanates as chiral solvating agents (CSAs). CSAs 1-9 proved to afford better chiral discriminating results towards most amides with two stereogenic centers, which have been rarely studied as chiral substrates by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In particular, CSAs 7, 8 and 9, featuring 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene residues, exhibit outstanding chiral discriminating capabilities towards all amides, providing well-separated 1H NMR signals and sufficiently large nonequivalent chemical shifts. To test their practical application in the determination of enantiomeric excess, 1H NMR spectra of chiral amides (G16) with different optical purities were measured in the presence of CSAs 7 and 8, respectively. Their ee values (up to 90%) were accurately calculated by the integration of the NH proton of the CONHPh group of G16. To better understand the chiral discriminating behavior, Job plots of (±)-G16 with CSA 7 and (±)-G17 with CSA 8 and the association constants (Ka) of (S,R)-G16 and (R,S)-G16 with CSA 7 were evaluated, respectively. In order to further reveal any underlying intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, theoretical calculations of the enantiomers of (S,R)-G16 and (R,S)-G16 with CSA 7 were performed by means of the hybrid density functional theory (B3LYP) with the standard basis sets of 3-21G of the Gaussian 03 program, respectively.

2.
J Org Chem ; 83(22): 13874-13887, 2018 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346768

RESUMO

Enantiomers of a series of tripeptide derivatives with three stereogenic centers (±)-G1-G9 have been prepared from d- and l-α-amino acids as guests for chiral recognition by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the meantime, a family of tetraaza macrocyclic chiral solvating agents (TAMCSAs) 1a-1d has been synthesized from d-phenylalanine and (1 S,2 S)-(+)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. Discrimination of enantiomers of (±)-G1-G9 was carried out in the presence of TAMCSAs 1a-1d by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that enantiomers of (±)-G1-G9 can be effectively discriminated in the presence of TAMCSAs 1a-1d by 1H NMR signals of multiple protons exhibiting nonequivalent chemical shifts (ΔΔδ) up to 0.616 ppm. Furthermore, enantiomers of (±)-G1-G9 were easily assigned by comparing 1H NMR signals of the split corresponding protons with those attributed to a single enantiomer. Different optical purities (ee up to 90%) of G1 were clearly observed and calculated in the presence of TAMCSAs 1a-1d, respectively. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions were demonstrated through theoretical calculations of enantiomers of (±)-G1 with TAMCSA 1a by means of the hybrid functional theory with the standard basis sets of 3-21G of the Gaussian 03 program.

4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 15(7): 1642-1650, 2017 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127599

RESUMO

In the field of chiral recognition, reported chiral discrimination by 1H NMR spectroscopy has mainly focused on various chiral analytes with a single chiral center, regarded as standard chiral substrates to evaluate the chiral discriminating abilities of a chiral auxiliary. Among them, chiral α-hydroxy acids, α-amino acids and their derivatives are chiral organic molecules involved in a wide variety of biological processes, and also play an important role in the area of preparation of pharmaceuticals, as they are part of the synthetic process in the production of chiral drug intermediates and protein-based drugs. In this paper, several α-hydroxy acids and N-Ts-α-amino acids were used to evaluate the chiral discriminating abilities of tetraaza macrocyclic chiral solvating agents (TAMCSAs) 1a-1d by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The results indicate that α-hydroxy acids and N-Ts-α-amino acids were successfully discriminated in the presence of TAMCSAs 1a-1d by 1H NMR spectroscopy in most cases. The enantiomers of the α-hydroxy acids and N-Ts-α-amino acids were assigned based on the change of integration of the 1H NMR signals of the corresponding protons. The enantiomeric excesses (ee) of N-Ts-α-amino acids 11 with different optical compositions were calculated based on the integration of the 1H NMR signals of the CH3 protons (Ts group) of the enantiomers of (R)- and (S)-11 in the presence of TAMCSA 1b. At the same time, the possible chiral discriminating behaviors have been discussed by means of the Job plots of (±)-2 with TAMCSAs 1b and proposed theoretical models of the enantiomers of 2 and 6 with TAMCSA 1a, respectively.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Hidroxiácidos/química , Aminoácidos/síntese química , Hidroxiácidos/síntese química , Compostos Macrocíclicos , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Solubilidade
5.
Org Chem Front ; 3(12): 1716-1724, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28191319

RESUMO

1H NMR spectroscopy is often used to discriminate enantiomers of chiral analytes and determine their enantiomeric excess (ee) by various chiral auxiliaries. In reported research, these studies were mainly focused on chiral discriminantion of chiral analytes with only one chiral center. However, many chiral compounds possessing two or more chiral centers are often found in natural products, chiral drugs, products of asymmetric synthesis and biological systems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate their chiral discrimination by effective chiral auxiliaries using 1H NMR spectroscopy. In this paper, a new class of tetraaza macrocyclic chiral solvating agents (TAMCSAs) with two amide (CONH), two amino (NH) and two phenolic hydroxyl (PhOH) groups has been designed and synthsized for chiral discrimination towards dipeptide derivatives with two chiral centers. These dipeptide derivatives are important chiral species because some of them are used as clinical drugs and special dietary supplements for treatment of human diseases, such as L-alanyl-L-glutamine and aspartame. The results show that these TAMCSAs have excellent chiral discriminating properties and offer multiple detection possibilities pertaining to 1H NMR signals of diagnostic split protons. The nonequivalent chemical shifts (up to 0.486 ppm) of various types of protons of these dipeptide derivatives were evaluated with the assistance of well-resolved 1H NMR signals in most cases. In addition, enantiomeric excesses (ee) of the dipeptide derivatives with different optical compositions have been calculated based on integration of well-separeted proton signals. At the same time, the possible chiral discriminating behaviors have been discussed by means of Job plots, ESI mass spectra and a proposed theoretical model of (±)-G1 with TAMCSA 1c. Additionally, the association constants of enantiomers of (±)-G5 with TAMCSA 1a were calculated by employing the nonlinear curve-fitting method.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(32): 11362-81, 2014 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25025754

RESUMO

A Cu(I) catalyst (1), supported by a framework of strongly basic guanidinato moieties, mediates nitrene-transfer from PhI═NR sources to a wide variety of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C-H amination or amidination in the presence of nitriles) and olefins (aziridination). Product profiles are consistent with a stepwise rather than concerted C-N bond formation. Mechanistic investigations with the aid of Hammett plots, kinetic isotope effects, labeled stereochemical probes, and radical traps and clocks allow us to conclude that carboradical intermediates play a major role and are generated by hydrogen-atom abstraction from substrate C-H bonds or initial nitrene-addition to one of the olefinic carbons. Subsequent processes include solvent-caged radical recombination to afford the major amination and aziridination products but also one-electron oxidation of diffusively free carboradicals to generate amidination products due to carbocation participation. Analyses of metal- and ligand-centered events by variable temperature electrospray mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, coupled with computational studies, indicate that an active, but still elusive, copper-nitrene (S = 1) intermediate initially abstracts a hydrogen atom from, or adds nitrene to, C-H and C═C bonds, respectively, followed by a spin flip and radical rebound to afford intra- and intermolecular C-N containing products.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24747933

RESUMO

Reproductively arrested gonadal development has been previously described in the teleost pearl mullet (Chalcalburnus tarichi, Cyprinidae) from Van Edremit Gulf of Lake Van, Turkey. Oocyte development in some females was arrested at the previtellogenic stage, while gonadosomatic index (GSI) and plasma 17ß-estradiol (E2) level were low. A subset of the females was found to have normal ovaries and relatively higher plasma E2 and GSI. These two groups were termed reproductively arrested (RA) and reproductively non-arrested (RN) females. In this study, we cloned estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms (ERα, ERß1 and ERß2) and vitellogenin (Vtg), and their mRNA levels were measured in RA and RN fish tissues. C. tarichi ERs fell in the same clade with other fish ERs and ERα and ERß1 had 97% and 98% identity with the roach (Rutilus rutilus) ERs, respectively. Both Vtg and ER isoforms' mRNA abundance were higher in the liver than in the ovary and hypothalamus (liver>ovary>hypothalamus). The level of ERα mRNA was significantly lower in the liver, ovary and brain of RA fish than in the RN fish tissues. ERß1 mRNA levels were not different in the liver and ovary from RA and RN fish while ERß2 expression significantly increased in the liver and ovary from RA fish. All ER subtype expression was found to be lower in the brain from RA fish than RN fish. The level of Vtg mRNA was significantly lower in the liver and ovary from RA fish than RN fish tissue. These results suggest that ER subtypes are differentially regulated by E2, and their functions are also different in vitellogenesis. Analysis of organic contaminants in sediments revealed that C. tarichi living in Van Edremit Gulf of Lake Van are exposed to the contaminants bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and 4,4(') DDT. We suggest that the RA fish represent a segment of the population that is more sensitive to exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Vitelogeninas/genética , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Turquia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Inorg Chem ; 49(5): 2068-76, 2010 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20131811

RESUMO

The novel trimolybdenum cluster [Mo(3)(mu(3)-Br)(2)(mu-Br)(3)Br(6)](2-) (1, {Mo(3)}(9+), 9 d-electrons) has been isolated from the reaction of [Mo(CO)(6)] with 1,2-C(2)H(4)Br(2) in refluxing PhCl. The compound has been characterized in solution by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and in the solid state by X-ray analysis (counter-cations: (n-Bu)(4)N(+) (1), Et(4)N(+), Et(3)BzN(+)), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic susceptibility measurements, and infrared spectroscopy. The least disordered (n-Bu)(4)N(+) salt crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, a = 20.077(2) A, b = 11.8638(11) A, c = 22.521(2) A, alpha = 90 deg, beta = 109.348(4) deg, gamma = 90 deg, V = 5061.3(9) A(3), Z = 4 and contains an isosceles triangular metal arrangement, which is capped by two bromine ligands. Each edge of the triangle is bridged by bromine ions. The structure is completed by six terminal bromine ligands. According to the magnetic measurements and the EPR spectrum the trimetallic core possesses one unpaired electron. Electrochemical data show that oxidation by one electron of 1 is reversible, thus proceeding with retention of the trimetallic core, while the reduction is irreversible. The effective magnetic moment of 1 (mu(eff), 1.55 mu(B), r.t.) is lower than the spin-only value (1.73 mu(B)) for S = 1/2 systems, most likely because of high spin-orbit coupling of Mo(III) and/or magnetic coupling throughout the lattice. The ground electronic state of 1 was studied using density functional theory techniques under the broken symmetry formalism. The ground state is predicted to exhibit strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the three molybdenum atoms of the core. Moreover, our calculated data predict two broken symmetry states that differ only by 0.4 kcal/mol (121 cm(-1)). The antiferromagnetic character is delocalized over three magnetic orbitals populated by three electrons. The assignment of the infrared spectra is also provided.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/isolamento & purificação , Molibdênio/química , Molibdênio/isolamento & purificação , Teoria Quântica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Elétrons , Magnetismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Análise Espectral , Vibração
9.
Inorg Chem ; 49(1): 108-22, 2010 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19950956

RESUMO

A family of triphenylamido-amine ligands of the general stoichiometry L(x)H(3) = [R-NH-(2-C(6)H(4))](3)N (R = 4-t-BuPh (L(1)H(3)), 3,5-t-Bu(2)Ph (L(2)H(3)), 3,5-(CF(3))(2)Ph (L(3)H(3)), CO-t-Bu (L(4)H(3)), 3,5-Cl(2)Ph (L(5)H(3)), COPh (L(6)H(3)), CO-i-Pr (L(7)H(3)), COCF(3) (L(8)H(3)), and i-Pr (L(9)H(3))) has been synthesized and characterized, featuring a rigid triphenylamido-amine scaffold and an array of stereoelectronically diverse aryl, acyl, and alkyl substituents (R). These ligands are deprotonated by potassium hydride in THF or DMA and reacted with anhydrous FeCl(2) to afford a series of ferrous complexes, exhibiting stoichiometric variation and structural complexity. The prevalent [(L(x))Fe(II)-solv](-) structures (L(x) = L(1), L(2), L(3), L(5), solv = THF; L(x) = L(8), solv = DMA; L(x) = L(6), L(8), solv = MeCN) reveal a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry, featuring ligand-derived [N(3,amido)N(amine)] coordination and solvent attachment trans to the N(amine) atom. Specifically for [(L(8))Fe(II)-DMA](-), a N(amido) residue is coordinated as the corresponding N(imino) moiety (Fe-N(Ar) horizontal lineC(CF(3))-O(-)). In contrast, compounds [(L(4))Fe(II)](-), [(L(6))(2)Fe(II)(2)](2-), [K(L(7))(2)Fe(II)(2)](2)(2-), and [K(L(9))Fe](2) are all solvent-free in their coordination sphere and exhibit four-coordinate geometries of significant diversity. In particular, [(L(4))Fe(II)](-) demonstrates coordination of one amidato residue via the O-atom end (Fe-O-C(t-Bu) horizontal lineN(Ar)). Furthermore, [(L(6))(2)Fe(II)(2)](2-) and [K(L(7))(2)Fe(II)(2)](2)(2-) are similar structures exhibiting bridging amidato residues (Fe-N(Ar)-C(R) horizontal lineO-Fe) in dimeric structural units. Finally, the structure of [K(L(9))Fe](2) is the only example featuring a minimal [N(3,amido)N(amine)] coordination sphere around each Fe(II) site. All compounds have been characterized by a variety of physicochemical techniques, including Mossbauer spectroscopy and electrochemistry, to reveal electronic attributes that are responsible for a range of Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox potentials exceeding 1.0 V.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/química , Amidas/química , Aminas/química , Compostos Ferrosos/síntese química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Inorg Chem ; 47(23): 10998-1009, 2008 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18937446

RESUMO

Redox events involving both metal and ligand sites are receiving increased attention since a number of biological processes direct redox equivalents toward functional residues. Metalloradical synthetic analogues remain scarce and require better definition of their mode of formation and subsequent operation. The trisamido-amine ligand [(RNC6H4)3N]3-, where R is the electron-rich 4-t-Bu Ph, is employed in this study to generate redox active residues in manganese and chromium complexes. Solutions of [(L1)Mn(II)-THF]- in THF are oxidized by dioxygen to afford [(L1re-1)Mn(III)-(O)2-Mn(III)(L1 re-1)]2-as the major product. The rare dinuclear manganese (III,III) core is stabilized by a rearranged ligand that has undergone an one-electron oxidative transformation, followed by retention of the oxidation equivalent as a pi radical in ano-diiminobenzosemiquinonate moiety. Magnetic studies indicate that the ligand-centered radical is stabilized by means of extended antiferromagnetic coupling between the S ) 1/2 radical and the adjacent S ) 2 Mn(III) site, as well as between the two Mn(III) centers via the dioxo bridge. Electrochemical and EPR data suggest that this system can store higher levels of oxidation potency. Entry to the corresponding Cr(III) chemistry is achieved by employing CrCl3 to access both[(L1)Cr(III)-THF] and [(L1re-1)Cr(III)-THF(Cl)], featuring the intact and the oxidatively rearranged ligands, respectively. The latter is generated by ligand-centered oxidation of the former compound. The rearranged ligand is perceived to be the product of an one-electron oxidation of the intact ligand to afford a metal-bound aminyl radical that subsequently mediates a radical 1,4-(N-to-N) aryl migration.


Assuntos
Cromo/química , Manganês/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Cloretos/química , Compostos de Cromo/química , Eletroquímica , Ligantes , Magnetismo , Oxidantes/química , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química
11.
Inorg Chem ; 47(3): 1165-72, 2008 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18179206

RESUMO

Functional systems that combine redox-active metals and noninnocent ligands are no longer rare chemical oddities; they are instead emerging as significant components of catalytic and enzymatic reactions. The present work examines the synthetic and functional aspects of iron compounds ligated by a family of new trisamidoamine ligands of the type [(RNC6H4)3N]3- (L1). When R is the electron-rich 4-t-Bu-Ph moiety, the ligand can undergo oxidative rearrangement and store oxidizing equivalents under specific conditions. Starting ferrous complexes of the general formula [(L1)FeIIsolv]- (solv=CH3CN, dimethylformamide) can be easily oxidized (a) by dioxygen to afford the corresponding [(L1)FeIIIOH]- complexes, featuring several cases of terminal hydroxo units, and (b) by organochlorides (R-Cl) to provide [(L1)FeIIIsolv] congeners and coupled R-R products. Efforts to synthesize [(L1)FeIII-O-FeIII(L1)]2- by using [Cl3FeIII-O-FeIIICl3]2- indicate that intrinsic FeIIICl units can oxidatively rearrange the ligand to afford [(L1re)(Cl)FeII][Et4N]2, although the oxidizing equivalent is not retained. Compound [(L1re)(Cl)FeII][Et4N]2 can be further oxidized to [(L1re-2)(Cl)FeIII][Et4N] by CH2Cl2. Finally, oxidation of [(L1)FeIIIsolv] by FeCl3 affords [(L1reH)(Cl)FeII(micro-Cl)2FeII(Cl)(L1re-2H)], which features a similar ligand rearrangement that also gives rise to a diamagnetic, doubly oxidized moiety. These results underscore the complexity of chemical transformations available to systems in which both the metal and the ligand are redox-active entities.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Ferro/química , Metais/química , Eletroquímica , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...