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2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(10): 5602-5612, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583519

RESUMO

Deoxygenation in coastal and open-ocean ecosystems rarely exists in isolation but occurs concomitantly with acidification. Here, we first combine meta-data of experimental assessments from across the globe to investigate the potential interactive impacts of deoxygenation and acidification on a broad range of marine taxa. We then characterize the differing degrees of deoxygenation and acidification tested in our dataset using a ratio between the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide (pO2 /pCO2 ) to assess how biological processes change under an extensive, yet diverse range of pO2 and pCO2 conditions. The dataset comprised 375 experimental comparisons and revealed predominantly additive but variable effects (91.7%, additive; 6.0%, synergistic; and 2.3%, antagonistic) of the dual stressors, yielding negative impacts across almost all responses examined. Our data indicate that the pO2 /pCO2 -ratio offers a simplified metric to characterize the extremity of the concurrent stressors and shows that more severe impacts occurred when ratios represented more extreme deoxygenation and acidification conditions. Importantly, our analysis highlights the need to assess the concurrent impacts of deoxygenation and acidification on marine taxa and that assessments considering the impact of O2 depletion alone will likely underestimate the impacts of deoxygenation events and their ecosystem-wide consequences.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água do Mar , Biota , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(2): 355-363, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637801

RESUMO

Research efforts have intensified to foresee the prospects for marine biomes under climate change and anthropogenic drivers over varying temporal and spatial scales. Parallel with these efforts is the utilization of terminology, such as 'ocean acidification' (OA) and 'ocean deoxygenation' (OD), that can foster rapid comprehension of complex processes driving carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and oxygen (O2 ) concentrations in the global ocean and thus, are now widely used in discussions within and beyond academia. However, common usage of the terms 'acidification' and 'deoxygenation' alone are subjective and, without adequate contextualization, have the potential to mislead inferences over drivers that may ultimately shape the future state of marine ecosystems. Here we clarify the usage of the terms OA and OD as global, climate change-driven processes and discuss the various attributes of elevated CO2 and reduced O2 syndromes common to coastal ecosystems. We support the use of the existing terms 'coastal acidification' and 'coastal deoxygenation' because they help differentiate the sometimes rapid and extreme nature of CO2 and O2 syndromes in coastal ecosystems from the global, climate change-driven processes of OA and OD. Given the complexity and breadth of the processes involved in altering CO2 and O2 concentrations across marine ecosystems, we provide a workflow to enable contextualization and clarification of the usage of existing terms and highlight the close link between these two gases across spatial and temporal scales in the ocean. These distinctions are crucial to guide effective communication of research within the scientific community and guide policymakers responsible for intervening on the drivers to secure desirable future ocean states.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Oxigênio , Água do Mar , Síndrome
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