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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish feasibility and reproducibility of fetal proportion volumetric measurements, using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and a Virtual Reality (VR) system. METHODS: Within a population-based prospective birth cohort, 3D ultrasound datasets of 50 fetuses in the late first trimester were collected by three sonographers in a single research center. V-scope software was used for volumetric measurements of total fetus, extremities, head-trunk, head, trunk, thorax, and abdomen. All measurements were performed independently by two researchers. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were analyzed using Bland and Altman methods. RESULTS: Intraobserver and interobserver analyses of volumetric measurements of total fetus, head-trunk, head, trunk, thorax and abdomen showed ICCs above 0.979, CV below 7.51% and mean difference below 3.44%. The interobserver limits of agreement were within the ±10% range for volumetric measurements of total fetus, head-trunk, head and trunk. The interobserver limits of agreement for extremities, thorax and abdomen were -26.09 to 4.77%, -14.14% to 10.00% and -14.47% to 8.83%, respectively. CONCLUSION: First trimester fetal proportion volumetric measurements using 3D ultrasound and VR are feasible and reproducible, except volumetric measurements of the fetal extremities. These novel volumetric measurements may be used in future research to enable detailed studies on first trimester fetal development and growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 63, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia is a physiologic phenomenon, but, when severe, may cause lifelong disability. Maternity care assistants (MCAs) play an important role in timely recognition of severe neonatal jaundice. We assessed knowledge and skills of MCAs regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. METHODS: All Dutch MCAs (n = 9065) were invited to fill out a questionnaire assessing knowledge, expertise, and handling of neonatal jaundice. Additionally, we developed an e-learning and provided training sessions to a subgroup of MCAs (n = 99), and assessed their knowledge on neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia before and after the training. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred sixty-five unique online questionnaires were completed (response 16.2%). The median number of correctly answered knowledge questions was 5 (out of six; IQR 1). Knowledge was significantly better when respondents had had in-service training on neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia in the previous year (p = 0.024). Although 82% of respondents felt highly skilled or skilled to assess jaundice, accuracy of estimation of total serum bilirubin levels by assessing skin colour was generally poor and prone to underestimation. Among participants attending a training session, those who completed the e-learning beforehand had higher pre-training scores (5 (IQR 1) vs. 4 (IQR 2); p < 0.001). The median post-training score was higher than pre-training (6 (IQR 1) vs. 5 (IQR 2); p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Background knowledge of MCAs regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia was adequate, but can be improved by further training. Estimation of total serum bilirubin levels based on skin colour was often inadequate. Approaches to improve timely recognition of jaundiced neonates are needed.

3.
Health Policy ; 125(3): 385-392, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health inequities are already present at birth and affect individuals' health and socioeconomic outcomes across the life course. Addressing these inequities requires a cross-sectoral approach, covering the first 1,000 days of life. We believe that - in the Dutch context - municipal governments can be the main responsible actor to drive such an approach, since they are primarily responsible for organising adequate public health. Therefore, we aim to identify and develop transformative change towards the implementation of perinatal health into municipal approaches and policies concerning health inequities. METHODS: A transition analysis will be combined with action research in six Dutch municipalities. Interviews and interactive group sessions with professionals and organisations that are relevant for the institutional embedding of perinatal health into approaches and policies regarding health inequities, will be organised in each municipality. As a follow-up, a questionnaire will be administered among all participants one year after completion of the group sessions. DISCUSSION: We expect to gain insights into the role of municipalities in addressing perinatal health inequities, learn more about the interaction between different key stakeholders, and identify barriers and facilitators for a cross-sectoral approach to perinatal health. This knowledge will serve to inform the development of approaches to perinatal health inequities in areas with relatively poor perinatal health outcomes, both in the Netherlands and abroad.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low folic acid, folate and vitamin B12 might affect tooth formation and mineralization. The conversion of folic acid into folate is catalysed by the methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) enzyme which is encoded by the MTHFR gene. Among 3728 mothers and their 10-year-old children from the Generation R Study, we investigated associations of maternal folic acid supplementation and prenatal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations with child dental development. Secondly, we checked the modifying effect of MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. METHODS: Information on folic acid supplementation was obtained by questionnaires. Concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were measured from venous samples taken in early pregnancy. Developmental stages of teeth were defined by the Demirjian method at the age-10 assessment. In addition, dental age of the children was calculated using the Dutch standard. GLM and multivariate linear regression models were built to study the associations. RESULTS: Folic acid supplementation started when pregnancy was known (ß = -0.09; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.01) and folic acid supplementation started prior to known pregnancy (ß = -0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04) were both associated with decelerated dental development by 1-2 months lower dental age of 10-year-old children. Folate (ß = -0.02, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.02) and vitamin B12 (ß = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.00, 0.06) were not associated with dental age. MTHFR-C677T did not modify the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal folic acid supplementation delays dental development of children by 1-2 months dental age, whereas maternal folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in early pregnancy do not affect the timing of child dental development.

5.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 522: 111118, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340569

RESUMO

Pregnancy demands major cardiovascular, renal and endocrine changes to provide an adequate blood supply for the growing fetus. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a key role in this adaptation process. One of its components, prorenin, is released in significant amounts from the ovary and uteroplacental unit. This review describes the sources of prorenin in the periconception period and in pregnancy, including its modulation by in-vitro fertilization protocols, and discusses its potential effects, among others focusing on preeclampsia. It ends with discussing the long-term consequences, even in later life, of inappropriate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity in pregnancy and offers directions for future research. Ultimately, a full understanding of the role of prorenin periconceptionally and during pregnancy will help to develop tools to diagnose and/or prevent reproductive complications.

6.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 257: 51-58, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity and metabolic health affect pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether maternal metabolic profiles are associated with placental and fetal hemodynamics. STUDY DESIGN: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 1175 women we examined the associations of an adverse maternal metabolic profile in early pregnancy with placental, fetal cerebral and cardiac hemodynamic development. We obtained maternal pre-pregnancy BMI by questionnaire and measured blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose concentrations at a median gestational age of 12.6 (95 % range 9.6-17.1) weeks. An adverse maternal metabolic profile was defined as ≥4 risk factors. Placental and fetal hemodynamics were measured by pulsed-wave-Doppler at a median gestational age of 30.3 (95 % range 28.8-32.3) weeks. RESULTS: An adverse maternal metabolic profile was associated with a 0.29 Z-score higher (95 %CI 0.08-0.50) fetal cerebral middle artery pulsatility index (PI), but not with placental or fetal cardiac hemodynamic patterns. When the individual components of an adverse maternal metabolic profile were assessed, we observed that higher maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were associated with a higher cerebral middle artery PI (Z-score, 0.09 (95 %CI 0.02-0.15), 0.09 (95 %CI 0.03-0.15) per Z-score increase). Higher total and HDL maternal cholesterol concentrations were also associated with a higher aorta ascendens peak systolic velocity (PSV) Z-score, 0.08 (95 %CI 0.01-0.14)), and a larger left cardiac output (Z-score, 0.08 (95 %CI 0.00-0.15), respectively). CONCLUSION: An adverse maternal metabolic profile, especially higher cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations, are associated with increased fetal cerebral vascular resistance and larger fetal aorta ascendens diameter, PSV and left cardiac output, but not with placental vascular resistance indices. Further studies are needed to identify long-term consequences of the observed associations.

7.
Neurology ; 96(5): e709-e718, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and cognitive impairment 15 years after pregnancy, we measured cognitive performance in 115 women with a history of HDP and in 481 women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study embedded in a population-based prospective cohort from early pregnancy onwards. Cognitive function was assessed with cognitive tests 15 years after the index pregnancy (median 14.7 years, 90% range [13.9-16.1]). Cognitive performance was measured in different cognitive domains: executive function, processing speed, verbal memory, motor function, and visuospatial ability. A global cognition factor (g-factor) was derived from principal component analysis. RESULTS: Of the women with HDP, 80 (69.6%) had gestational hypertension (GH) and 35 (30.4%) had preeclampsia. Women with HDP had a lower g-factor than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy (mean -0.22, 90% range [-2.06-1.29]). HDP was negatively associated with the 15-word learning test: immediate recall (-0.25, 95% CI [-0.44 to -0.06]) and delayed recall (-0.30, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.10]). Women with GH perform significantly worse on their 15-word learning test than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. CONCLUSION: A history of HDP is independently associated with poorer working memory and verbal learning 15 years after pregnancy. This association is mainly driven by women with GH. Clinicians and women who experienced HDP should be aware of this risk.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Memória , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Processamento Espacial , Teste de Stroop
8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 117-127, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324997

RESUMO

Brain development and deterioration across the lifespan are integral to the etiology of late-life neurodegenerative disease. Factors that influence the health of the adult brain remain to be elucidated and include risk factors, protective factors, and factors related to cognitive and brain reserve. To address this knowledge gap we designed a life-course study on brain health, which received funding through the EU ERC Programme under the name Origins of Alzheimer's Disease Across the Life course (ORACLE) Study. The ORACLE Study is embedded within Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study of children and their parents, and links this with the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study in middle-aged and elderly persons. The studies are based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Generation R focuses on child health from fetal life until adolescence with repeated in-person examinations, but has also included data collection on the children's parents. The ORACLE Study aims to extend the parental data collection in nearly 2000 parents with extensive measures on brain health, including neuroimaging, cognitive testing and motor testing. Additionally, questionnaires on migraine, depressive symptoms, sleep, and neurological family history were completed. These data allow for the investigation of longitudinal influences on adult brain health as well as intergenerational designs involving children and parents. As a secondary focus, the sampling is enriched by mothers (n = 356) that suffered from hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in order to study brain health in this high-risk population. This article provides an overview of the rationale and the design of the ORACLE Study.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In general, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy is not considered to be an increased risk for severe maternal outcomes but has been associated with an increased risk for fetal distress. Maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was initially deemed uncertain; however, recently a few cases of vertical transmission have been reported. The intrauterine mechanisms, besides direct vertical transmission, leading to the perinatal adverse outcomes are not well understood. METHODS: Multiple maternal, placental, and neonatal swabs were collected for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Serology of immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2 was tested in maternal, umbilical cord, and neonatal blood. Placental examination included immunohistochemical investigation against SARS-CoV-2 antigen expression, with SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: RT-qPCRs of the oropharynx, maternal blood, vagina, placenta, and urine were all positive over a period of 6 days, while breast milk, feces, and all neonatal samples tested negative. Placental findings showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 particles with generalized inflammation characterized by histiocytic intervillositis with diffuse perivillous fibrin depositions with damage to the syncytiotrophoblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Placental infection by SARS-CoV-2 leads to fibrin depositions hampering fetal-maternal gas exchange with resulting fetal distress necessitating a premature emergency cesarean section. Postpartum, the neonate showed a fetal or pediatric inflammatory multisystem-like syndrome with coronary artery ectasia temporarily associated with SARS-CoV-2 for which admittance and care on the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were required, despite being negative for SARS-CoV-2. This highlights the need for awareness of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes during the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, especially considering that the majority of pregnant women appear asymptomatic.

10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 394, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pregnancy lipid levels increase with gestation resembling an atherogenic lipid profile. Currently it is unclear whether gestational lipid levels are associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile later in life. The aim of this study is to assess the association between gestational lipid levels and lipid levels and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) six years after pregnancy. METHODS: In plasma of 3510 women from the Generation R Study; a prospective population-based cohort, we measured lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c]), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), remnant cholesterol and non-HDL-c were calculated in early pregnancy (median 13.2 weeks, 90% range [10.5 to 17.1]) and six years after pregnancy (median 6.5 years, 90% range [6.2 to 7.8]). MS was assessed six years after pregnancy according to the NCEP/ATP3 criteria. We also examined the influence of pregnancy complications on these associations. RESULTS: Gestational lipid levels were positively associated with corresponding lipid levels six years after pregnancy, independent of pregnancy complications. Six years after pregnancy the prevalence of MS was 10.0%; the prevalence was higher for women with a previous placental syndrome (13.5%). Gestational triglycerides and remnant cholesterol in the highest quartile and HDL-c in the lowest quartile were associated with the highest risk for future MS, independent of smoking and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational lipid levels provide an insight in the future cardiovascular risk profile of women in later life. Monitoring and lifestyle intervention could be indicated in women with an unfavorable gestational lipid profile to optimize timely cardiovascular risk prevention.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Gravidez/sangue , Adulto , Idade de Início , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a structured inquiry during pregnancy of medical factors and social factors associated with low socioeconomic status, and subsequent patient-centred maternity care could increase maternal empowerment. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. SETTING: This study was conducted among pregnant women in selected urban areas in the Netherlands. This study was part of the nationwide Healthy Pregnancy 4 All-2 programme. POPULATION: Pregnant women listed at one of the sixteen participating maternity care organisations between July 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2016. METHODS: All practices were instructed to provide a systematic risk assessment during pregnancy. Practices were randomly allocated to continue usual care (seven practices), or to provide a patient-centred, risk-guided approach to addressing any risks (nine practices) identified via the risk assessment during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Low postpartum maternal empowerment score. RESULTS: We recruited 1579 participants; 879 participants in the intervention arm, and 700 participants in the control arm. The prevalence of one or more risk factors during pregnancy was similar between the two arms: 40% and 39%, respectively. In our intention-to-treat analysis, the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in the odds of having a low empowerment score [i.e. the primary outcome; adjusted OR 0.69 ((95% CI 0.47; 0.99), P 0.046)]. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of additional risk assessment addressing both medical and social factors and subsequent tailored preventive strategies into maternity care reduced the incidence of low maternal empowerment during the postpartum period. Introducing this approach in routine maternity care may help reduce early adversity during the postpartum period.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Behavioural and lifestyle factors, as oral hygiene and diet, are well-established risk factors in the pathogenesis of dental caries, though displaying large differences in susceptibility across individuals. Since enamel formation already starts in utero, pregnancy course and outcome may eventually play a role in enamel strength and caries susceptibility. Therefore, we studied the association between history of pregnancy complications and the caries experience in their six-year-old children. The pregnancy complications included small for gestational age (SGA), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), individually, and a combination of those, designated as placental syndrome. METHODS: This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective longitudinal Dutch multiethnic pregnancy cohort study. Information about pregnancy complications was obtained from questionnaires completed by midwives and obstetricians with cross-validation in medical records. These included SGA, sPTB, GH and PE. Caries experience was assessed with the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index at a mean age of six years. The association between dental caries experience and a history of pregnancy complications was studied by using hurdle negative binomial (HNB) models. RESULTS: We were able to assess the dmft index in 5323 six-year-old children (mean age 6.2 years, SD 0.5). We did not find an association between the different pregnancy complications and dental caries experience in childhood, whether for SGA, sPTB, GH, PE, or for the combined outcome placental syndrome (HNB estimates: OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.87 - 1.19; RR 0.90, 95%CI 0.78 - 1.04). Further adjustment of the models with different confounders did not alter the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is expected that prenatal stress can be a risk factor for caries development later in life, our findings do not support this hypothesis. Therefore, we believe disparities in caries experience between children are probably not explained by early life events during a critical intrauterine period of development.

13.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 51, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208752

RESUMO

Despite existing interventions, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy are common. The Smoke and Alcohol Free with EHealth and Rewards (SAFER) pregnancy intervention combines monthly group sessions, access to a web-based platform and incentives upon biochemically validated cessation for a maximum duration of 6 months to promote cessation of smoking and alcohol use before and during pregnancy. To inform development of the SAFER pregnancy intervention, two focus groups with the target population were held beforehand, with results reported here alongside the final SAFER pregnancy study protocol. In a before-after study we aim to include 66 women who are pregnant or have a wish to become pregnant and who smoke and/or consume alcohol (i.e. target population of the SAFER pregnancy intervention). The primary outcome measure is cessation of smoking and/or alcohol use at 34-38 weeks of gestation, or after six group sessions if women did not become pregnant during the study period. Secondary outcomes focus on the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the SAFER pregnancy intervention.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145949

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the possibility of embryonic posture evaluation (=feasibility, reproducibility, variation) at rest at 9 weeks' (+0-6 days) gestational age (GA) using four-dimensional ultrasound and virtual reality (VR) techniques. Moreover, it is hypothesized that embryonic posture shows variation at the same time point in an uneventful pregnancy. METHODS: In this explorative prospective cohort study, 23 pregnant women were recruited from the Rotterdam periconceptional cohort. A transvaginal four-dimensional ultrasound examination of 30 min per pregnancy was performed between 9 and 10 weeks' GA. The acquired datasets were offline evaluated longitudinally (i.e. per frame) using VR techniques. RESULTS: The ultrasound data of 16 (70%) out of 23 pregnancies were eligible for evaluation. At rest the analysis of the embryonic posture was feasible and showed a strong (>80%) intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility for most body parts. The majority of the body parts were in similar anatomic positions at rest. However, variations in anatomic positions (e.g. 6% rotated head, 9% laterally bent spine), within and between embryos, were seen at 9 weeks' GA. CONCLUSION: In this unique study, we showed for the first time that embryonic posture measurements at rest can be performed in a reliable way using state-of-the-art four-dimensional ultrasound and VR techniques. Already early in prenatal life there are differences regarding posture within and between embryos.

15.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 276, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids such as cholesterol and triglycerides play an important role in both maternal and foetal energy metabolism. Little is known about maternal lipid levels in pregnancy and their effect on foetal growth. The aim of this study was to assess maternal lipid levels, foetal growth and the risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA). METHODS: We included 5702 women from the Generation R Study, a prospective population-based cohort. Maternal lipid levels (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c]) were measured in early pregnancy (median 13.4 weeks, 90% range [10.5 to 17.2]). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), remnant cholesterol and non-HDL-c were calculated. Foetal growth was measured repeatedly by ultrasound. Information on birth anthropometrics was retrieved from medical records. A birth weight below the 10th percentile was defined as SGA and above the 90th percentile as LGA. RESULTS: Maternal triglyceride and remnant cholesterol levels were associated with increased foetal head circumference and abdominal circumference growth rates. Triglycerides and remnant cholesterol were positively associated with the risk of LGA (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.01 to 1.22] and OR 1.11, 95% CI [1.01 to 1.23], respectively). These associations were independent of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, but not maternal glucose levels. We observed no association between maternal lipids in early pregnancy and SGA. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests a novel association of early pregnancy triglyceride and remnant cholesterol levels with foetal growth, patterns of foetal growth and the risk of LGA. Future studies are warranted to explore clinical implication possibilities.

16.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(11): e604-e611, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child mortality globally, with many survivors experiencing long-term adverse consequences. Preliminary evidence suggests that numbers of preterm births greatly reduced following implementation of policy measures aimed at mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to study the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in the Netherlands in a stepwise fashion on March 9, March 15, and March 23, 2020, on the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS: We used a national quasi-experimental difference-in-regression-discontinuity approach. We used data from the neonatal dried blood spot screening programme (2010-20) cross-validated against national perinatal registry data. Stratified analyses were done according to gestational age subgroups, and sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of the findings. We explored potential effect modification by neighbourhood socioeconomic status, sex, and small-for-gestational-age status. FINDINGS: Data on 1 599 547 singleton neonates were available, including 56 720 births that occurred after implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures on March 9, 2020. Consistent reductions in the incidence of preterm birth were seen across various time windows surrounding March 9 (±â€ˆ2 months [n=531 823] odds ratio [OR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·66-0·91, p=0·0026; ±â€ˆ3 months [n=796 531] OR 0·85, 0·73-0·98, p=0·028; ±â€ˆ4 months [n=1 066 872] OR 0·84, 0·73-0·97, p=0·023). Decreases in incidence observed following the March 15 measures were of smaller magnitude, but not statistically significant. No changes were observed after March 23. Reductions in the incidence of preterm births after March 9 were consistent across gestational age strata and robust in sensitivity analyses. They appeared confined to neighbourhoods of high socioeconomic status, but effect modification was not statistically significant. INTERPRETATION: In this national quasi-experimental study, initial implementation of COVID-19 mitigation measures was associated with a substantial reduction in the incidence of preterm births in the following months, in agreement with preliminary observations elsewhere. Integration of comparable data from across the globe is needed to further substantiate these findings and start exploring underlying mechanisms. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez
17.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955580

RESUMO

Importance: Preterm and postterm births are associated with adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes. However, it remains unclear whether variation of gestational age within the 37- to 42-week range of term deliveries is associated with neurodevelopment. Objective: To investigate the association of gestational age at birth (GAB) with structural brain morphometry in children aged 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included pregnant women living in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with an expected delivery date between April 1, 2002, and January 31, 2006. The study evaluated 3079 singleton children with GAB ranging from 26.3 to 43.3 weeks and structural neuroimaging at 10 years of age from the Generation R Study, a longitudinal, population-based prospective birth cohort from early pregnancy onward in Rotterdam. Data analysis was performed from March 1, 2019, to February 28, 2020, and at the time of the revision based on reviewer suggestions. Exposures: The GAB was calculated based on ultrasonographic assessment of crown-rump length (<12 weeks 5 days) or biparietal diameter (≥12 weeks 5 days) in dedicated research centers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Brain structure, including global and regional brain volumes and surface-based cortical measures (thickness, surface area, and gyrification), was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging. Results: In the 3079 children (1546 [50.2%] female) evaluated at 10 years of age, GAB was linearly associated with global and regional brain volumes. Longer gestational duration was associated with larger brain volumes; for example, every 1-week-longer gestational duration corresponded to an additional 4.5 cm3/wk (95% CI, 2.7-6.3 cm3/wk) larger total brain volume. These associations persisted when the sample was restricted to children born at term (GAB of 37-42 weeks: 4.8 cm3/wk; 95% CI, 1.8-7.7 cm3/wk). No evidence of nonlinear associations between GA and brain morphometry was observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, gestational duration was linearly associated with brain morphometry during childhood, including within the window of term delivery. These findings may have marked clinical importance, particularly given the prevalence of elective cesarean deliveries.

18.
J Adv Nurs ; 76(12): 3654-3661, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996632

RESUMO

AIM: To introduce the rationale and design of a postnatal risk assessment study, which will be embedded in Preventive Child Health Care. This study will evaluate: (a) the predictive value of an innovative postnatal risk assessment, meant to assess the risk of growth and developmental problems in young children; and (b) its effectiveness in combination with tailored care pathways. DESIGN: This study concerns a historically controlled study design and is designed as part of the Healthy Pregnancy 4 All-2 program. We hypothesize that child growth and developmental problems will be reduced in the intervention cohort due to the postnatal risk assessment and corresponding care pathways. METHODS: The study was approved in August 2016. Children and their parents, visiting well-baby clinics during regular visits, will participate in the intervention (N = 2,650). Additional data of a historical control group (N = 2,650) in the same neighbourhoods will be collected. The intervention, consisting of the risk assessment and its corresponding care pathways, will be executed in the period between birth and 2 months of (corrected) age. The predictive value of the risk assessment and its effectiveness in combination with its corresponding care pathways will be assessed by Preventive Child Health Care nurses and physicians in four Preventive Child Health Care organisations in three municipalities with adverse perinatal outcomes. A total risk score above a predefined threshold, which is based on a weighted risk score, determines structured multidisciplinary consultation. DISCUSSION: The successful implementation of this innovative postnatal risk assessment including corresponding care pathways has potential for further integration of risk assessment and a family-centred approach in the work process of Preventive Child Health Care nurses and physicians. IMPACT: This study introduces a systematic approach in postnatal health care which may improve growth and developmental outcomes of children and even future generations.

19.
Environ Int ; 144: 106002, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may interfere with processes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and body weight. Few studies have considered the possible influence of chemical exposures during pregnancy on maternal weight gain or metabolic health outcomes postpartum. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of early and mid-pregnancy bisphenol and phthalate urine concentrations with maternal weight gain 6 years postpartum. METHODS: We analyzed urine samples for bisphenol, phthalate and creatinine concentrations from early and mid-pregnancy in 1192 women in a large, population-based birth cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and examined postpartum weight gain using maternal anthropometrics before pregnancy and 6 years postpartum. We have used covariate-adjusted linear regressions to evaluate associations of early and mid-pregnancy bisphenols and phthalate metabolites with weight change. Mediator and interaction models have been used to assess the role of gestational weight gain and breastfeeding, respectively. Sensitivity analysis is performed among women without subsequent pregnancies. RESULTS: Among all 1192 mothers included in the analysis, each log unit increase in the average bisphenol A and all assessed phthalate groupings were associated with increased maternal weight gain. As a proxy for phthalate exposure, each log unit increase in averaged phthalic acid was associated with 734 g weight gain (95% CI 273-1196 g) between pre-pregnancy and 6 years postpartum. Mediation by gestational weight gain was not present. Breastfeeding and ethnicity did not modify the effects. Stratification revealed these associations to be strongest among overweight and obese women. Among women without subsequent pregnancies (n = 373) associations of bisphenols, HMW phthalate metabolites and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate metabolites attenuated. For phthalic acid, LMW phthalate metabolites and di-n-octylphthalate metabolites associations increased. Similarly to the whole group, stratification yielded significant results among overweight and obese women. DISCUSSION: In a large population-based birth cohort, early and mid-pregnancy phthalate exposures are associated with weight gain 6 years postpartum, particularly among overweight and obese women. These data support ongoing action to replace phthalates with safer alternatives.

20.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 7-14, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. We first examined the associations of smoking cessation in early-pregnancy with gestational weight gain and subsequently evaluated the risks of pregnancy complications among women who quit smoking in early-pregnancy according to their gestational weight gain. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study among 7,389 women, we measured weight in each pregnancy period. Information on smoking and pregnancy complications was obtained from questionnaires and medical records. RESULTS: As compared to continued smoking during pregnancy, smoking cessation in early-pregnancy was not associated with gestational weight gain. Smoking cessation in early-pregnancy was associated with decreased risks of delivering small-for-gestational-age infants (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.52 (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 0.37, 0.75)), but with increased risks of pre-eclampsia (OR 2.07 (95 % CI 1.01, 4.27)) and delivering large-for-gestational-age infants (OR 2.11 (95 % CI 1.45, 3.09)). Among women who quit smoking in early-pregnancy with >12 kg weight gain, the risks of pre-eclampsia and delivering large-for-gestational-age infants were slightly increased. CONCLUSION: As compared to continued smoking during pregnancy, smoking cessation in early-pregnancy is not associated with increased gestational weight gain. Among women who quit smoking in early-pregnancy, higher gestational weight gain does not strongly affect their risks of pregnancy complications.

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