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Appl Opt ; 58(10): 2490-2499, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045043


A series of controlled grinding experiments, utilizing loose or fixed abrasives of either alumina or diamond at various particle sizes, were performed on a wide range of optical workpiece materials [single crystals of Al2O3 (sapphire), SiC, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), CaF2, and LiB3O5 (LBO); a SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-Li2O glass ceramic (Zerodur); and glasses of SiO2:TiO2 (ULE), SiO2 (fused silica), and P2O5-Al2O3-K2O-BaO (phosphate)]. The material removal rate, surface roughness, and morphology of surface fractures were measured. Separately, Vickers indentation was performed on the workpieces, and the depths of various crack types as a function of applied load was measured. Single pass grinding experiments showed distinct differences in the spatial pattern of surface fracturing between the loose alumina abrasive (isolated indent-type lateral cracking) and the loose or fixed diamond abrasive (scratch-type elongated lateral cracking). Each of the grinding methods had a removal rate and roughness that scaled with the lateral crack slope, s ℓ (i.e., the rate of increase in lateral crack depth with the applied load) of the workpiece material. A grinding model (based on the volumetric removal of lateral cracks accounting for neighboring lateral crack removal efficiency and the fraction of abrasive particles leading to fracture initiation) and a roughness model (based on the depth of lateral cracks or the interface gap between the workpiece and lap) are shown to quantitatively describe the material removal rate and roughness as a function of workpiece material, abrasive size, applied pressure, and relative velocity. This broad, multiprocess variable grinding model can serve as a predictive tool for estimating grinding rates and surface roughness for various grinding processes on different workpiece materials.

J Vis Exp ; (94)2014 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25489745


Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher.

Óptica e Fotônica/métodos , Vidro/química , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Reologia/instrumentação , Reologia/métodos