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1.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 23, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we argue for Gender as a Sociocultural Variable (GASV) as a complement to Sex as a Biological Variable (SABV). Sex (biology) and gender (sociocultural behaviors and attitudes) interact to influence health and disease processes across the lifespan-which is currently playing out in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study develops a gender assessment tool-the Stanford Gender-Related Variables for Health Research-for use in clinical and population research, including large-scale health surveys involving diverse Western populations. While analyzing sex as a biological variable is widely mandated, gender as a sociocultural variable is not, largely because the field lacks quantitative tools for analyzing the influence of gender on health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive review of English-language measures of gender from 1975 to 2015 to identify variables across three domains: gender norms, gender-related traits, and gender relations. This yielded 11 variables tested with 44 items in three US cross-sectional survey populations: two internet-based (N = 2051; N = 2135) and a patient-research registry (N = 489), conducted between May 2017 and January 2018. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses reduced 11 constructs to 7 gender-related variables: caregiver strain, work strain, independence, risk-taking, emotional intelligence, social support, and discrimination. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, ethnicity, income, education, sex assigned at birth, and self-reported gender identity, identified associations between these gender-related variables and self-rated general health, physical and mental health, and health-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: Our new instrument represents an important step toward developing more comprehensive and precise survey-based measures of gender in relation to health. Our questionnaire is designed to shed light on how specific gender-related behaviors and attitudes contribute to health and disease processes, irrespective of-or in addition to-biological sex and self-reported gender identity. Use of these gender-related variables in experimental studies, such as clinical trials, may also help us understand if gender factors play an important role as treatment-effect modifiers and would thus need to be further considered in treatment decision-making.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450071

RESUMO

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we investigated associations between baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) appendicular lean mass (ALM) and risk of incident fractures, falls, and mortality (separately for each outcome) among older postmenopausal women, accounting for bone mineral density (BMD), prior falls, and Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® ) probability. The WHI is a prospective study of postmenopausal women undertaken at 40 US sites. We used an extension of Poisson regression to investigate the relationship between baseline ALM (corrected for height2 ) and incident fracture outcomes, presented here for major osteoporotic fracture (MOF: hip, clinical vertebral, forearm, or proximal humerus), falls, and death. Associations were adjusted for age, time since baseline and randomization group, or additionally for femoral neck (FN) BMD, prior falls, or FRAX probability (MOF without BMD) and are reported as gradient of risk (GR: hazard ratio for first incident fracture per SD increment) in ALM/height2 (GR). Data were available for 11,187 women (mean [SD] age 63.3 [7.4] years). In the base models (adjusted for age, follow-up time, and randomization group), greater ALM/height2 was associated with lower risk of incident MOF (GR = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-0.94). The association was independent of prior falls but was attenuated by FRAX probability. Adjustment for FN BMD T-score led to attenuation and inversion of the risk relationship (GR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.98-1.14). There were no associations between ALM/height2 and incident falls. However, there was a 7% to 15% increase in risk of death during follow-up for each SD greater ALM/height2 , depending on specific adjustment. In WHI, and consistent with our findings in older men (Osteoporotic Fractures in Men [MrOS] study cohorts), the predictive value of DXA-ALM for future clinical fracture is attenuated (and potentially inverted) after adjustment for femoral neck BMD T-score. However, intriguing positive, but modest, associations between ALM/height2 and mortality remain robust. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidelines promote physical activity to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet no randomized controlled trial has tested whether physical activity reduces prevent CVD. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Strong and Healthy (WHISH) pragmatic trial used a randomized consent design to assign women for whom cardiovascular outcomes were available through WHI data collection (N=18,985) or linkage to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (N30,346), to a physical activity intervention or "usual activity" comparison, stratified by ages 68-99 years (in tertiles), U.S. geographic region, and outcomes data source. Women assigned to the intervention could "opt out" after receiving initial physical activity materials. Intervention materials applied evidence-based behavioral science principles to promote current national recommendations for older Americans The intervention was adapted to participant input regarding preferences, resources, barriers and motivational drivers and was targetted for three categories of women at lower, middle or higher levels of self-reported physical functioning and physical activity. Physical activity was assessed in both arms through annual questionnaires. The primary outcome is major cardiovascular events, specifically myocardial infarction, stroke, or CVD death; primary safety outcomes are hip fracture and non-CVD death. The trial is monitored annually by an independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board. Final analyses will be based on intention-to-treat in all randomized participants, regardless of intervention engagement. RESULTS: The 49,331 randomized participants had a mean baseline age of 79.7 years; 84.3% were white, 9.2% black, 3.3% Hispanic, 1.9% Asian/Pacific Islander, 0.3% Native American, and 1% were of unknown race/ethnicity. The mean baseline RAND-36 physical function score was 71.6 (± 25.2 SD). There were no differences between Intervention (N=24,657) and Control (N=24,674) at baseline for age, race/ethnicity, current smoking (2.5%), use of blood pressure or lipid-lowering medications, body mass index, physical function, physical activity, or prior CVD (10.1%). CONCLUSION: The WHISH trial is rigorously testing whether a physical activity intervention reduces major CV events in a large, diverse cohort of older women.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased mortality independent of BMI, resulting in discordant metabolic phenotypes, such as metabolically healthy obese and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight individuals. Studies investigating dietary intake in MetS have reported mixed results, due in part to the limitations of self-reported measures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of biomarker-calibrated estimates of energy and protein in MetS and metabolic phenotypes. METHODS: Postmenopausal participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study who were free of MetS at baseline, had available data from FFQs at baseline, and had components of MetS at Year 3 (n = 3963) were included. Dietary energy and protein intakes were estimated using biomarker calibration methods. MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated serum triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), low HDL cholesterol (<50 mg/dL), hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg], elevated serum glucose (>100 mg/dL), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference > 89 cm). Models were adjusted for age, WHI study component, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, recreational physical activity, disease history, and parity. RESULTS: For every 10% increment in total calibrated energy intake, women were at a 1.37-fold elevated risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.15-1.63); a 10% increment in calibrated total protein intake was associated with a 1.21-fold elevated risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Specifically, animal protein intake was associated with MetS (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14), whereas vegetable protein intake was not (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03). No differences were seen when examining metabolic phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher calibrated total energy, total protein, and total animal protein intakes were strongly associated with MetS. If replicated in clinical trials, these results will have implications for the promotion of energy and animal protein restrictions for the reduction of MetS risks.

5.
Circ Heart Fail ; : CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007508, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines recommend reducing sedentary behavior (SB) for cardiovascular health. SB's role in heart failure (HF) is unclear. METHODS: We studied 80 982 women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, aged 50 to 79 years, who were without known HF and reported ability to walk ≥1 block unassisted at baseline. Mean follow-up was 9 years for physician-adjudicated incident HF hospitalization (1402 cases). SB was assessed repeatedly by questionnaire. Time-varying total SB was categorized according to awake time spent sitting or lying down (≤6.5, 6.6-9.5, >9.5 h/d); sitting time (≤4.5, 4.6-8.5, >8.5 h/d) was also evaluated. Hazard ratios and 95% CI were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, alcohol, menopausal hormone therapy, and hysterectomy status, higher HF risk was observed across incremental tertiles of time-varying total SB (hazard ratios [95% CI], 1.00 [referent], 1.15 [1.01-1.31], 1.42 [1.25-1.61], trend P<0.001) and sitting time (1.00 [referent], 1.14 [1.01-1.28], 1.54 [1.34-1.78], trend P<0.001). The inverse trends remained significant after further controlling for comorbidities including time-varying myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization (hazard ratios: SB, 1.00, 1.11, 1.27; sitting, 1.00, 1.09, 1.37, trend P<0.001 each) and for baseline physical activity (hazard ratios: SB 1.00, 1.10, 1.24; sitting 1.00, 1.08, 1.33, trend P<0.001 each). Associations with SB exposures were not different according to categories of baseline age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity, physical functioning, diabetes, hypertension, or coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: SB was associated with increased risk of incident HF hospitalization in postmenopausal women. Targeted efforts to reduce SB could enhance HF prevention in later life.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Biological sex factors and sociocultural gender norms affect the physiology and behavior of weight loss. However, most diet intervention studies do not report outcomes by sex, thereby impeding reproducibility. The objectives of this study were to compare 12-month changes in body weight and composition in groups defined by diet and sex, and adherence to a healthy low carbohydrate (HLC) vs. healthy low fat (HLF) diet. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the DIETFITS trial, in which 609 overweight/obese nondiabetic participants (age, 18-50 years) were randomized to a 12-month HLC (n = 304) or HLF (n = 305) diet. Our first aim concerned comparisons in 12-month changes in weight, fat mass, and lean mass by group with appropriate adjustment for potential confounders. The second aim was to assess whether or not adherence differed by diet-sex group (HLC women n = 179, HLC men n = 125, HLF women n = 167, HLF men n = 138). RESULTS: 12-month changes in weight (p < 0.001) were different by group. HLC produced significantly greater weight loss, as well as greater loss of both fat mass and lean mass, than HLF among men [-2.98 kg (-4.47, -1.50); P < 0.001], but not among women. Men were more adherent to HLC than women (p = 0.02). Weight loss estimates within group remained similar after adjusting for adherence, suggesting adherence was not a mediator. CONCLUSIONS: By reporting outcomes by sex significant weight loss differences were identified between HLC and HLF, which were not recognized in the original primary analysis. These findings highlight the need to consider sex in the design, analysis, and reporting of diet trials.

8.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000912, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251828

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, who have a notable increase in the risk for this disease after menopause and typically develop coronary heart disease several years later than men. This observation led to the hypothesis that the menopause transition (MT) contributes to the increase in coronary heart disease risk. Over the past 20 years, longitudinal studies of women traversing menopause have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relationship between the MT and CVD risk. By following women over this period, researchers have been able to disentangle chronological and ovarian aging with respect to CVD risk. These studies have documented distinct patterns of sex hormone changes, as well as adverse alterations in body composition, lipids and lipoproteins, and measures of vascular health over the MT, which can increase a woman's risk of developing CVD postmenopausally. The reported findings underline the significance of the MT as a time of accelerating CVD risk, thereby emphasizing the importance of monitoring women's health during midlife, a critical window for implementing early intervention strategies to reduce CVD risk. Notably, the 2011 American Heart Association guidelines for CVD prevention in women (the latest sex-specific guidelines to date) did not include information now available about the contribution of the MT to increased CVD in women. Therefore, there is a crucial need to discuss the contemporary literature on menopause and CVD risk with the intent of increasing awareness of the significant adverse cardiometabolic health-related changes accompanying midlife and the MT. This scientific statement provides an up-to-date synthesis of the existing data on the MT and how it relates to CVD.

9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025002

RESUMO

The health benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy among women aged 50-59 years are examined in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trials using long-term follow-up data and a parsimonious statistical model that leverages data from older participants to increase precision. These trials enrolled 27,347 healthy post-menopausal women aged 50-79 at 40 U.S. clinical centers during 1993-1998, including 10,739 post-hysterectomy participants in a trial of conjugated equine estrogens, and 16,608 participants with uterus in the trial of these estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. Over an 18-year (median) follow-up period (1993-2016) risk for a global index, defined as the earliest of coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, is reduced with conjugated equine estrogens with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.82 (0.71, 0.95), and with nominally significant reductions for coronary heart disease, breast cancer, hip fracture and all-cause mortality. Corresponding global index hazard ratio estimates of 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) were non-significant for combined estrogens plus progestin, but increased breast cancer risk and reduced endometrial cancer risk were observed. These results, among women 50-59, substantially agree with the worldwide observational literature, with the exception of breast cancer for estrogens alone.

10.
Menopause ; 27(11): 1265-1273, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether vasomotor symptom (VMS) severity and number of moderate/severe menopausal symptoms (nMS) were associated with health outcomes, and whether calcium and vitamin D (CaD) modified the risks. METHODS: The Women's Health Initiative CaD study was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which tested 400 IU of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D and 1,000 mg of calcium per day in women aged 50 to 79 years. This study included 20,050 women (median follow-up of 7 y). The outcomes included hip fracture, colorectal cancer, invasive breast cancer, all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular death, and total cardiovascular disease (CVD). MS included: hot flashes, night sweats, dizziness, heart racing, tremors, feeling restless, feeling tired, difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, mood swings, vaginal dryness, breast tenderness, migraine, and waking up several times at night. Associations between VMS severity and nMS with outcomes were tested. RESULTS: No association between VMS severity and any outcome were found. In contrast, nMS was associated with higher stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.89 for ≥ 2 MS vs none; HR 1.20 95% CI 0.89-1.63 for 1 MS vs none, P trend = 0.03) and total CVD (HR 1.35, 95% CI, 1.18-1.54 for ≥ 2 MS vs none; HR 0.99, 95% CI, 0.87-1.14 for 1 MS vs none P trend < 0.001). CaD did not modify any association. CONCLUSION: Severity of VMS was not associated with any outcome. Having ≥2 moderate or severe MS was associated with an increased risk for CVD. The number of moderate/severe MS may be a marker for higher CVD risk. : Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A669.

11.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1435-1443, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981366

RESUMO

Few studies have evaluated hypertension incidence in relation to walking, which is a common physical activity among adults. We examined the association between walking and hypertension incidence in 83 435 postmenopausal women who at baseline were aged 50 to 79 years, without known hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, or stroke, and reported the ability to walk at least one block without assistance. Walking volume (metabolic equivalent hours per week) and speed (miles per hour) were assessed by questionnaire. Incident physician-diagnosed hypertension treated with medication was ascertained through annual questionnaires. During a mean 11-year follow-up, 38 230 hypertension cases were identified. After adjustment for covariates including nonwalking activities, a significant inverse association with hypertension was observed across categories of baseline walking volume (0 [referent], >0-3.5, 3.6-7.5, and >7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week), hazard ratio: 1.00 (referent), 0.98, 0.95, 0.89; trend P<0.001. Faster walking speeds (<2, 2-3, 3-4, and >4 miles per hour) also were associated with lower hypertension risk, hazard ratio: 1.00 (referent), 1.07, 0.95, 0.86, 0.79; trend P<0.001. Further adjustment for walking duration (h/wk) had little impact on the association for walking speed (hazard ratio: 1.00 [referent], 1.08, 0.96, 0.86, 0.77; trend P<0.001). Significant inverse associations for walking volume and speed persisted after additional control for baseline blood pressure. Results for time-varying walking were comparable to those for baseline exposures. This study showed that walking at guideline-recommended volumes (>7.5 metabolic equivalent hours per week) and at faster speeds (≥2 miles per hour) is associated with lower hypertension risk in postmenopausal women. Walking should be encouraged as part of hypertension prevention in older adults.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936228

RESUMO

Importance: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) may have unique risk factors in women. Most women have a history of pregnancy; common adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) appear to be associated with ASCVD, but prior studies have limitations. Objective: To assess whether APOs are associated with increased ASCVD risk independently of traditional risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: The APO history among participants in the Women's Health Initiative, a large multiethnic cohort of postmenopausal women, was assessed. The associations of 5 self-reported APOs (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight [ie, birth weight less than 2.49 kg], high birth weight [ie, birth weight greater than 4.08 kg], and preterm delivery by 3 weeks or more) with ASCVD were analyzed, adjusting for traditional ASCVD risk factors. Data were collected and analyzed in 2017. Exposures: APOs (gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, high birth weight, and preterm delivery). Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjudicated ASCVD. Results: A total of 48 113 Women's Health Initiative participants responded to the survey; the median (interquartile range) age at time of enrollment was 60.0 (55.0-64.0) years. A total of 13 482 participants (28.8%) reported 1 or more APOs. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was more frequent in women who reported an APO compared with those without APOs (1028 of 13 482 [7.6%] vs 1758 of 30 522 [5.8%]). Each APO, analyzed separately, was significantly associated with ASCVD, and gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, low birth weight, and preterm delivery remained significant after adjustment for traditional ASCVD risk factors. When all APOs were analyzed together, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.40) and low birth weight (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26) remained independently associated with ASCVD. All findings were materially unchanged by additional adjustment for parity, body mass index, and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large multiethnic cohort of women, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and low birth weight were independently associated with ASCVD after adjustment for risk factors and other APOs.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917642

RESUMO

Several studies have assessed the relationship between sleep duration and ovarian cancer risk, but the results are conflicting. Importantly, no studies addressed the relationship between sleep disturbance or sleep quality and ovarian cancer incidence. Moreover, few studies have examined the relationships between sleep measures and subtypes of ovarian cancer. This study included 109,024 postmenopausal women ages 50-79 from the Women's Health Initiative during 1993-1998 and followed through 2018. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted HRs for the associations between sleep habits and the incidence of ovarian cancer and its subtypes. No association was observed between sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep disturbance, or insomnia and risk of overall ovarian cancer, serous/nonserous, or type I/type II ovarian cancer subtype. However, compared with women with average sleep quality, women with restful or very restful sleep quality had a significantly lower risk of invasive serous subtype [HR: 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.90] while insomnia was associated with a higher risk of invasive serous subtype (HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12-1.66). Associations with insomnia differed significantly by serous and nonserous subtypes, and type I and type II subtypes (P heterogeneity = 0.001 and P heterogeneity <0.001, respectively). This study provides no evidence on association between sleep habits and overall ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women. However, restful or very restful sleep quality was associated with a lower risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer, and insomnia was associated with a higher risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer. Associations with insomnia differed by subtypes. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study shows no association between sleep duration, sleep quality, or insomnia with the risk of overall ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women. However, restful sleep quality was associated with a lower risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer, and insomnia was associated with a higher risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.

14.
Sleep ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918075

RESUMO

The multidimensional sleep health framework emphasizes that sleep can be characterized across several domains, with implications for developing novel sleep treatments and improved prediction and health screening. However, empirical evidence regarding the domains and representative measures that exist in actigraphy assessed sleep is lacking. We aimed to establish these domains and representative measures in older adults by examining the factor structure of 28 actigraphy-derived sleep measures from 2,841 older men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study and, separately, from 2,719 older women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Measures included means and standard deviations of actigraphy summary measures and estimates from extended cosine models of the raw actigraphy data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed the same 5 factors in both sexes: Timing (e.g., mean midpoint from sleep onset to wake-up), Efficiency (e.g., mean sleep efficiency), Duration (e.g., mean minutes from sleep onset to wake-up), Sleepiness/Wakefulness (e.g., mean minutes napping, amplitude of rhythm), and Regularity (e.g., standard deviation of the midpoint). Within each sex, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the one-factor structure of each factor and the entire five-factor structure (Comparative Fit Index and Tucker Lewis Index ≥ 0.95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation 0.08-0.38). Correlation magnitudes among factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.34. These findings demonstrate the validity of conceptualizing actigraphy sleep as multidimensional, provide a framework for selecting sleep health domains and representative measures, and suggest targets for behavioral interventions. Similar analyses should be performed with additional measures of rhythmicity, other age ranges, and more racially/ethnically diverse samples.

15.
Prev Med ; 139: 106234, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795644

RESUMO

Older adults have physical and social barriers to eating but whether this affects functional status is unknown. We examined associations between eating barriers and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). In 2012-14, a subset of alive and participating women (n = 5910) completed an in-home examination including the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) (grip strength, balance, timed walking speed, chair stand). WHI participants complete annual mailed questionnaires; the 2013-14 questionnaire included items on eating alone, eating < two meals/day, dentition problems affecting eating, physical difficulties with cooking/shopping and monetary resources for food. Linear regression tested associations of these eating barriers with SPPB, adjusting for BMI, age, race/ethnicity, and medical multimorbidities. Over half (56.8%) of participants were ≥ 75 years, 98.8% had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and 66% had multimorbidities. Eating barriers, excluding eating alone, were associated with significantly lower total (all p < .001) and component-specific, multivariate-adjusted SPPB scores (all p < .05). Compared to no barriers, eating < two meals/day (7.83 vs. 8.38, p < .0002), dentition problems (7.69 vs. 8.38, p < .0001), inability to shop/prepare meals (7.74 vs. 8.38, p < .0001) and insufficient resources (7.84 vs. 8.37 p < .001) were significantly associated with multivariate-adjusted mean SPPB score < 8. Models additionally adjusting for Healthy Eating Index-2010 had little influence on scores. As barriers increased, scores declined further for grip strength (16.10 kg for 4-5 barriers, p = .001), timed walk (0.58 m/s for 4-5 barriers, p = .001) and total SPPB (7.27 for 4-5 barriers, p < .0001). In conclusion, in this WHI subset, eating barriers were associated with poor SPPB scores.

16.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(9): 1232-1240, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730575

RESUMO

Importance: Repeated bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis requires resources. For patient counseling and optimal resource use, it is important for clinicians to know whether repeated BMD measurement (compared with baseline BMD measurement alone) improves the ability to discriminate between postmenopausal women who will and will not experience a fracture. Objective: To assess whether a second BMD measurement approximately 3 years after the initial assessment is associated with improved ability to estimate fracture risk beyond the baseline BMD measurement alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Women's Health Initiative is a prospective observational study. Participants in the present cohort study included 7419 women with a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.1 (3.4) years between 1993 and 2010 at 3 US clinical centers. Data analysis was conducted between May 2019 and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident major osteoporotic fracture (ie, hip, clinical spine, forearm, or shoulder fracture), hip fracture, baseline BMD, and absolute change in BMD were assessed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) for baseline BMD, absolute change in BMD, and the combination of baseline BMD and change in BMD were calculated to assess incident fracture risk discrimination during follow-up. Results: Of 7419 participants, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 66.1 (7.2) years, the mean (SD) body mass index was 28.7 (6.0), and 1720 (23%) were nonwhite individuals. During the study follow-up (mean [SD] 9.0 [3.5] years after the second BMD measurement), 139 women (1.9%) experienced hip fractures, and 732 women (9.9%) experienced major osteoporotic fracture. In discriminating between women who experience hip fractures and those who do not, AU-ROC values were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.75) for baseline total hip BMD, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.56-0.65) for change in total hip BMD, and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) for the combination of baseline total hip BMD and change in total hip BMD. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values had similar discrimination for hip fracture. For discrimination of major osteoporotic fracture, AU-ROC values were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63) for baseline total hip BMD, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.51-0.55) for change in total hip BMD, and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63) for the combination of baseline total hip BMD and change in total hip BMD. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values had similar ability to discriminate between women who experienced major osteoporotic fracture and those who did not. Associations between change in bone density and fracture risk did not differ by subgroup, including diabetes, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or baseline BMD T score. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that a second BMD assessment approximately 3 years after the initial measurement was not associated with improved discrimination between women who did and did not experience subsequent hip fracture or major osteoporotic fracture beyond the baseline BMD value alone and should not routinely be performed.

18.
JAMA ; 324(4): 369-380, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721007

RESUMO

Importance: The influence of menopausal hormone therapy on breast cancer remains unsettled with discordant findings from observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Objective: To assess the association of prior randomized use of estrogen plus progestin or prior randomized use of estrogen alone with breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: Long-term follow-up of 2 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials that involved 27 347 postmenopausal women aged 50 through 79 years with no prior breast cancer and negative baseline screening mammogram. Women were enrolled at 40 US centers from 1993 to 1998 with follow-up through December 31, 2017. Interventions: In the trial involving 16 608 women with a uterus, 8506 were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus 2.5 mg/d of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 8102, placebo. In the trial involving 10 739 women with prior hysterectomy, 5310 were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of CEE alone and 5429, placebo. The CEE-plus-MPA trial was stopped in 2002 after 5.6 years' median intervention duration, and the CEE-only trial was stopped in 2004 after 7.2 years' median intervention duration. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was breast cancer incidence (protocol prespecified primary monitoring outcome for harm) and secondary outcomes were deaths from breast cancer and deaths after breast cancer. Results: Among 27 347 postmenopausal women who were randomized in both trials (baseline mean [SD] age, 63.4 years [7.2 years]), after more than 20 years of median cumulative follow-up, mortality information was available for more than 98%. CEE alone compared with placebo among 10 739 women with a prior hysterectomy was associated with statistically significantly lower breast cancer incidence with 238 cases (annualized rate, 0.30%) vs 296 cases (annualized rate, 0.37%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.93; P = .005) and was associated with statistically significantly lower breast cancer mortality with 30 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.031%) vs 46 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.046%; HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.97; P = .04). In contrast, CEE plus MPA compared with placebo among 16 608 women with a uterus was associated with statistically significantly higher breast cancer incidence with 584 cases (annualized rate, 0.45%) vs 447 cases (annualized rate, 0.36%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.45; P < .001) and no significant difference in breast cancer mortality with 71 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.045%) vs 53 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.035%; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.94-1.95; P= .11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this long-term follow-up study of 2 randomized trials, prior randomized use of CEE alone, compared with placebo, among women who had a previous hysterectomy, was significantly associated with lower breast cancer incidence and lower breast cancer mortality, whereas prior randomized use of CEE plus MPA, compared with placebo, among women who had an intact uterus, was significantly associated with a higher breast cancer incidence but no significant difference in breast cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Risco
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 88, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SB) is linked to negative health outcomes in older adults. Most studies use summary values, e.g., total sedentary minutes/day. Diurnal timing of SB accumulation may further elucidate SB-health associations. METHODS: Six thousand two hundred four US women (mean age = 79 ± 7; 50% White, 34% African-American) wore accelerometers for 7-days at baseline, yielding 41,356 person-days with > 600 min/day of data. Annual follow-up assessments of health, including physical functioning, were collected from participants for 6 years. A novel two-phase clustering procedure discriminated participants' diurnal SB patterns: phase I grouped day-level SB trajectories using longitudinal k-means; phase II determined diurnal SB patterns based on proportion of phase I trajectories using hierarchical clustering. Mixed models tested associations between SB patterns and longitudinal physical functioning, adjusted for covariates including total sedentary time. Effect modification by moderate-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) was tested. RESULTS: Four diurnal SB patterns were identified: p1 = high-SB-throughout-the-day; p2 = moderate-SB-with-lower-morning-SB; p3 = moderate-SB-with-higher-morning-SB; p4 = low-SB-throughout-the-day. High MVPA mitigated physical functioning decline and correlated with better baseline and 6-year trajectory of physical functioning across patterns. In low MVPA, p2 had worse 6-year physical functioning decline compared to p1 and p4. In high MVPA, p2 had similar 6-year physical functioning decline compared to p1, p3, and p4. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of older women, diurnal SB patterns were associated with rates of physical functioning decline, independent of total sedentary time. In particular, we identified a specific diurnal SB subtype defined by less SB earlier and more SB later in the day, which had the steepest decline in physical functioning among participants with low baseline MVPA. Thus, diurnal timing of SB, complementary to total sedentary time and MVPA, may offer additional insights into associations between SB and physical health, and provide physicians with early warning of patients at high-risk of physical function decline.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708626

RESUMO

Little is known about the relationship between self-reported psychological resilience (resilience) and health behaviors shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study examines the associations between resilience and CVD-related risk factors, such as diet, smoking, physical activity, sleep, and alcohol consumption among older American women from diverse backgrounds. METHODS: A cross-sectional secondary analysis was conducted on 77,395 women (mean age 77 years, Black (N = 4475, 5.8%), non-Hispanic white (N = 69,448, 89.7%), Latina (N = 1891, 2.4%), and Asian or Pacific Islander (N = 1581, 2.0%)) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Extension Study II. Resilience was measured using an abbreviated version of the brief resilience scale. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between resilience and health behaviors associated with risk for CVD, while adjusting for stressful life events and sociodemographic information. To test whether these associations varied among racial/ethnic groups, an interaction term was added to the fully adjusted models between resilience and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: High levels of resilience were associated with better diet quality (top 2 quintiles of the Healthy Eating Index 2015) (OR = 1.22 (95% Confidence Interval (1.15-1.30)), adhering to recommended physical activity (≥ 150 min per week) (1.56 (1.47, 1.66)), sleeping the recommended hours per night (7-9) (1.36 (1.28-1.44)), and moderate alcohol intake (consuming alcoholic drink(s) 1-7 days per week) (1.28 (1.20-1.37)). The observed association between resilience and sleep is modified by race/ethnicity (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Irrespective of race/ethnicity, high resilience was associated with CVD-protective health behaviors. This warrants further investigation into whether interventions aimed at improving resilience could increase the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions.

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