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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1148, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620984

RESUMO

Vertigo is the leading symptom of vestibular disorders and a major risk factor for falls. In a genome-wide association study of vertigo (Ncases = 48,072, Ncontrols = 894,541), we uncovered an association with six common sequence variants in individuals of European ancestry, including missense variants in ZNF91, OTOG, OTOGL, and TECTA, and a cis-eQTL for ARMC9. The association of variants in ZNF91, OTOGL, and OTOP1 was driven by an association with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Using previous reports of sequence variants associating with age-related hearing impairment and motion sickness, we found eight additional variants that associate with vertigo. Although disorders of the auditory and the vestibular system may co-occur, none of the six genome-wide significant vertigo variants were associated with hearing loss and only one was associated with age-related hearing impairment. Our results uncovered sequence variants associating with vertigo in a genome-wide association study and implicated genes with known roles in inner ear development, maintenance, and disease.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1132, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580418

RESUMO

Platelets play an important role in hemostasis and other aspects of vascular biology. We conducted a meta-analysis of platelet count GWAS using data on 536,974 Europeans and identified 577 independent associations. To search for mechanisms through which these variants affect platelets, we applied cis-expression quantitative trait locus, DEPICT and IPA analyses and assessed genetic sharing between platelet count and various traits using polygenic risk scoring. We found genetic sharing between platelet count and counts of other blood cells (except red blood cells), in addition to several other quantitative traits, including markers of cardiovascular, liver and kidney functions, height, and weight. Platelet count polygenic risk score was predictive of myeloproliferative neoplasms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, hypertension, and benign prostate hyperplasia. Taken together, these results advance understanding of diverse aspects of platelet biology and how they affect biological processes in health and disease.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462577

RESUMO

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a rare life-threatening disorder that occurs upon exposure to a triggering agent. MH is commonly due to protein-altering variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommends that when pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S are incidentally found, they should be reported to the carriers. The detection of actionable variants allows the avoidance of exposure to triggering agents during anesthesia. First, we report a 10-year-old Icelandic proband with a suspected MH event, harboring a heterozygous missense variant NM_000540.2:c.6710G>A r.(6710g>a) p.(Cys2237Tyr) in the RYR1 gene that is likely pathogenic. The variant is private to four individuals within a three-generation family and absent from 62,240 whole-genome sequenced (WGS) Icelanders. Haplotype sharing and WGS revealed that the variant occurred as a somatic mosaicism also present in germline of the proband's paternal grandmother. Second, using a set of 62,240 Icelanders with WGS, we assessed the carrier frequency of actionable pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in RYR1 and CACNA1S. We observed 13 actionable variants in RYR1, based on ClinVar classifications, carried by 43 Icelanders, and no actionable variant in CACNA1S. One in 1450 Icelanders carries an actionable variant for MH. Extensive sequencing allows for better classification and precise dating of variants, and WGS of a large fraction of the population has led to incidental findings of actionable MH genotypes.

5.
Cell ; 184(18): 4784-4818.e17, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450027

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis affects over 300 million people worldwide. Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study meta-analysis across 826,690 individuals (177,517 with osteoarthritis) and identify 100 independently associated risk variants across 11 osteoarthritis phenotypes, 52 of which have not been associated with the disease before. We report thumb and spine osteoarthritis risk variants and identify differences in genetic effects between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing joints. We identify sex-specific and early age-at-onset osteoarthritis risk loci. We integrate functional genomics data from primary patient tissues (including articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and osteophytic cartilage) and identify high-confidence effector genes. We provide evidence for genetic correlation with phenotypes related to pain, the main disease symptom, and identify likely causal genes linked to neuronal processes. Our results provide insights into key molecular players in disease processes and highlight attractive drug targets to accelerate translation.

6.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4487, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301922

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common tumor in young white men and have a high heritability. In this study, the international Testicular Cancer Consortium assemble 10,156 and 179,683 men with and without TGCT, respectively, for a genome-wide association study. This meta-analysis identifies 22 TGCT susceptibility loci, bringing the total to 78, which account for 44% of disease heritability. Men with a polygenic risk score (PRS) in the 95th percentile have a 6.8-fold increased risk of TGCT compared to men with median scores. Among men with independent TGCT risk factors such as cryptorchidism, the PRS may guide screening decisions with the goal of reducing treatment-related complications causing long-term morbidity in survivors. These findings emphasize the interconnected nature of two known pathways that promote TGCT susceptibility: male germ cell development within its somatic niche and regulation of chromosomal division and structure, and implicate an additional biological pathway, mRNA translation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo
8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 655, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079037

RESUMO

Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a chronic inflammation marker associated with the development of a range of diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. The genetics of suPAR remain unexplored but may shed light on the biology of the marker and its connection to outcomes. We report a heritability estimate of 60% for the variation in suPAR and performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis on suPAR levels measured in Iceland (N = 35,559) and in Denmark (N = 12,177). We identified 13 independently genome-wide significant sequence variants associated with suPAR across 11 distinct loci. Associated variants were found in and around genes encoding uPAR (PLAUR), its ligand uPA (PLAU), the kidney-disease-associated gene PLA2R1 as well as genes with relations to glycosylation, glycoprotein biosynthesis, and the immune response. These findings provide new insight into the causes of variation in suPAR plasma levels, which may clarify suPAR's potential role in associated diseases, as well as the underlying mechanisms that give suPAR its prognostic value as a unique marker of chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3633, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131116

RESUMO

A pressing concern in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and other viral outbreaks, is the extent to which the containment measures are halting the viral spread. A straightforward way to assess this is to tally the active cases and the recovered ones throughout the epidemic. Here, we show how epidemic control can be assessed with molecular information during a well characterized epidemic in Iceland. We demonstrate how the viral concentration decreased in those newly diagnosed as the epidemic transitioned from exponential growth phase to containment phase. The viral concentration in the cases identified in population screening decreased faster than in those symptomatic and considered at high risk and that were targeted by the healthcare system. The viral concentration persists in recovering individuals as we found that half of the cases are still positive after two weeks. We demonstrate that accumulation of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome can be exploited to track the rate of new viral generations throughout the different phases of the epidemic, where the accumulation of mutations decreases as the transmission rate decreases in the containment phase. Overall, the molecular signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infections contain valuable epidemiological information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of containment measures.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mutação , RNA Viral
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 706, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108613

RESUMO

Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is the most common sensory disorder in older adults. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 121,934 ARHI cases and 591,699 controls from Iceland and the UK. We identified 21 novel sequence variants, of which 13 are rare, under either additive or recessive models. Of special interest are a missense variant in LOXHD1 (MAF = 1.96%) and a tandem duplication in FBF1 covering 4 exons (MAF = 0.22%) associating with ARHI (OR = 3.7 for homozygotes, P = 1.7 × 10-22 and OR = 4.2 for heterozygotes, P = 5.7 × 10-27, respectively). We constructed an ARHI genetic risk score (GRS) using common variants and showed that a common variant GRS can identify individuals at risk comparable to carriers of rare high penetrance variants. Furthermore, we found that ARHI and tinnitus share genetic causes. This study sheds a new light on the genetic architecture of ARHI, through several rare variants in both Mendelian deafness genes and genes not previously linked to hearing.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Feminino , Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 758, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145379

RESUMO

Predicting all-cause mortality risk is challenging and requires extensive medical data. Recently, large-scale proteomics datasets have proven useful for predicting health-related outcomes. Here, we use measurements of levels of 4,684 plasma proteins in 22,913 Icelanders to develop all-cause mortality predictors both for short- and long-term risk. The participants were 18-101 years old with a mean follow up of 13.7 (sd. 4.7) years. During the study period, 7,061 participants died. Our proposed predictor outperformed, in survival prediction, a predictor based on conventional mortality risk factors. We could identify the 5% at highest risk in a group of 60-80 years old, where 88% died within ten years and 5% at the lowest risk where only 1% died. Furthermore, the predicted risk of death correlates with measures of frailty in an independent dataset. Our results show that the plasma proteome can be used to assess general health and estimate the risk of death.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Proteômica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Risco , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Genet ; 53(6): 779-786, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972781

RESUMO

Long-read sequencing (LRS) promises to improve the characterization of structural variants (SVs). We generated LRS data from 3,622 Icelanders and identified a median of 22,636 SVs per individual (a median of 13,353 insertions and 9,474 deletions). We discovered a set of 133,886 reliably genotyped SV alleles and imputed them into 166,281 individuals to explore their effects on diseases and other traits. We discovered an association of a rare deletion in PCSK9 with lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, compared to the population average. We also discovered an association of a multiallelic SV in ACAN with height; we found 11 alleles that differed in the number of a 57-bp-motif repeat and observed a linear relationship between the number of repeats carried and height. These results show that SVs can be accurately characterized at the population scale using LRS data in a genome-wide non-targeted approach and demonstrate how SVs impact phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Alelos , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Islândia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética
14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers for diagnosis and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) are lacking. This study was undertaken to identify circulating biomarkers for OA that could predict disease occurrence and/or progression to joint replacement. METHODS: Using the SomaScan platform, we measured 4,792 proteins in plasma from 37,278 individuals, of whom 12,178 individuals had OA and 2,524 had undergone joint replacement. We performed a case-control study for identification of potential protein biomarkers for hip, knee, and/or hand OA, and a prospective study for identification of biomarkers for joint replacement. RESULTS: Among the large panel of plasma proteins assessed, cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) was the most strongly associated with both OA diagnosis (odds ratio 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.41-1.52] for knee OA, odds ratio 1.36 [95% confidence interval 1.29-1.43] for hip OA, and odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.40] for hand OA) and progression to joint replacement (hazard ratio 1.40 [95% confidence interval 1.30-1.51] for knee replacement and hazard ratio 1.31 [95% confidence interval 1.19-1.45] for hip replacement). Patients with OA who were in the highest quintile of risk of joint replacement, based on known risk factors (i.e., age, sex, and body mass index) and plasma CRTAC1 level, were 16 times more likely to undergo knee replacement within 5 years of plasma sample collection than those in the lowest quintile, and 6.5 times more likely to undergo hip replacement. CRTAC1 was not associated with other types of inflammatory arthritis. A specific protein profile was identified in those patients who had undergone joint replacement prior to plasma sample collection. CONCLUSION: Through a hypothesis-free approach, we identified CRTAC1 in plasma as a novel promising candidate biomarker for OA that is both associated with occurrence of OA and predictive of progression to joint replacement. This biomarker might also be useful in the selection of suitable patients for clinical trial enrollment.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 90(5): 307-316, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variations at the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 locus are present in 0.5%-1.0% of the population, and the deletion is associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. Previously, we showed a reciprocal effect of 15q11.2 copy number variation on fractional anisotropy, with widespread increases in deletion carriers. We aim to expand these findings using a larger sample of participants (N = 29,166) and higher resolution imaging and by examining the implications for cognitive performance. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging measures from participants with no neurological or psychiatric diagnoses were obtained from the UK Biobank database. We compared 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 deletion (n = 102) and duplication (n = 113) carriers to a large cohort of control individuals with no neuropsychiatric copy number variants (n = 28,951). Additionally, we assessed how changes in white matter mediated the association between carrier status and cognitive performance. RESULTS: Deletion carriers showed increases in fractional anisotropy in the internal capsule and cingulum and decreases in the posterior thalamic radiation compared with both duplication carriers and control subjects (who had intermediate values). Compared with control subjects, deletion carriers had lower scores across cognitive tasks, which were partly influenced by white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy in the posterior thalamic radiation partially contributed to worse cognitive performance in deletion carriers. CONCLUSIONS: These results, together with our previous findings, provide convergent evidence for an effect of 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 on white matter microstructure, this being more pronounced in deletion carriers. Additionally, changes in white matter were found to partially mediate cognitive ability in deletion carriers, providing a link between white matter changes in 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 carriers and cognitive function.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Substância Branca , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Cognição , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Reino Unido , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(3): e003298, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the clinical potential of using PRSs at the single-patient level for risk stratification has yet to be established. We investigated whether adding a PRS to clinical risk factors (CRFs) improves risk stratification in patients referred to coronary computed tomography angiography on a suspicion of obstructive CAD. METHODS: In this prespecified diagnostic substudy of the Dan-NICAD trial (Danish study of Non-Invasive testing in Coronary Artery Disease), we included 1617 consecutive patients with stable chest symptoms and no history of CAD referred for coronary computed tomography angiography. CRFs used for risk stratification were age, sex, symptoms, prior or active smoking, antihypertensive treatment, lipid-lowering treatment, and diabetes. In addition, patients were genotyped, and their PRSs were calculated. All patients underwent coronary computed tomography angiography. Patients with a suspected ≥50% stenosis also underwent invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve. A combined end point of obstructive CAD was defined as a visual invasive coronary angiography stenosis >90%, fractional flow reserve <0.80, or a quantitative coronary analysis stenosis >50% if fractional flow reserve measurements were not feasible. RESULTS: The PRS was associated with obstructive CAD independent of CRFs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.5-2.2] per SD). The PRS had an area under the curve of 0.63 (0.59-0.68), which was similar to that for age and sex. Combining the PRS with CRFs led to a CRF+PRS model with area under the curve of 0.75 (0.71-0.79), which was 0.04 more than the CRF model (P=0.0029). By using pretest probability (pretest probability) cutoffs at 5% and 15%, a net reclassification improvement of 15.8% (P=3.1×10-4) was obtained, with a down-classification of risk in 24% of patients (211 of 862) in whom the pretest probability was 5% to 15% based on CRFs alone. CONCLUSIONS: Adding a PRS improved risk stratification of obstructive CAD beyond CRFs, suggesting a modest clinical potential of using PRSs to guide diagnostic testing in the contemporary clinical setting. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02264717.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002043

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to describe the genetic structure of the Norwegian population using genotypes from 6369 unrelated individuals with detailed information about places of residence. Using standard single marker- and haplotype-based approaches, we report evidence of two regions with distinctive patterns of genetic variation, one in the far northeast, and another in the south of Norway, as indicated by fixation indices, haplotype sharing, homozygosity, and effective population size. We detect and quantify a component of Uralic Sami ancestry that is enriched in the North. On a finer scale, we find that rates of migration have been affected by topography like mountain ridges. In the broader Scandinavian context, we detect elevated relatedness between the mid- and northern border areas towards Sweden. The main finding of this study is that despite Norway's long maritime history and as a former Danish territory, the region closest to mainland Europe in the south appears to have been an isolated region in Norway, highlighting the open sea as a barrier to gene flow into Norway.

18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 214, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846298

RESUMO

The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is the only effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, it can also induce serious adverse drug reactions, including agranulocytosis and neutropenia. The mechanism by which it does so is largely unknown, but there is evidence for contributing genetic factors. Several studies identified HLA-DQB1 variants and especially a polymorphism located in HLA-DQB1 (6672G>C, rs113332494) as associated with clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia. We analysed the risk allele distribution of SNP rs113332494 in a sample of 1396 controls and 178 neutropenia cases of which 60 developed agranulocytosis. Absolute neutrophil counts of 500/mm3 and 1500/mm3 were used for defining agranulocytosis and neutropenia cases, respectively. We also performed association analyses and analysed local ancestry patterns in individuals of European ancestry, seeking replication and extension of earlier findings. HLA-DQB1 (6672G>C, rs113332494) was associated with neutropenia (OR = 6.20, P = 2.20E-06) and agranulocytosis (OR = 10.49, P = 1.83E-06) in individuals of European ancestry. The association signal strengthened after including local ancestry estimates (neutropenia: OR = 10.38, P = 6.05E-08; agranulocytosis: OR = 16.31, P = 1.39E-06), with effect sizes being considerably larger for agranulocytosis. Using local ancestry estimates for prediction, the sensitivity of rs113332494 increased from 11.28 to 55.64% for neutropenia and from 16.67 to 53.70% for agranulocytosis. Our study further strengthens the evidence implicating HLA-DQB1 in agranulocytosis and neutropenia, suggesting components of the immune system as contributing to this serious adverse drug reaction. Using local ancestry estimates might help in identifying risk variants and improve prediction of haematological adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Clozapina , Neutropenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Humanos , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/genética
19.
Blood Cancer J ; 11(4): 76, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875642

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by the uncontrolled, clonal expansion of plasma cells. While there is epidemiological evidence for inherited susceptibility, the molecular basis remains incompletely understood. We report a genome-wide association study totalling 5,320 cases and 422,289 controls from four Nordic populations, and find a novel MM risk variant at SOHLH2 at 13q13.3 (risk allele frequency = 3.5%; odds ratio = 1.38; P = 2.2 × 10-14). This gene encodes a transcription factor involved in gametogenesis that is normally only weakly expressed in plasma cells. The association is represented by 14 variants in linkage disequilibrium. Among these, rs75712673 maps to a genomic region with open chromatin in plasma cells, and upregulates SOHLH2 in this cell type. Moreover, rs75712673 influences transcriptional activity in luciferase assays, and shows a chromatin looping interaction with the SOHLH2 promoter. Our work provides novel insight into MM susceptibility.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2075, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824302

RESUMO

Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) account for significant genetic variation in many organisms. In humans, VNTRs have been implicated in both Mendelian and complex disorders, but are largely ignored by genomic pipelines due to the complexity of genotyping and the computational expense. We describe adVNTR-NN, a method that uses shallow neural networks to genotype a VNTR in 18 seconds on 55X whole genome data, while maintaining high accuracy. We use adVNTR-NN to genotype 10,264 VNTRs in 652 GTEx individuals. Associating VNTR length with gene expression in 46 tissues, we identify 163 "eVNTRs". Of the 22 eVNTRs in blood where independent data is available, 21 (95%) are replicated in terms of significance and direction of association. 49% of the eVNTR loci show a strong and likely causal impact on the expression of genes and 80% have maximum effect size at least 0.3. The impacted genes are involved in diseases including Alzheimer's, obesity and familial cancers, highlighting the importance of VNTRs for understanding the genetic basis of complex diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Alelos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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