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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 994, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homelessness is increasing globally. It results in poorer physical and mental health than age matched people living in permanent housing. Better information on the health needs of people experiencing homelessness is needed to inform effective resourcing, planning and service delivery by government and care organisations. The aim of this review was to identify assessment tools that are valid, reliable and appropriate to measure the health status of people who are homeless. METHODS: Data sources: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed (and Medline), PsychInfo, Scopus, CINAHL and ERIC from database inception until September 2018. Key words used were homeless, homelessness, homeless persons, vagrancy, health status, health, health issues, health assessment and health screening. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) hierarchy of evidence was applied; methodological quality of included articles was assessed using the McMaster critical appraisal tools and psychometric properties of the tools were appraised using the International Centre for Allied Health Evidence Ready Reckoner. RESULTS: Diverse tools and measures (N = 71) were administered within, and across the reviewed studies (N = 37), with the main focus being on general health, oral health and nutrition. Eleven assessment tools in 13 studies had evidence of appropriate psychometric testing for the target population in domains of quality of life and health status, injury, substance use, mental health, psychological and cognitive function. Methodological quality of articles and tools were assessed as moderate to good. No validated tools were identified to assess oral health, chronic conditions, anthropometry, demography, nutrition, continence, functional decline and frailty, or vision and hearing. However, assessments of physical constructs (such as oral health, anthropometry, vision and hearing) could be applied to homeless people on a presumption of validity, because the constructs would be measured with clinical indicators in the same manner as people living in permanent dwellings. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlighted the need to develop consistent and comprehensive health assessment tools validated with, and tailored for, adults experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 235(12): 3559-3571, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Inhibitory deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum have been reliably reported using the antisaccade task. Interestingly, although similar antisaccade deficits have been reported following ketamine in non-human primates, ketamine-induced deficits have not been observed in healthy human volunteers. METHODS: To investigate the effects of ketamine on brain function during an antisaccade task, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study on n = 15 healthy males. We measured the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response and eye movements during a mixed antisaccade/prosaccade task while participants received a subanesthetic dose of intravenous ketamine (target plasma level 100 ng/ml) on one occasion and placebo on the other occasion. RESULTS: While ketamine significantly increased self-ratings of psychosis-like experiences, it did not induce antisaccade or prosaccade performance deficits. At the level of BOLD, we observed an interaction between treatment and task condition in somatosensory cortex, suggesting recruitment of additional neural resources in the antisaccade condition under NMDAR blockage. DISCUSSION: Given the robust evidence of antisaccade deficits in schizophrenia spectrum populations, the current findings suggest that ketamine may not mimic all features of psychosis at the dose used in this study. Our findings underline the importance of a more detailed research to further understand and define effects of NMDAR hypofunction on human brain function and behavior, with a view to applying ketamine administration as a model system of psychosis. Future studies with varying doses will be of importance in this context.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/administração & dosagem , Movimentos Oculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/efeitos adversos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Humanos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Urol Case Rep ; 17: 85-87, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541588

RESUMO

A spontaneous, non-traumatic, urinary bladder rupture is a rare condition. We describe a case of a 23-year-old male with a spontaneous bladder rupture secondary to urinary retention, due to an urethral stricture. He presented to the emergency department with voiding difficulties, severe abdominal pain and renal failure. Abdominal ultrasound revealed large amounts of ascites. After an unsuccessful attempt to place a Foley catheter a cystoscopy was performed which showed an urethral stricture. On CT-cystogram an intra-peritoneal bladder rupture was diagnosed and the patient underwent laparoscopic repair of the bladder wall. The postoperative course was uneventful.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(3): e1061, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291260

RESUMO

The neurotrophic hypothesis of depression suggests an association between effects on neuroplasticity and clinical response to antidepressant drug therapy. We studied individual variability in antidepressant drug effects on cell proliferation in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from n=25 therapy-resistant patients versus n=25 first-line therapy responders from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Furthermore, the variability in gene expression of genes associated with cell proliferation was analyzed for tentative candidate genes for prediction of individual LCL donor's treatment response. Cell proliferation was quantified by EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) assays after 21-day incubation of LCLs with fluoxetine (0.5 ng µl-1) and citalopram (0.3 ng µl-1) as developed and described earlier. Gene expression of a panel of candidate genes derived from genome-wide expression analyses of antidepressant effects on cell proliferation of LCLs from the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) study was analyzed by real-time PCR. Significant differences in in vitro cell proliferation effects were detected between the group of LCLs from first-line therapy responders and LCLs from treatment-resistant patients. Gene expression analysis of the candidate gene panel revealed and confirmed influence of the candidate genes ABCB1, FZD7 and WNT2B on antidepressant drug resistance. The potential of these genes as tentative biomarkers for antidepressant drug resistance was confirmed. In vitro cell proliferation testing may serve as functional biomarker for individual neuroplasticity effects of antidepressants.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/genética , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/efeitos dos fármacos , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Citalopram/farmacologia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Receptores Frizzled/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Frizzled/genética , Glicoproteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sulfotransferases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfotransferases/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Wnt/genética
5.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 76, 2017 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28086764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Internet is increasingly a source of health information for parents, who use the Internet alongside health care providers for immunisation information. Concerns have been raised about the reliability of online immunisation information, however to date there has been no audit of the quality or quantity of what is available to Australian parents. The objective of this study was to address this gap by simulating a general online search for immunisation information, and assessing the quality and quantity of the web sites returned by the search. METHODS: We used Google trends to identify the most common immunisation search terms used in Australia. The ten most common terms were entered into five search engines and the first ten non-commercial results from each search collated. A quality assessment tool was developed using the World Health Organization Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS) criteria for assessing the quality of vaccine safety web sites, and used to assess and score the quality of the sites. RESULTS: Seven hundred web pages were identified, of which 514 were duplicates, leaving 186 pages from 115 web sites which were audited. Forty sites did not include human immunisation information, or presented personal opinion about individuals, and were not scored. Of the 75 sites quality scored, 65 (87%) were supportive of immunisation, while 10 (13%) were not supportive. The overall mean quality score was 57/100 (range 14/100 to 92/100). When stratified by pro and anti-vaccination stance, the average quality score for pro-vaccine sites was 61/100, while the average score for anti-vaccine sites was 30/100. Pro-vaccine information could be divided into three content groups: generalist overview with little detail; well-articulated and understandable detail; and lengthy and highly technical explanations. The main area found to be lacking in pro-vaccine sites was lack of transparent authorship. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a need for information which is easily found, transparently authored, well-referenced, and written in a way that is easily understood.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Internet , Pais/educação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Vacinação/normas , Austrália , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 6(11): e950, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27845776

RESUMO

The current therapy success of depressive disorders remains in need of improvement due to low response rates and a delay in symptomatic improvement. Reliable functional biomarkers would be necessary to predict the individual treatment outcome. On the basis of the neurotrophic hypothesis of antidepressant's action, effects of antidepressant drugs on proliferation may serve as tentative individual markers for treatment efficacy. We studied individual differences in antidepressant drug effects on cell proliferation and gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from patients treated for depression with documented clinical treatment outcome. Cell proliferation was characterized by EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation assays following a 3-week incubation with therapeutic concentrations of fluoxetine. Genome-wide expression profiling was conducted by microarrays, and candidate genes such as betacellulin-a gene involved in neuronal stem cell regeneration-were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Ex vivo assessment of proliferation revealed large differences in fluoxetine-induced proliferation inhibition between donor LCLs, but no association with clinical response was observed. Genome-wide expression analyses followed by pathway and gene ontology analyses identified genes with different expression before vs after 21-day incubation with fluoxetine. Significant correlations between proliferation and gene expression of WNT2B, FZD7, TCF7L2, SULT4A1 and ABCB1 (all involved in neurogenesis or brain protection) were also found. Basal gene expression of SULT4A1 (P=0.029), and gene expression fold changes of WNT2B by ex vivo fluoxetine (P=0.025) correlated with clinical response and clinical remission, respectively. Thus, we identified potential gene expression biomarkers eventually being useful as baseline predictors or as longitudinal targets in antidepressant therapy.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Gesundheitswesen ; 78(S 01): e120-e127, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27441823

RESUMO

Aim: Multidisciplinary pain therapy (MPT) is considered as best practice for treating patients with chronical back pain. Several studies showed the cost effectiveness of interdisciplinary treatment. The aim of the present study is to identify patient characteristics that, under condition of MMT, can be associated with favourable cost trajectories after intervention. We assume that an improved health status leads to less health care utilisation. Furthermore, we aim at identifying those patients with back pain without MPT for whom we can expect favourable cost trajectories. Methods: On the basis of pseudonymised claims data of a nationwide health insurance, we identified MMT back pain patients as well as a control group of back pain patients without MMT. Using comparative cost analysis (costs insensitive to indication), we determined those MMT patients for whom the cumulated total costs per patient for the two postinterventional years were lower than the mean cumulated total costs of the control group. By means of a CART analysis, we identified statistically significant characteristics (profiles) associated with these favourable cost trajectories. Additionally, we quantified control group patients with the same profiles. Results: The study population comprised 1 252 patients with specific back pain and 767 patients with pain due to spinal disc conditions who received MPT. Compared to the control group, total post-therapy costs (insensitive to indication) of MPT patients were higher. For roughly half of MPT patients per pain type, we could identify favourable cost trajectories as per definition. These patients mainly displayed lower levels of pain intensity, no pain-related hospitalisation, and less (mental) co-morbidity in the year preceding the intervention. These profiles concerned to 58-65% of back pain patients without MPT. Conclusion: The developed methodology enables identification of back pain patients likely to benefit from MPT. The study points out the need for patient individual pain management and underlines the importance of early-stage integration of patients into multidisciplinary pain management programmes.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 37(11): 4047-4060, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342447

RESUMO

The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine has been proposed to model symptoms of psychosis. Smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are an established biomarker of schizophrenia. SPEM performance has been shown to be impaired in the schizophrenia spectrum and during ketamine administration in healthy volunteers. However, the neural mechanisms mediating SPEM impairments during ketamine administration are unknown. In a counter-balanced, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, 27 healthy participants received intravenous racemic ketamine (100 ng/mL target plasma concentration) on one of two assessment days and placebo (intravenous saline) on the other. Participants performed a block-design SPEM task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3 Tesla field strength. Self-ratings of psychosis-like experiences were obtained using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Ketamine administration induced psychosis-like symptoms, during ketamine infusion, participants showed increased ratings on the PSI dimensions cognitive disorganization, delusional thinking, perceptual distortion and mania. Ketamine led to robust deficits in SPEM performance, which were accompanied by reduced blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the SPEM network including primary visual cortex, area V5 and the right frontal eye field (FEF), compared to placebo. A measure of connectivity with V5 and FEF as seed regions, however, was not significantly affected by ketamine. These results are similar to the deviations found in schizophrenia patients. Our findings support the role of glutamate dysfunction in impaired smooth pursuit performance and the use of ketamine as a pharmacological model of psychosis, especially when combined with oculomotor biomarkers. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4047-4060, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/sangue , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Ketamina/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Oxigênio/sangue , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Psicoses Induzidas por Substâncias/psicologia , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimentos Sacádicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Community Dent Health ; 33(1): 48-53, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27149774

RESUMO

AIM: To determine if the social cognitive theory (SCT)-constructs of oral health-related efficacy, knowledge and fatalism were indicators of non-toothbrush ownership in a metropolitan-based homeless population in Australia. METHODS: Self-report data were collected from a convenience sample of 248 homeless participants located in Adelaide, Australia. Log binomial regression was used to estimate the strength of the association of the SCT constructs efficacy, knowledge and fatalism with the frequency of non-ownership of a toothbrush before and after adjusting for selected characteristics and associated factors. RESULTS: Of the study population (aged 17-78 years, 79% male) just over one-fifth (21%) did not own a toothbrush. In an unadjusted model, low self-efficacy (PR = 1.18) and low knowledge (1.27) were indicators for non-toothbrush ownership. These relationships were attenuated by 5.2% and 3.2% respectively after adjusting for social determinants, health factors, substance use and dental service utilisation-related factors, but remained statistically significant in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: Poor oral health-related self-efficacy and knowledge were both indicators for non-ownership of a toothbrush among a homeless population. This relationship held even after adjustment for relevant social and behavioural factors. Fatalism was not an indicator for non-toothbrush ownership in this population.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Saúde Bucal , Propriedade , Autoeficácia , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Austrália do Sul , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0152984, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27054571

RESUMO

Variation in genes coding for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits affect cognitive processes and may contribute to the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA4 gene that codes for the alpha4 subunit of alpha4/beta2-containing receptors have previously been implicated in aspects of (mostly visual) attention and smoking-related behavioral measures. Here we investigated the effects of six synonymous but functional CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs on the N100 event-related potential (ERP), an electrophysiological endophenotype elicited by a standard auditory oddball. A total of N = 1,705 subjects randomly selected from the general population were studied with electroencephalography (EEG) as part of the German Multicenter Study on nicotine addiction. Two of the six variants, rs1044396 and neighboring rs1044397, were significantly associated with N100 amplitude. This effect was pronounced in females where we also observed an effect on reaction time. Sequencing of the complete exon 5 region in the population sample excluded the existence of additional/functional variants that may be responsible for the observed effects. This is the first large-scale population-based study investigation the effects of CHRNA4 SNPs on brain activity measures related to stimulus processing and attention. Our results provide further evidence that common synonymous CHRNA4 exon 5 SNPs affect cognitive processes and suggest that they also play a role in the auditory system. As N100 amplitude reduction is considered a schizophrenia-related endophenotype the SNPs studied here may also be associated with schizophrenia outcome measures.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/genética , Adulto , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/patologia
11.
Int J Genomics ; 2015: 693193, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26258132

RESUMO

Aiming to investigate fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity in modern humans from a geographic perspective, a genetic geostatistical approach framed within a geographic information system is presented. A sample collected for prospective studies in a small area of southern Germany was analyzed. None indication of genetic heterogeneity was detected in previous analysis. Socio-demographic and genotypic data of German citizens were analyzed (212 SNPs; n = 728). Genetic heterogeneity was evaluated with observed heterozygosity (H O ). Best-fitting spatial autoregressive models were identified, using socio-demographic variables as covariates. Spatial analysis included surface interpolation and geostatistics of observed and predicted patterns. Prediction accuracy was quantified. Spatial autocorrelation was detected for both socio-demographic and genetic variables. Augsburg City and eastern suburban areas showed higher H O values. The selected model gave best predictions in suburban areas. Fine-scale patterns of genetic heterogeneity were observed. In accordance to literature, more urbanized areas showed higher levels of admixture. This approach showed efficacy for detecting and analyzing subtle patterns of genetic heterogeneity within small areas. It is scalable in number of loci, even up to whole-genome analysis. It may be suggested that this approach may be applicable to investigate the underlying genetic history that is, at least partially, embedded in geographic data.

12.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(1): 1461-8, 2015 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25730085

RESUMO

There are several guidelines for gene nomenclature, but they are not always applied to the names of newly identified genes. The lack of standardization in naming genes generates inconsistent databases with errors such as genes with the same function and different names, genes with different functions and the same name, and use of an abbreviated name. This paper presents a methodology for predicting synonyms in a given gene nomenclature, thereby detecting and minimizing naming redundancy and inconsistency and facilitating the annotation of new genes and data mining in public databases. To identify gene synonyms, i.e., gene ambiguity, the methodology proposed begins by grouping genes according to their names using a Kohonen self-organizing map artificial neural network. Afterwards, it identifies the groups generated employing the Matrix-U technique. The employment of such techniques allows one to infer the synonyms of genes, to predict probable hypothetical gene names and to point out possible errors in a database record. Many mistakes related to gene nomenclature were detected in this research, demonstrating the importance of predicting synonyms. The methodology developed is applicable for describing hypothetical, putative and other types of genes without a known function. Moreover, it can also indicate a possible function for genes after grouping them.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genes , Terminologia como Assunto , Algoritmos , Aminoácidos/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Mineração de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alinhamento de Sequência , Software
13.
Genet Mol Res ; 14(4): 17555-66, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26782400

RESUMO

Fast prediction of protein function is essential for high-throughput sequencing analysis. Bioinformatic resources provide cheaper and faster techniques for function prediction and have helped to accelerate the process of protein sequence characterization. In this study, we assessed protein function prediction programs that accept amino acid sequences as input. We analyzed the classification, equality, and similarity between programs, and, additionally, compared program performance. The following programs were selected for our assessment: Blast2GO, InterProScan, PANTHER, Pfam, and ScanProsite. This selection was based on the high number of citations (over 500), fully automatic analysis, and the possibility of returning a single best classification per sequence. We tested these programs using 12 gold standard datasets from four different sources. The gold standard classification of the databases was based on expert analysis, the Protein Data Bank, or the Structure-Function Linkage Database. We found that the miss rate among the programs is globally over 50%. Furthermore, we observed little overlap in the correct predictions from each program. Therefore, a combination of multiple types of sources and methods, including experimental data, protein-protein interaction, and data mining, may be the best way to generate more reliable predictions and decrease the miss rate.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Proteínas/genética , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Software
14.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(2): 4444-55, 2014 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25036349

RESUMO

The performance of anaerobic filter bioreactors (AFs) is influenced by the composition of the substrate, support medium, and the microbial species present in the sludge. In this study, the efficiency of a slaughterhouse effluent treatment using three AFs containing different support media was tested, and the microbial diversity was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The physicochemical analysis of the AF systems tested suggested their feasibility, with rates of chemical oxygen demand removal of 72±8% in hydraulic retention times of 1 day. Analysis of pH, alkalinity, volatile acidity, total solids, total volatile solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the microbial community structures indicated high similarity among the three AFs. The composition of prokaryotic communities showed a prevalence of Proteobacteria (27.3%) and Bacteroidetes (18.4%) of the Bacteria domain and Methanomicrobiales (36.4%) and Methanosarcinales (35.3%) of the Archaea domain. Despite the high similarity of the microbial communities among the AFs, the reactor containing pieces of clay brick as a support medium presented the highest richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Matadouros , Archaea/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Arqueal/análise , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
15.
J Environ Qual ; 42(2): 429-36, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23673835

RESUMO

Biochar is a promising technology for improving soil quality and sequestering C in the long term. Although modern pyrolysis technologies are being developed, kiln technologies often remain the most accessible method for biochar production. The objective of the present study was to assess biochar characteristics, stability in soil, and agronomic effects of a kiln-produced biochar. Wheat-straw biochar was produced in a double-barrel kiln and analyzed by solid-state C nuclear magneticresonance spectroscopy. Two experiments were conducted with biochar mixed into an Ap-horizon sandy loam. In the first experiment, CO efflux was monitored for 3 mo in plant-free soil columns across four treatments (0, 10, 50, and 100 Mg biochar ha). In the second experiment, ryegrass was grown in pots having received 17 and 54 Mg biochar ha combined with four N rates from 144 to 288 kg N ha. Our kiln method generated a wheat-straw biochar with carbon content composed of 92% of aromatic structures. Our results suggest that the biochar lost <0.16% C as CO over the 90-d incubation period. Biomass yields were not significantly modified by biochar treatments, except for a slight decrease at the 144 kg N ha rate. Foliar N concentrations were significantly reduced by biochar application. Biochar significantly increased soil water content; however, this increase did not result in increased biomass yield. In conclusion, our kiln-produced biochar was highly aromatic and appeared quite recalcitrant in soil but had no overall significant impact on ryegrass yields.


Assuntos
Solo , Triticum , Biomassa , Carbono , Lolium , Solo/química
16.
J Pediatr Urol ; 9(6 Pt B): e155-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23685113

RESUMO

Chronic scrotal pain can be a difficult clinical entity to treat. Many different treatment options have been proposed. We describe the case of a young boy with chronic scrotal and inguinal pain on the right side, following two orchidopexies. After many therapies had failed, we treated the dorsal root ganglia of thoracic 12, lumbar 1 and lumbar 2 with pulsed radiofrequency, finally resulting in alleviation of his pain.


Assuntos
Gânglios Espinais , Orquidopexia/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Tratamento por Radiofrequência Pulsada/métodos , Escroto , Adolescente , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1127-1134, Dec. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-659650

RESUMO

DNA repair is crucial to the survival of all organisms. The bacterial RecA protein is a central component in the SOS response and in recombinational and SOS DNA repairs. The RecX protein has been characterized as a negative modulator of RecA activity in many bacteria. The recA and recX genes of Herbaspirillum seropedicae constitute a single operon, and evidence suggests that RecX participates in SOS repair. In the present study, we show that the H. seropedicae RecX protein (RecX Hs) can interact with the H. seropedicaeRecA protein (RecA Hs) and that RecA Hs possesses ATP binding, ATP hydrolyzing and DNA strand exchange activities. RecX Hs inhibited 90% of the RecA Hs DNA strand exchange activity even when present in a 50-fold lower molar concentration than RecA Hs. RecA Hs ATP binding was not affected by the addition of RecX, but the ATPase activity was reduced. When RecX Hs was present before the formation of RecA filaments (RecA-ssDNA), inhibition of ATPase activity was substantially reduced and excess ssDNA also partially suppressed this inhibition. The results suggest that the RecX Hs protein negatively modulates the RecA Hs activities by protein-protein interactions and also by DNA-protein interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Herbaspirillum/química , Recombinases Rec A/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
18.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 45(12): 1127-34, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23044625

RESUMO

DNA repair is crucial to the survival of all organisms. The bacterial RecA protein is a central component in the SOS response and in recombinational and SOS DNA repairs. The RecX protein has been characterized as a negative modulator of RecA activity in many bacteria. The recA and recX genes of Herbaspirillum seropedicae constitute a single operon, and evidence suggests that RecX participates in SOS repair. In the present study, we show that the H. seropedicae RecX protein (RecX Hs) can interact with the H. seropedicaeRecA protein (RecA Hs) and that RecA Hs possesses ATP binding, ATP hydrolyzing and DNA strand exchange activities. RecX Hs inhibited 90% of the RecA Hs DNA strand exchange activity even when present in a 50-fold lower molar concentration than RecA Hs. RecA Hs ATP binding was not affected by the addition of RecX, but the ATPase activity was reduced. When RecX Hs was present before the formation of RecA filaments (RecA-ssDNA), inhibition of ATPase activity was substantially reduced and excess ssDNA also partially suppressed this inhibition. The results suggest that the RecX Hs protein negatively modulates the RecA Hs activities by protein-protein interactions and also by DNA-protein interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Herbaspirillum/química , Recombinases Rec A/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 2: e165, 2012 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23010768

RESUMO

Research suggests that clinical symptom dimensions may be more useful in delineating the genetics of bipolar disorder (BD) than standard diagnostic models. To date, no study has applied this concept to data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a GWAS of factor dimensions in 927 clinically well-characterized BD patients of German ancestry. Rs9875793, which is located in an intergenic region of 3q26.1 and in the vicinity of the solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 gene (SLC2A2), was significantly associated with the factor analysis-derived dimension 'negative mood delusions' (n=927; P=4.65 × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR)=2.66). This dimension was comprised of the symptoms delusions of poverty, delusions of guilt and nihilistic delusions. In case-control analyses, significant association with the G allele of rs9875793 was only observed in the subgroup of BD patients who displayed symptoms of 'negative mood delusions' (allelic χ(2) model: P(G)=0.0001, OR=1.92; item present, n=89). Further support for the hypothesis that rs9875793 is associated with BD in patients displaying 'negative mood delusions' symptom, such as delusions of guilt, was obtained from an European American sample (GAIN/TGEN), which included 1247 BD patients and 1434 controls (P(EA)=0.028, OR=1.27).


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Delusões/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 661-674, Apr.-June 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-644484

RESUMO

The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are ecosystems essential for the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. In this work, we investigated the composition of prokaryotic communities in four histosols of three acidic peatland regions by constructing small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene libraries and sequencing. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (38.8%) and Proteobacteria (27.4%) of the Bacteria domain and Miscellaneous (58%) and Terrestrial (24%) groups of Crenarchaeota of the Archaea domain. As observed in other ecosystems, archaeal communities showed lower richness than bacterial communities. We also found a limited number of Euryarchaeota and of known methanotrophic bacteria in the clone libraries.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Microbiologia Ambiental , Euryarchaeota/genética , Técnicas In Vitro , Áreas Alagadas/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Análise de Sequência , Microbiologia do Solo , Eletroforese , Microbiologia , Prevalência , Solo
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