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1.
Neurology ; 96(1): e54-e66, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine long-term vascular outcomes of Asian patients who experienced TIA or minor ischemic stroke and to compare the outcomes of Asian patients with those of non-Asian patients, in the context of modern guideline-based prevention strategies. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of the TIAregistry.org project, in which 3,847 patients (882 from Asian and 2,965 from non-Asian countries) with a recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke were assessed and treated by specialists at 42 dedicated units from 14 countries and followed for 5 years. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, and nonfatal acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: No differences were observed in the 5-year risk of the primary outcome (14.0% vs 11.7%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.37; p = 0.41) and stroke (10.7% vs 8.5%; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.90-1.51; p = 0.24) between Asian and non-Asian patients. Asian participants were at higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage (1.8% vs 0.8%; HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.09-4.57; p = 0.029). Multivariable analysis showed that the presence of multiple acute infarctions on initial brain imaging was an independent predictor of primary outcome and modified Rankin Scale score of >1 in both Asian (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.11-3.29; p = 0.020) and non-Asian (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.90; p = 0.037) patients. CONCLUSION: The long-term risk of vascular events in Asian patients was as low as that in non-Asian patients, while Asian participants had a 2.2-fold higher intracranial hemorrhage risk. Multiple acute infarctions were independently associated with future disability in both groups. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that among people who experienced TIA or minor stroke, Asian patients have a similar 5-year risk of cardiovascular death, stroke, and acute coronary syndrome as non-Asian patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , /complicações , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
2.
Am Heart J ; 231: 121-127, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065120

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients remain at high risk for recurrent events. Cholesterol efflux, mediated by apolipoprotein A-I, removes excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaque and transports it to the liver for excretion. Impaired cholesterol efflux is associated with higher cardiovascular (CV) event rates among both patients with stable coronary artery disease and recent MI. CSL112, a novel intravenous formulation of apolipoprotein A-I (human) derived from human plasma, increases cholesterol efflux capacity. AEGIS-II is a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial investigating the efficacy and safety of CSL112 compared to placebo among high-risk acute MI participants. Eligibility criteria include age ≥ 18 years with type 1 (spontaneous) MI, evidence of multivessel stable coronary artery disease, and presence of diabetes requiring pharmacotherapy, or ≥2 of the following: age ≥ 65 years, prior MI, or peripheral artery disease. A target sample of 17,400 participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive 4 weekly infusions of CSL112 6 g or placebo, initiated prior to or on the day of discharge and within 5 days of first medical contact. The primary outcome is the time to first occurrence of the composite of CV death, MI, or stroke through 90 days. Key secondary outcomes include the total number of hospitalizations for coronary, cerebral, or peripheral ischemia through 90 days and time to first occurrence of the composite primary outcome through 180 and 365 days. AEGIS-II will be the first trial to formally test whether enhancing cholesterol efflux can reduce the rate of recurrent major adverse CV events.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as sotagliflozin in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease with or without albuminuria have not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin level, ≥7%), chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area), and risks for cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was changed during the trial to the composite of the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure. The trial ended early owing to loss of funding. RESULTS: Of 19,188 patients screened, 10,584 were enrolled, with 5292 assigned to the sotagliflozin group and 5292 assigned to the placebo group, and followed for a median of 16 months. The rate of primary end-point events was 5.6 events per 100 patient-years in the sotagliflozin group and 7.5 events per 100 patient-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.88; P<0.001). The rate of deaths from cardiovascular causes per 100 patient-years was 2.2 with sotagliflozin and 2.4 with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P = 0.35). For the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, the hazard ratio was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.99); for the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure, the hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91). Diarrhea, genital mycotic infections, volume depletion, and diabetic ketoacidosis were more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, with or without albuminuria, sotagliflozin resulted in a lower risk of the composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo but was associated with adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SCORED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03315143.).

5.
N Engl J Med ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes among patients with stable heart failure. However, the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors when initiated soon after an episode of decompensated heart failure are unknown. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure were randomly assigned to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure (first and subsequent events). The trial ended early because of loss of funding from the sponsor. RESULTS: A total of 1222 patients underwent randomization (608 to the sotagliflozin group and 614 to the placebo group) and were followed for a median of 9.0 months; the first dose of sotagliflozin or placebo was administered before discharge in 48.8% and a median of 2 days after discharge in 51.2%. Among these patients, 600 primary end-point events occurred (245 in the sotagliflozin group and 355 in the placebo group). The rate (the number of events per 100 patient-years) of primary end-point events was lower in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group (51.0 vs. 76.3; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.85; P<0.001). The rate of death from cardiovascular causes was 10.6 in the sotagliflozin group and 12.5 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.22); the rate of death from any cause was 13.5 in the sotagliflozin group and 16.3 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.14). Diarrhea was more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo (6.1% vs. 3.4%), as was severe hypoglycemia (1.5% vs. 0.3%). The percentage of patients with hypotension was similar in the sotagliflozin group and the placebo group (6.0% and 4.6%, respectively), as was the percentage with acute kidney injury (4.1% and 4.4%, respectively). The benefits of sotagliflozin were consistent in the prespecified subgroups of patients stratified according to the timing of the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure, sotagliflozin therapy, initiated before or shortly after discharge, resulted in a significantly lower total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SOLOIST-WHF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03521934.).

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(25): 3140-3147, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized acutely ill medical patients are at risk for fatal and major thromboembolic events. Whether use of extended-duration primary thromboprophylaxis can prevent such events is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether extended-duration rivaroxaban reduces the risk of venous and arterial fatal and major thromboembolic events without significantly increasing major bleeding in acutely ill medical patients after discharge. METHODS: MARINER (A Study of Rivaroxaban [JNJ-39039039] on the Venous Thromboembolic Risk in Post-Hospital Discharge Patients) studied acutely ill medical patients with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Medically ill patients with a baseline creatinine clearance ≥50 ml/min were randomized in a double-blind fashion to rivaroxaban 10 mg or placebo daily at hospital discharge for 45 days. Exploratory efficacy analyses were performed with the intent-to-treat population including all data through day 45. Time-to-event curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A blinded independent committee adjudicated all clinical events. RESULTS: In total, 4,909 patients were assigned to rivaroxaban and 4,913 patients to placebo. The mean age was 67.8 years, 55.5% were men, mean baseline creatinine clearance was 87.8 ml/min, and mean duration of hospitalization was 6.7 days. The pre-specified composite efficacy endpoint (symptomatic VTE, myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, and cardiovascular death) occurred in 1.28% and 1.77% of patients in the rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 1.00; p = 0.049), whereas major bleeding occurred in 0.27% and 0.18% of patients in the rivaroxaban and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 3.37; p = 0.398). CONCLUSIONS: Extended-duration rivaroxaban in hospitalized medically ill patients resulted in a 28% reduction in fatal and major thromboembolic events without a significant increase in major bleeding. (A Study of Rivaroxaban [JNJ-39039039] on the Venous Thromboembolic Risk in Post-Hospital Discharge Patients [MARINER]; NCT02111564).


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Quimioprevenção , Hemorragia , Alta do Paciente , Rivaroxabana , Tromboembolia Venosa , Doença Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Quimioprevenção/efeitos adversos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015331, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366163

RESUMO

Background Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) may have prothrombotic properties. We examined the association of TMAO quartiles with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the effect of TMAO on the efficacy of ticagrelor. Methods and Results PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin - Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54) randomized patients with prior myocardial infarction to ticagrelor or placebo (median follow-up 33 months). Baseline plasma concentrations of TMAO were measured in a nested case-control study of 597 cases with cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (MACE) and 1206 controls matched for age, sex, and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]. Odds ratios (OR) were used for the association between TMAO quartiles and MACE, adjusting for baseline clinical characteristics (age, sex, eGFR, region, body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, peripheral artery disease, index event, aspirin dosage and treatment arm), and cardiovascular biomarkers (hs-TnT [high-sensitivity troponin T], hs-CRP [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein], NT-proBNP [N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide]). Higher TMAO quartiles were associated with risk of MACE (OR for quartile 4 versus quartile 1, 1.43, 95% CI, 1.06-1.93, P trend=0.015). The association was driven by cardiovascular death (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.28-3.96, P trend=0.003) and stroke (OR 2.68, 95% CI, 1.39-5.17, P trend<0.001). After adjustment for clinical factors, the association persisted for cardiovascular death (ORadj 1.89, 95% CI, 1.03-3.45, P trend=0.027) and stroke (ORadj 2.01, 95% CI, 1.01-4.01, P trend=0.022), but was slightly attenuated after adjustment for cardiovascular biomarkers (cardiovascular death: ORadj 1.74, 95% CI, 0.88-3.45, P trend=0.079; and stroke: ORadj 1.82, 95% CI, 0.88-3.78, P trend=0.056). The reduction in MACE with ticagrelor was consistent across TMAO quartiles (P interaction=0.92). Conclusions Among patients with prior myocardial infarction, higher TMAO levels were associated with cardiovascular death and stroke but not with recurrent myocardial infarction. The efficacy of ticagrelor was consistent regardless of TMAO levels. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifiers: PEGASUS-TIMI 54, NCT01225562.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015785, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410485

RESUMO

Background A proposed cause of dyspnea induced by ticagrelor is an increase in adenosine blood levels. Because caffeine is an adenosine antagonist, it can potentially improve drug tolerability with regard to dyspnea. Furthermore, association between caffeine and cardiovascular events is of clinical interest. Methods and Results This prespecified analysis used data from the PEGASUS TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54) trial, which randomized 21 162 patients with prior myocardial infarction to ticagrelor 60 mg or 90 mg or matching placebo (twice daily). Baseline caffeine intake in cups per week was prospectively collected for 9694 patients. Outcomes of interest included dyspnea, major adverse cardiovascular events (ie, the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), and arrhythmias. Dyspnea analyses considered the pooled ticagrelor group, whereas cardiovascular outcome analyses included patients from the 3 randomized arms. After adjustment, caffeine intake, compared with no intake, was not associated with lower rates of dyspnea in patients taking ticagrelor (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.91; 95% CI, 0.76-1.10; P=0.34). There was no excess risk with caffeine for major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.031), sudden cardiac death (adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.57-1.70; P=0.95), or atrial fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.56-2.04; P=0.84). Conclusions In patients taking ticagrelor for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction, caffeine intake at baseline was not associated with lower rates of dyspnea compared with no intake. Otherwise, caffeine appeared to be safe in this population, with no apparent increase in atherothrombotic events or clinically significant arrhythmias. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01225562.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(23): 2950-2973, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311448

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a viral respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), may predispose patients to thrombotic disease, both in the venous and arterial circulations, because of excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. In addition, many patients receiving antithrombotic therapy for thrombotic disease may develop COVID-19, which can have implications for choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of antithrombotic therapy. Moreover, during a time with much focus on COVID-19, it is critical to consider how to optimize the available technology to care for patients without COVID-19 who have thrombotic disease. Herein, the authors review the current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who develop venous or arterial thrombosis, of those with pre-existing thrombotic disease who develop COVID-19, or those who need prevention or care for their thrombotic disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral , Tromboembolia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Circulation ; 141(23): 1841-1854, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with established coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events. METHODS: In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies), we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus versus without diabetes mellitus in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major adverse limb events, including amputation). The primary safety end point was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria for major bleeding. RESULTS: There were 10 341 patients with diabetes mellitus and 17 054 without diabetes mellitus in the overall trial. A consistent and similar relative risk reduction was seen for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n=9152) versus placebo plus aspirin (n=9126) in patients both with (n=6922) and without (n=11 356) diabetes mellitus for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio, 0.74, P=0.002; and hazard ratio, 0.77, P=0.005, respectively, Pinteraction=0.77) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81, P=0.05; and hazard ratio, 0.84, P=0.09, respectively; Pinteraction=0.82). However, although the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% versus 1.4% for the primary efficacy end point at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction<0.0001; 1.9% versus 0.6% for all-cause mortality, Pinteraction=0.02; 2.7% versus 1.7% for major vascular events, Pinteraction<0.0001). Because the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes mellitus, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the patients with diabetes mellitus (2.7% versus 1.0%; Gail-Simon qualitative Pinteraction=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral end points in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes mellitus, including a 3-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 804-812, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297414

RESUMO

AIM: The contemporary incidence of heart failure (HF) in patients with chronic coronary syndrome is unclear. We aimed to study the incidence and predictors of cardiovascular (CV) death, HF hospitalization or new-onset HF not requiring hospitalization, in patients included in the CLARIFY registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: CLARIFY is a contemporary, international registry of ambulatory patients with chronic coronary artery disease, conducted in 45 countries. At baseline, data on demographics, ethnicity, CV risk factors, medical history, cardiac parameters and medication were collected. Patients were followed up yearly up to 5 years. In this analysis, 26 769 patients with no HF history were included. At 5-year follow-up, 4393 patients (16.4%) reached the primary endpoint comprising CV death, HF hospitalization, or new-onset HF. Only 16.7% of them (n = 732) required hospitalization for HF. All-cause death occurred in 6.6% of patients (61.4% were CV). Age over 70 years, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, Canadian Cardiovascular Society class ≥2 angina, atrial fibrillation or paced rhythm on the ECG, body mass index <20 kg/m2 , and a history of stroke, were the most robust predictors of the primary outcome. Age <50 years, Asian ethnicity, and percutaneous revascularization were negative predictors of the outcome. CONCLUSION: A sizeable proportion of patients with chronic coronary syndrome develop HF, which only infrequently requires hospitalization. Early identification of patients with HF may lead to early treatment, and help to further decrease mortality and morbidity. This concept needs confirmation in future studies.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 382(15): 1395-1407, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, whether clinical outcomes are better in those who receive an invasive intervention plus medical therapy than in those who receive medical therapy alone is uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 5179 patients with moderate or severe ischemia to an initial invasive strategy (angiography and revascularization when feasible) and medical therapy or to an initial conservative strategy of medical therapy alone and angiography if medical therapy failed. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. A key secondary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes or myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Over a median of 3.2 years, 318 primary outcome events occurred in the invasive-strategy group and 352 occurred in the conservative-strategy group. At 6 months, the cumulative event rate was 5.3% in the invasive-strategy group and 3.4% in the conservative-strategy group (difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 3.0); at 5 years, the cumulative event rate was 16.4% and 18.2%, respectively (difference, -1.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.7 to 1.0). Results were similar with respect to the key secondary outcome. The incidence of the primary outcome was sensitive to the definition of myocardial infarction; a secondary analysis yielded more procedural myocardial infarctions of uncertain clinical importance. There were 145 deaths in the invasive-strategy group and 144 deaths in the conservative-strategy group (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, we did not find evidence that an initial invasive strategy, as compared with an initial conservative strategy, reduced the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events or death from any cause over a median of 3.2 years. The trial findings were sensitive to the definition of myocardial infarction that was used. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ISCHEMIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01471522.).


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Circulation ; 141(14): 1141-1151, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People using Anticoagulation Strategies) demonstrated that dual pathway inhibition (DPI) with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily versus aspirin 100 mg once daily reduced the primary major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as, mortality, in patients with chronic coronary syndromes or peripheral arterial disease. Whether this remains true in patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. METHODS: In a prespecified subgroup analysis from COMPASS, we examined the outcomes of patients with chronic coronary syndrome with or without a previous PCI treated with DPI versus aspirin alone. Among patients with a previous PCI, we studied the effects of treatment according to the timing of the previous PCI. RESULTS: Of the 27 395 patients in COMPASS, 16 560 patients with a chronic coronary syndrome were randomly assigned to DPI or aspirin, and, of these, 9862 (59.6%) had previous PCI (mean age 68.2±7.8, female 19.4%, diabetes mellitus 35.7%, previous myocardial infarction 74.8%, multivessel PCI 38.0%). Average time from PCI to randomization was 5.4 years (SD, 4.4) and follow-up was 1.98 (SD, 0.72) years. Regardless of previous PCI, DPI versus aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE (PCI: 4.0% versus 5.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.61-0.88]; no PCI: 4.4% versus 5.7%; HR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.61-0.94], P-interaction=0.85) and mortality (PCI: 2.5% versus 3.5%; HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.58-0.92]; no PCI: 4.1% versus 5.0%; HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.64-1.00], P-interaction=0.59), but increased major bleeding (PCI: 3.3% versus 2.0%; HR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.34-2.21]; no PCI: 2.9% versus 1.8%; HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.15-2.17], P-interaction=0.68). In those with previous PCI, DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent (robust) reductions in MACE irrespective of time since previous PCI (as early as 1 year and as far as 10 years; P-interaction=0.65), irrespective of having a previous myocardial infarction (P-interaction=0.64). CONCLUSIONS: DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE and mortality but with increased major bleeding with or without previous PCI. Among those with previous PCI 1 year and beyond, the effects on MACE and mortality were consistent irrespective of time since last PCI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

16.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(4): 242-257, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953535

RESUMO

Advances in antiplatelet therapies for patients with cardiovascular disease have improved patient outcomes over time, but the challenge of balancing the risks of ischaemia and bleeding remains substantial. Moreover, many patients with cardiovascular disease have a residual risk of ischaemic events despite receiving antiplatelet therapy. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to prevent clinical events through mechanisms beyond platelet inhibition and with an acceptable associated risk of bleeding. The advent of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, which attenuate fibrin formation by selective inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin, has renewed the interest in dual-pathway inhibition strategies that combine an antiplatelet agent with an anticoagulant drug. In this Review, we highlight the emerging pharmacological rationale and clinical development of dual-pathway inhibition strategies for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with different manifestations of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral artery disease.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/etiologia
17.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 21(7): 811-818, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761641

RESUMO

There is growing awareness that frailty may be an important marker of adverse outcomes in PCI but there is no literature from national cohorts. This study examines a national cohort of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) regarding the prevalence of frailty, changes over time, and associated outcomes. The National Inpatients Sample was used to identify adults who underwent PCI procedures between 2004 and 2014. Frailty risk was measured using a validated Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) using the cutoffs <5, 5-15 and >15 for low, intermediate and high HFRS. From 7,306,007 admissions, a total of 94.58% of admissions were for patients who had a low HFRS(<5), 5.39% had an intermediate HFRS(5-15) and 0.03% had a high HFRS(>15). The prevalence of intermediate or high frailty risk patients has increased over time from 1.9% in 2004 to 11.7% in 2014. The incidence of in-hospital death increased from 1.0% with low HFRS to 13.9% with high HFRS. Mean length of stay also increased from 2.9 days to 17.1 days from low to high HFRS. High frailty risk was independently associated with an OR 9.91 95%CI 7.17-13.71 for in-hospital death, OR 4.99 95%CI 3.82-6.51 for bleeding and OR 3.96 95%CI 3.00-5.23 for vascular injury as compared to patients with low risk of HFRS. While rare in frequency overall, frailty is increasing in prevalence in recent years and intermediate and high HFRS associated with increased odds of mortality compared to low risk of frailty.

18.
Circulation ; 141(8): 624-636, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, an antibody that blocks PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9), was associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). In this study, higher baseline levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) predicted greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. Recent studies indicate high polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify individuals at higher risk who derive increased benefit from statins. We performed post hoc analyses to determine whether high PRS for CAD identifies higher-risk individuals, independent of baseline LDL-C and other known risk factors, who might derive greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin treatment. The primary endpoint (MACE) comprised death of CAD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. A genome-wide PRS for CAD comprising 6 579 025 genetic variants was evaluated in 11 953 patients with available DNA samples. Analysis of MACE risk was performed in placebo-treated patients, whereas treatment benefit analysis was performed in all patients. RESULTS: The incidence of MACE in the placebo group was related to PRS for CAD: 17.0% for high PRS patients (>90th percentile) and 11.4% for lower PRS patients (≤90th percentile; P<0.001); this PRS relationship was not explained by baseline LDL-C or other established risk factors. Both the absolute and relative reduction of MACE by alirocumab compared with placebo was greater in high versus low PRS patients. There was an absolute reduction by alirocumab in high versus low PRS groups of 6.0% and 1.5%, respectively, and a relative risk reduction by alirocumab of 37% in the high PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.46-0.86]; P=0.004) versus a 13% reduction in the low PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.98]; P=0.022; interaction P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A high PRS for CAD is associated with elevated risk for recurrent MACE after acute coronary syndrome and a larger absolute and relative risk reduction with alirocumab treatment, providing an independent tool for risk stratification and precision medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
N Engl J Med ; 382(1): 9, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of intensive lipid-lowering therapy by means of statin medications is recommended after transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke of atherosclerotic origin. The target level for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular events after stroke has not been well studied. METHODS: In this parallel-group trial conducted in France and South Korea, we randomly assigned patients with ischemic stroke in the previous 3 months or a TIA within the previous 15 days to a target LDL cholesterol level of less than 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) (lower-target group) or to a target range of 90 mg to 110 mg per deciliter (2.3 to 2.8 mmol per liter) (higher-target group). All the patients had evidence of cerebrovascular or coronary-artery atherosclerosis and received a statin, ezetimibe, or both. The composite primary end point of major cardiovascular events included ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, new symptoms leading to urgent coronary or carotid revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes. RESULTS: A total of 2860 patients were enrolled and followed for a median of 3.5 years; 1430 were assigned to each LDL cholesterol target group. The mean LDL cholesterol level at baseline was 135 mg per deciliter (3.5 mmol per liter), and the mean achieved LDL cholesterol level was 65 mg per deciliter (1.7 mmol per liter) in the lower-target group and 96 mg per deciliter (2.5 mmol per liter) in the higher-target group. The trial was stopped for administrative reasons after 277 of an anticipated 385 end-point events had occurred. The composite primary end point occurred in 121 patients (8.5%) in the lower-target group and in 156 (10.9%) in the higher-target group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.98; P = 0.04). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and newly diagnosed diabetes did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: After an ischemic stroke or TIA with evidence of atherosclerosis, patients who had a target LDL cholesterol level of less than 70 mg per deciliter had a lower risk of subsequent cardiovascular events than those who had a target range of 90 mg to 110 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; Treat Stroke to Target ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01252875.).


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue
20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(17): 1625-1632, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811715

RESUMO

AIMS: PEGASUS-TIMI 54 demonstrated that long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticagrelor reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with an acceptable increase in bleeding, in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). While much of the discussion around prolonged DAPT has been focused on stented patients, patients with prior MI without prior coronary stenting comprise a clinically important subgroup. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a pre-specified analysis from PEGASUS-TIMI 54, which randomized 21 162 patients with prior MI (1-3 years) and additional high-risk features to ticagrelor 60 mg, 90 mg, or placebo twice daily in addition to aspirin. A total of 4199 patients had no history of coronary stenting at baseline. The primary efficacy outcome (MACE) was the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke. Patients without history of coronary stenting had higher baseline risk of MACE [13.2% vs. 8.0%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.73, in the placebo arm]. The relative risk reduction in MACE with ticagrelor (pooled doses) was similar in patients without (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) and with prior stenting (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96; P for interaction = 0.76). CONCLUSION: Long-term ticagrelor reduces thrombotic events in patients with prior MI regardless of whether they had prior coronary stenting. These data highlight the benefits of DAPT in prevention of spontaneous atherothrombotic events and indicate that long-term ticagrelor may be considered in high-risk patients with prior MI even if they have not been treated with stenting. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01225562.

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