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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223318

RESUMO

Background: Patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events. Methods: In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial, we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes versus without diabetes in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke. Secondary endpoints included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, or major adverse limb events including amputation). The primary safety endpoint was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) criteria for major bleeding. Results: There were 10,341 patients with diabetes and 17,054 without diabetes in the overall trial. There was a consistent and similar relative risk reduction for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (N=9,152) versus placebo plus aspirin (N=9,126) in patients both with (N=6,922) and without (N=11,356) diabetes for the primary efficacy endpoint (HR 0.74, p=0.002 and HR 0.77, p=0.005, respectively, pinteraction=0.77) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.81, p=0.05 and HR 0.84, p=0.09, respectively, pinteraction=0.82). However, though the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% vs 1.4% for the primary efficacy endpoint at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative pinteraction<0.0001; 1.9% vs 0.6% for all-cause mortality, pinteraction=0.02; 2.7% vs 1.7% for major vascular events, pinteraction<0.0001). Since the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the former group (2.7% vs 1.0%, Gail-Simon qualitative pinteraction=0.001). Conclusions: In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral endpoints in patients with and without diabetes. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes, including a three-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.

2.
Circulation ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223446

RESUMO

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at risk for peripheral artery disease (PAD) events and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduce lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Our objective was to ascertain whether PCSK9 inhibition reduces the risk of PAD events or VTE after ACS, and if such effects are related to levels of lipoprotein(a) or LDL-C. Methods: This was a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial, which was conducted in 18 924 patients with recent ACS on intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment who were randomized to the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab or placebo. In a prespecified analysis, PAD events (critical limb ischemia, limb revascularization, or amputation for ischemia) and VTE (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were assessed. LDL-C was corrected for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a). Results: At baseline, median lipoprotein(a) and LDL-Ccorrected were 21 and 75 mg/dL, respectively; with alirocumab, median relative reductions were 23.5% and 70.6%, respectively. PAD events and VTE occurred in 246 and 92 patients, respectively. In the placebo group, risk of PAD events was related to baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (Ptrend=0.0021), but not baseline quartile of LDL Ccorrected (Ptrend=0.06); VTE tended to associate with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (Ptrend=0.06), but not LDL-Ccorrected (Ptrend=0.85). Alirocumab reduced risk of PAD events (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.89; P=0.004), with non-significantly fewer VTE events (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.01; P=0.06). Reduction in PAD events with alirocumab was associated with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (Ptrend=0.03), but not LDL-Ccorrected (Ptrend=0.50). With alirocumab, the change from baseline to Month 4 in lipoprotein(a), but not LDL-Ccorrected, was associated with the risk of VTE and the composite of VTE and PAD events. Conclusions: In statin-treated patients with recent ACS, risk of PAD events is related to lipoprotein(a) level and is reduced by alirocumab, particularly among those with high lipoprotein(a). Further study is required to confirm whether risk of VTE is related to lipoprotein(a) level and its reduction with alirocumab. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01663402.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178526

RESUMO

Background: The Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS (COMPASS) trial demonstrated dual pathway inhibition (DPI) with rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice-daily plus aspirin 100 mg once-daily versus aspirin 100 mg once-daily reduced the primary major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke as well as mortality in patients with chronic coronary syndromes or peripheral arterial disease. Whether this remains true in patients with a history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. Methods: In a pre-specified sub-group analysis from COMPASS, we examined the outcomes of chronic coronary syndrome patients with or without a prior PCI treated with DPI versus aspirin alone. Among patients with a prior PCI, we studied the effects of treatment according to the timing of prior PCI. Results: Of the 27,395 patients in COMPASS, 16,560 chronic coronary syndrome patients were randomized to DPI or aspirin and of these, 9862 (59·6%) had prior PCI (mean age 68·2±7·8, female 19·4%, diabetes 35·7%, prior MI 74·8%, multi-vessel PCI 38·0%). Average time from PCI to randomization was 5·4 years (SD 4·4) and follow-up was 1·98 (SD 0·72) years. Regardless of prior PCI, DPI versus aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE (PCI: 4·0% vs. 5·5%, HR 0·74, 95% CI 0·61-0·88; No PCI: 4·4% vs. 5·7%, HR 0·76, 95% CI 0·61-0·94, p-interaction 0·85) and mortality (PCI: 2·5% vs. 3·5%, HR 0·73, 95% CI 0·58-0·92; No PCI: 4·1% vs. 5·0%, HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p-interaction 0·59) but increased major bleeding (PCI: 3·3% vs 2·0%, HR 1·72, 95% CI 1·34-2·21; No PCI: 2·9% vs. 1·8%, HR 1·58, 95% CI 1·15-2·17, p-interaction 0·68). In those with prior PCI, DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent (robust) reductions in MACE irrespective of time since prior PCI (as early as 1 year and as far as 10 years) (p-interaction 0·65), irrespective of having a prior MI (p-interaction 0·64). Conclusions: DPI compared with aspirin produced consistent reductions in MACE and mortality but with increased major bleeding with or without prior PCI. Among those with prior PCI one- year and beyond, effects on MACE and mortality were consistent irrespective of time since last PCI. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: www.ClinicalTrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01776424.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 133-144, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with cardiovascular events. Alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, lowers lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). OBJECTIVES: A pre-specified analysis of the placebo-controlled ODYSSEY Outcomes trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) determined whether alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C independently predicted major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: One to 12 months after ACS, 18,924 patients on high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo and followed for 2.8 years (median). Lipoprotein(a) was measured at randomization and 4 and 12 months thereafter. The primary MACE outcome was coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) levels (median: 21.2 mg/dl; interquartile range [IQR]: 6.7 to 59.6 mg/dl) and LDL-C [corrected for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a)] predicted MACE. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by 5.0 mg/dl (IQR: 0 to 13.5 mg/dl), corrected LDL-C by 51.1 mg/dl (IQR: 33.7 to 67.2 mg/dl), and reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 0.93). Alirocumab-induced reductions of lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C independently predicted lower risk of MACE, after adjustment for baseline concentrations of both lipoproteins and demographic and clinical characteristics. A 1-mg/dl reduction in lipoprotein(a) with alirocumab was associated with a HR of 0.994 (95% CI: 0.990 to 0.999; p = 0.0081). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C levels and their reductions by alirocumab predicted the risk of MACE after recent ACS. Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab is an independent contributor to MACE reduction, which suggests that lipoprotein(a) should be an independent treatment target after ACS. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

5.
Circulation ; 141(5): 367-375, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some trials have found that patients from the United States derive less benefit than patients enrolled outside the United States. This prespecified REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial) subgroup analysis was conducted to determine the degree of benefit of icosapent ethyl in the United States. METHODS: REDUCE-IT randomized 8179 statin-treated patients with qualifying triglycerides ≥135 and <500 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 and ≤100 mg/dL and a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes mellitus to icosapent ethyl 4 g/d or placebo. The primary composite end point was cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina. The key secondary composite end point was cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. A hierarchy was prespecified for examination of individual and composite end points. RESULTS: A total of 3146 US patients (38.5% of the trial) were randomized and followed for a median of 4.9 years; 32.3% were women and 9.7% were Hispanic. The primary composite end point occurred in 24.7% of placebo-treated patients versus 18.2% of icosapent ethyl-treated patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.59-0.80]; P=0.000001); the key secondary composite end point occurred in 16.6% versus 12.1% (HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.57-0.83]; P=0.00008). All prespecified hierarchical end points were meaningfully and significantly reduced, including cardiovascular death (6.7% to 4.7%; HR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.49-0.90]; P=0.007), myocardial infarction (8.8% to 6.7%; HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.56-0.93]; P=0.01), stroke (4.1% to 2.6%; HR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.43-0.93]; P=0.02), and all-cause mortality (9.8% to 7.2%; HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.90]; P=0.004); for all-cause mortality in the US versus non-US patients, Pinteraction=0.02. Safety and tolerability findings were consistent with the full study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the non-US subgroup showed significant reductions in the primary and key secondary end points, the US subgroup demonstrated particularly robust risk reductions across a variety of individual and composite end points, including all-cause mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01492361.

6.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e005858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab was compared with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome in 18 924 patients. Alirocumab reduced first occurrence of the primary composite end point-coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina-as well as total nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. The present analysis determined whether alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) hospitalizations and death and increased days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) and percent DAOH in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS AND RESULTS: In prespecified analyses, hazard functions for total hospitalizations and death were jointly estimated by a semiparametric model, while in post hoc analyses, DAOH and percent DAOH were compared between treatment groups with Poisson regression and one-inflated beta regression, respectively. With 16 629 total hospitalizations and 726 deaths, 331 fewer hospitalizations, and 58 fewer deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo, translating to 15.6 total hospitalizations or deaths avoided with alirocumab per 1000 patient-years of assigned treatment. Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.00]; P=0.04) and increased DAOH relative to placebo (rate ratio, 1.003 [95% CI, 1.000-1.007]; P=0.05), primarily through a reduction in days dead (rate ratio, 0.847 [95% CI, 0.728-0.986]; P=0.03). Patients randomized to alirocumab were also more likely to survive to the end of the study without hospitalization (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.00-1.13]; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations with corresponding small increases in DAOH and percent DAOH. These outcomes provide alternative patient-centered metrics to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after acute coronary syndrome. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732742

RESUMO

AIMS: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular risk irrespective of age, but the evidence is less strong for older patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prespecified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the effect of alirocumab vs. placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to age. We examined the effect of assigned treatment on occurrence of the primary study outcome, a composite of coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)] and all-cause death. Relative risk reductions were consistent for patients ≥65 vs. <65 years for MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.91 vs. 0.89, 0.80-1.00; Pinteraction = 0.19] and all-cause death [HR 0.77, 0.62-0.95 vs. 0.94, 0.77-1.15; Pinteraction = 0.46], and consistent for MACE when dichotomizing at age 75 years (HR 0.85, 0.64-1.13 in ≥75 vs. 0.85, 0.78-0.93 in <75, Pinteraction = 0.19). When considering age as a continuous variable in regression models, advancing age increased risk of MACE, as well as the absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab, with numbers-needed-to-treat for MACE at 3 years of 43 (25-186) at age 45 years, 26 (15-97) at age 75 years, and 12 (6-81) for those at age 85 years. Although adverse events were more frequent in older patients, there were no differences between alirocumab and placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab improves outcomes irrespective of age. Increasing absolute benefit but not harm with advancing age suggests that LDL-C lowering is an important preventive intervention for older patients after ACS.

9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319871217, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558054

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between level of physical activity and outcomes and to discriminate the determinants of physical activity performance or avoidance. METHODS: CLARIFY is an international prospective registry of 32,370 consecutive outpatients with stable coronary artery disease who were followed for up to five years. Patients were grouped according to the level and frequency of physical activity: i) sedentary (n = 5223; 16.1%); ii) only light physical activity most weeks (light; n = 16,634; 51.4%); iii) vigorous physical activity once or twice per week (vigorous ≤ 2×; n = 5427; 16.8%); iv) vigorous physical activity three or more times per week (vigorous >2×; n = 5086; 15.7%). The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: Patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2 × had the lowest risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93; p = 0.0031) taking the light group as reference. Engaging in more frequent exercise did not result in further outcome benefit. All-cause death, cardiovascular death, and stroke occurred less frequently in patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2×. However, the rate of myocardial infarction was comparable between the four physical activity groups. Female sex, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction or stroke, pulmonary disease and body mass index all emerged as independent predictors of lower physical activity. CONCLUSION: Vigorous physical activity once or twice per week was associated with superior cardiac outcomes compared with patients performing no or a low level of physical activity in outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

10.
Circulation ; 140(19): 1578-1589, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor. METHODS: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category. RESULTS: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; Pinteraction=0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; Pinteraction=0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; Pinteraction=0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; Pinteraction=0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.

12.
Circulation ; 140(12): 1004-1014, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metformin is first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus, although its effects on the cardiovascular system are unproved. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis, patients in SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) with baseline biomarker samples (n=12 156) were classified as ever versus never taking metformin during the trial period. Associations between metformin exposure and outcomes were estimated with inverse probability of treatment weighting Cox modeling for the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke, as well as cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality, with biomarkers included as covariates. Additional sensitivity analyses included propensity score matching and Cox multivariable models. RESULTS: Of the 12 156 patients with baseline biomarker samples, 8971 (74%) had metformin exposure, 1611 (13%) had prior heart failure, and 1332 (11%) had at least moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤45 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2). Metformin use was associated with no difference in risk for the composite end point (hazard ratio for inverse probability of treatment weighting, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.76-1.11]) but lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for inverse probability of treatment weighting, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.59-0.95]). There was no significant relationship between metformin use and these end points in patients with prior heart failure or moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of 12 156 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk, metformin use was associated with lower rates of all-cause mortality, including after adjustment for clinical variables and biomarkers, but not lower rates of the composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. This association was most apparent in patients without prior heart failure or moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01107886.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1177-1186, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). METHODS: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003). RESULTS: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

14.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(7): e007342, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor reduced the primary composite end point of death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 hours. This study aimed to explore the impact of event adjudication and the prognostic importance of MI reported by a clinical events committee (CEC) or site investigators (SIs). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial of patients undergoing elective or nonelective percutaneous coronary intervention were analyzed. A CEC systematically identified and adjudicated MI using predefined criteria, a computer algorithm to identify suspected events, and semilogarithmic plots to review biomarker changes. Thirty-day death was modeled using baseline characteristics. Of 10 942 patients, 462 (4.2%) patients had at least 1 MI by 48 hours identified by the CEC (207 [3.8%] cangrelor; 255 [4.7%] clopidogrel; odds ratio [OR] 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97; P=0.022), and 143 patients had at least 1 MI by 48 hours reported by the SI (60 [1.1%] cangrelor; 83 [1.5%] clopidogrel; OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-1.01; P=0.053). Of the 462 MIs identified by the CEC, 92 (20%) were reported by SI, and 370 (80%) were not. Of the 143 MI reported by the SI, 51 (36%) were not confirmed by CEC. All categories were associated with an increased adjusted risk for 30-day death (CEC: OR, 5.35; 95% CI, 2.56-11.2; P<0.001; SI: 9.08 [4.01-20.5]; P<0.001; CEC and SI: 10.9 [3.23-36.6]; P<0.001; CEC but not SI: 4.69 [1.94-11.3]; P<0.001; SI but not CEC: 15.4 [5.26-44.9]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, CEC procedures identified 3 times as many MIs as the SI reported. Compared with clopidogrel, cangrelor significantly reduced MIs identified by the CEC with a qualitatively similar relative risk reduction in MIs reported by the SI. MIs identified by CEC or reported by SI were independently associated with worse 30-day death. Central adjudication identified additional, prognostically important events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01156571.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(33): 2801-2809, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121022

RESUMO

AIMS : The third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) Task Force classified MIs into five types: Type 1, spontaneous; Type 2, related to oxygen supply/demand imbalance; Type 3, fatal without ascertainment of cardiac biomarkers; Type 4, related to percutaneous coronary intervention; and Type 5, related to coronary artery bypass surgery. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction with statins and proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors reduces risk of MI, but less is known about effects on types of MI. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and elevated LDL-C (≥1.8 mmol/L) despite intensive statin therapy. In a pre-specified analysis, we assessed the effects of alirocumab on types of MI. METHODS AND RESULTS : Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Myocardial infarction types were prospectively adjudicated and classified. Of 1860 total MIs, 1223 (65.8%) were adjudicated as Type 1, 386 (20.8%) as Type 2, and 244 (13.1%) as Type 4. Few events were Type 3 (n = 2) or Type 5 (n = 5). Alirocumab reduced first MIs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.95; P = 0.003], with reductions in both Type 1 (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77-0.99; P = 0.032) and Type 2 (0.77, 0.61-0.97; P = 0.025), but not Type 4 MI. CONCLUSION : After ACS, alirocumab added to intensive statin therapy favourably impacted on Type 1 and 2 MIs. The data indicate for the first time that a lipid-lowering therapy can attenuate the risk of Type 2 MI. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below levels achievable with statins is an effective preventive strategy for both MI types.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2791-2802, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In time-to-first-event analyses, icosapent ethyl significantly reduced the risk of ischemic events, including cardiovascular death, among patients with elevated triglycerides receiving statins. These patients are at risk for not only first but also subsequent ischemic events. OBJECTIVES: Pre-specified analyses determined the extent to which icosapent ethyl reduced total ischemic events. METHODS: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) randomized 8,179 statin-treated patients with triglycerides ≥135 and <500 mg/dl (median baseline of 216 mg/dl) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 and ≤100 mg/dl (median baseline of 75 mg/dl), and a history of atherosclerosis (71% patients) or diabetes (29% patients) to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day or placebo. The main outcomes were total (first and subsequent) primary composite endpoint events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina) and total key secondary composite endpoint events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). As a pre-specified statistical method, we determined differences in total events using negative binomial regression. We also determined differences in total events using other statistical models, including Andersen-Gill, Wei-Lin-Weissfeld (Li and Lagakos modification), both pre-specified, and a post hoc joint frailty analysis. RESULTS: In 8,179 patients, followed for a median of 4.9 years, 1,606 (55.2%) first primary endpoint events and 1,303 (44.8%) subsequent primary endpoint events occurred (which included 762 second events, and 541 third or more events). Overall, icosapent ethyl reduced total primary endpoint events (61 vs. 89 per 1,000 patient-years for icosapent ethyl versus placebo, respectively; rate ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 0.78; p < 0.0001). Icosapent ethyl also reduced totals for each component of the primary composite endpoint, as well as the total key secondary endpoint events (32 vs. 44 per 1,000 patient-years for icosapent ethyl versus placebo, respectively; rate ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.82; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides and cardiovascular disease or diabetes, multiple statistical models demonstrate that icosapent ethyl substantially reduces the burden of first, subsequent, and total ischemic events. (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial [REDUCE-IT]; NCT01492361).

17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(4): 387-396, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) trial compared alirocumab with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum-tolerated statin treatment, after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in 18,924 patients. Alirocumab reduced the first occurrence of the primary composite endpoint and was associated with fewer all-cause deaths. OBJECTIVES: This pre-specified analysis determined the extent to which alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES. METHODS: Hazard functions for total nonfatal cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure) and death were jointly estimated, linked by a shared frailty accounting for patient risk heterogeneity and correlated within-patient nonfatal events. An association parameter also quantified the strength of the linkage between risk of nonfatal events and death. The model provides accurate relative estimates of nonfatal event risk if nonfatal events are associated with increased risk for death. RESULTS: With 3,064 first and 5,425 total events, 190 fewer first and 385 fewer total nonfatal cardiovascular events or deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo. Alirocumab reduced total nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.82 to 0.93) and death (hazard ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 0.97) in the presence of a strong association between nonfatal and fatal event risk. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, the total number of nonfatal cardiovascular events and deaths prevented with alirocumab was twice the number of first events prevented. Consequently, total event reduction is a more comprehensive metric to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after ACS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Int J Cardiol ; 278: 217-222, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563770

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving bailout glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) for thrombotic complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a large, contemporary trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, the use of GPI was restricted to bailout for thrombotic complications. We describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients requiring bailout GPI compared to patients not receiving GPIs, with adjustment through propensity-score. A multivariable model was constructed to identify independent correlates associated with bailout GPI use. A total of 380 out of 10,942 patients received GPI (3.5%); GPI patients were younger, more frequently male, more likely to present with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and less frequently treated with cangrelor. At 48 h, GPI patients experienced higher rates of the primary composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis (ST) (19.2% vs 4.8%; adjusted OR: 5.65(4.08, 7.82), p < 0.0001) and a higher rate of GUSTO severe or moderate bleeding (2.6% vs 0.4% adjusted OR: 4.90 (1.98, 12.18), p = 0.0006) compared with non GPI patients. Independent correlates of GPI use were STEMI, use of unfractionated heparin, drug-eluting stents and longer procedure duration. CONCLUSIONS: In a large contemporary trial, patients receiving bailout GPI for thrombotic complications of PCI experienced very high risks of both ischemic and bleeding complications, suggesting that prevention of periprocedural complications rather than bailout GPI may be preferable. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01156571.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(1): 145-152, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366601

RESUMO

We sought to assess the prevalence of polyvascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its impact on ischemic events. Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (SAVOR)-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 53, a large contemporary, randomized trial, evaluated the effect of saxagliptin versus placebo in 16,492 patients with T2DM and a history of or at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Polyvascular disease was defined as a history of clinical events involving 2 or more vascular beds (coronary, peripheral, or cerebrovascular system) at the time of randomization. The primary composite endpoint of CV death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke was compared according to the number of diseased arterial beds. At the time of randomization, 3,667 (22.2%) patients had risk factors for CV events; 11,423 (69.3%) had established 1 arterial bed disease; 1,298 (7.9%) had 2 bed disease; and 104 (0.6%) had 3 bed disease. Compared with diabetic patients with no established atherosclerosis, the adjusted hazard ratio for the composite primary end point in 1, 2, or 3 diseased beds was 1.95, 3.54, and 4.64, respectively (trend p < 0.0001). The adjusted risk for overall mortality increased in a similar stepwise fashion from 1.47 to 2.33 to 3.12, respectively (trend p = 0.0001) with each additional diseased arterial territory. In conclusion, in patients with confirmed atherosclerosis enrolled in SAVOR-TIMI 53, 11% had polyvascular disease; and compared with diabetic patients with single bed disease, the risk of ischemic events and overall mortality was substantially higher in patients with T2DM and polyvascular disease.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/epidemiologia , Adamantano/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/mortalidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(4): 309-317, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28357882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure is a readily available vital sign that has been shown to independently predict outcomes in several cardiovascular disease states. We investigated the prognostic significance of pulse pressure (PP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) among patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: A total of 14,514 patients with ACS in the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE), expanded GRACE (GRACE-2) and Canadian Registry of Acute Coronary Events (CANRACE) were stratified by initial PP on presentation. Patient characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared by PP quartiles and the independent prognostic significance of PP for in-hospital mortality was quantified. We compared the discriminative ability (c-statistic) of models incorporating either PP or SBP. RESULTS: Patients with higher PPs were older, more frequently female and had higher prevalence rates of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (all p < 0.01). Lower PP was associated with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction presentation, higher GRACE risk scores and higher rates of adverse in-hospital outcomes (p < 0.001). PP was strongly correlated with SBP (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.79, p < 0.001). After adjustment for other GRACE risk model predictors, lower PP was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (first vs. fourth quartile [reference]: adjusted odds ratio 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.80-3.67). The c-statistic was slightly higher for the multivariable model incorporating SBP as compared to the model with PP (0.868 vs. 0.864, respectively, p = 0.028) for in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Higher presenting PP is associated with increased age and more prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, whereas patients with lower PP present with worse clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes. Lower PP is an independent adverse prognosticator in ACS. However, PP did not improve the discriminatory performance of the GRACE risk score compared with SBP.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
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