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2.
Cell Syst ; 12(8): 780-794.e7, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139154

RESUMO

COVID-19 is highly variable in its clinical presentation, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe organ damage and death. We characterized the time-dependent progression of the disease in 139 COVID-19 inpatients by measuring 86 accredited diagnostic parameters, such as blood cell counts and enzyme activities, as well as untargeted plasma proteomes at 687 sampling points. We report an initial spike in a systemic inflammatory response, which is gradually alleviated and followed by a protein signature indicative of tissue repair, metabolic reconstitution, and immunomodulation. We identify prognostic marker signatures for devising risk-adapted treatment strategies and use machine learning to classify therapeutic needs. We show that the machine learning models based on the proteome are transferable to an independent cohort. Our study presents a map linking routinely used clinical diagnostic parameters to plasma proteomes and their dynamics in an infectious disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Proteoma/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Gasometria , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico , Proteômica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
3.
Infection ; 49(4): 757-762, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825125

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Type I interferons are important in the defense of viral infections. Recently, neutralizing IgG auto-antibodies against type I interferons were found in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Here, we analyzed expression of CD169/SIGLEC1, a well described downstream molecule in interferon signaling, and found increased monocytic CD169/SIGLEC1 expression levels in patients with mild, acute COVID-19, compared to patients with severe disease. We recommend further clinical studies to evaluate the value of CD169/SIGLEC1 expression in patients with COVID-19 with or without auto-antibodies against type I interferons.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima
4.
Infection ; 49(4): 703-714, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890243

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adequate patient allocation is pivotal for optimal resource management in strained healthcare systems, and requires detailed knowledge of clinical and virological disease trajectories. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors associated with need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), to analyse viral kinetics in patients with and without IMV and to provide a comprehensive description of clinical course. METHODS: A cohort of 168 hospitalised adult COVID-19 patients enrolled in a prospective observational study at a large European tertiary care centre was analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four per cent (71/161) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Shorter duration of symptoms before admission (aOR 1.22 per day less, 95% CI 1.10-1.37, p < 0.01) and history of hypertension (aOR 5.55, 95% CI 2.00-16.82, p < 0.01) were associated with need for IMV. Patients on IMV had higher maximal concentrations, slower decline rates, and longer shedding of SARS-CoV-2 than non-IMV patients (33 days, IQR 26-46.75, vs 18 days, IQR 16-46.75, respectively, p < 0.01). Median duration of hospitalisation was 9 days (IQR 6-15.5) for non-IMV and 49.5 days (IQR 36.8-82.5) for IMV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a short duration of symptoms before admission as a risk factor for severe disease that merits further investigation and different viral load kinetics in severely affected patients. Median duration of hospitalisation of IMV patients was longer than described for acute respiratory distress syndrome unrelated to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Cinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
5.
Biomarkers ; 26(3): 213-220, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the emergency department (ED) setting, rapid testing for SARS-CoV-2 is likely associated with advantages to patients and healthcare workers, for example, enabling early but rationale use of limited isolation resources. Most recently, several SARS-CoV-2 rapid point-of-care antigen tests (AGTEST) became available. There is a growing need for data regarding their clinical utility and performance in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the real life setting EDs. METHODS: We implemented AGTEST (here: Roche/SD Biosensor) in all four adult and the one paediatric EDs at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin in our diagnostic testing strategy. Test indication was limited to symptomatic suspected COVID-19 patients. Detailed written instructions on who to test were distributed and testing personnel were trained in proper specimen collection and handling. In each suspected COVID-19 patient, two sequential deep oro-nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained for viral tests. The first swab was collected for nucleic acid testing through SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcriptase (rt)-PCR diagnostic panel (PCRTEST) in the central laboratory. The second swab was collected to perform the AGTEST. Analysis of routine data was prospectively planned and data were retrieved from the medical records after the inclusion period in the adult or paediatric ED. Diagnostic performance was calculated using the PCRTEST as reference standard. False negative and false positive AGTEST results were analysed individually and compared with viral concentrations derived from the calibrated PCRTEST. RESULTS: We included n = 483 patients including n = 202 from the paediatric ED. N = 10 patients had to be excluded due to missing data and finally n = 473 patients were analysed. In the adult cohort, the sensitivity of the AGTEST was 75.3 (95%CI: 65.8/83.4)% and the specificity was 100 (95%CI: 98.4/100)% with a SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 32.8%; the positive predictive value was 100 (95%CI: 95.7/100)% and the negative predictive value 89.2 (95%CI: 84.5/93.9)%. In the paediatric cohort, the sensitivity was 72.0 (95%CI: 53.3/86.7)%, the specificity was 99.4 (95%CI:97.3/99.9)% with a prevalence of 12.4%; the positive predictive value was 94.7 (95%CI: 78.3/99.7)% and the negative predictive value was 96.2 (95%CI:92.7/98.3)%. Thus, n = 22 adult and n = 7 paediatric patients showed false negative AGTEST results and only one false positive AGTEST occurred, in the paediatric cohort. Calculated viral concentrations from the rt-PCR lay between 3.16 and 9.51 log10 RNA copies/mL buffer. All false negative patients in the adult ED cohort, who had confirmed symptom onset at least seven days earlier had less than 5 × 105 RNA copies/mL buffer. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the use of AGTEST among symptomatic patients in the emergency setting is useful for the early identification of COVID-19, but patients who test negative require confirmation by PCRTEST and must stay isolated until this result becomes available. Adult patients with a false negative AGTEST and symptom onset at least one week earlier have typically a low SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration and are likely no longer infectious.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Imunoensaio/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
6.
Infection ; 48(6): 949-954, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715389

RESUMO

We report a case of a probable HIV-1 transmission by human bite. The analyzed data from ten previously reported  suspected or allegedly confirmed HIV transmissions revealed a deep bleeding bite wound as the primary risk factor. A high HIV plasma viral load and bleeding oral lesions are present most of the time during HIV transmission by bite. HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) should be recommended in case of a bleeding wound resulting from a bite of an HIV-infected person. PEP was missed in this presented case.


Assuntos
Mordeduras Humanas/complicações , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Berlim , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Berlim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
J Travel Med ; 27(4)2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria (P.f. malaria) is frequently imported to non-endemic countries. Recommendations on outpatient treatment differ largely due to differences in country-level guidelines and even between tropical medicine referral centres within the same country. METHODS: This survey among experts from TropNet or GeoSentinel referral centres for tropical medicine outside malaria endemic areas investigated common practices in P.f. malaria management, selection criteria for outpatient management and diagnostic procedures as a first step for developing a future common and evidence-based approach. RESULTS: A total of 44 referral centres participated. Most of the centres are located in Europe (n = 37). Overall, 27 centres (61%) treat uncomplicated P.f. malaria patients as outpatients, of which eight centres (18%) reported treating ≥75% of patients on an outpatient basis. Seventeen centres (39%) reported treating patients only as inpatients. No single criterion stands out for the decision regarding outpatient treatment, but three groups of factors were identified: (i) clinical criteria including laboratory parameters, clinical condition and tolerance of oral medication; (ii) factors such as patient compliance, reachability by phone and support at home and (iii) patient origin and place of residence as a proxy for possible underlying semi-immunity. The threshold parasitaemia for outpatient treatment varied from 0.1 to 5% with a median of 2%. A median of 0.5% of outpatients were admitted during follow-up. During the last 10 years, 33 complications were reported by nine of the 27 centres and three deaths by one centre. CONCLUSION: This study gives insight into the heterogeneous management of P.f. malaria patients outside endemic regions. Although there is no consensus among experts, the majority of centres includes outpatient treatment in their clinical routine. However, the lack of evidence-based criteria and established safety for this approach shows the need for prospective studies to define and evaluate criteria and practices for safe outpatient management.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Antimaláricos , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Malária Falciparum , Medicina Tropical , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/tratamento farmacológico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Estudos Prospectivos , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 38(11): e295-e300, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous artesunate (ivA) is the standard treatment for severe malaria. Data systematically evaluating the use of ivA in pediatric patients outside malaria-endemic regions are limited. The aim of this case series was to summarize efficacy and safety of ivA for imported severe malaria in children in Germany. METHODS: Our retrospective case series included pediatric patients with imported severe malaria treated with at least 1 dose of ivA (Artesun, Guilin Pharmaceutical; Shanghai, China) at 4 German tertiary care centers. Severe malaria was defined according to World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2018, 14 children with a median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of 6 (1;9.5) years were included. All children were of African descent. All but 2 patients had Plasmodium falciparum malaria; 1 child had P. vivax malaria and 1 child had P. falciparum and P. vivax co-infection. Median (IQR) parasitemia at admission in patients with P. falciparum was 9.5% (3;16.5). Patients were treated with 1-10 [median (IQR) 3 (3;4)] doses ivA. All but one patient received a full course of oral antimalarial treatment. Parasite clearance was achieved within 2-4 days, with the exception of 1 patient with prolonged clearance of peripheral parasitemia. Three patients experienced posttreatment hemolysis but none needed blood transfusion. Otherwise ivA was safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: ivA was highly efficacious in this pediatric cohort. We observed episodes of mild to moderate posttreatment hemolysis in approximately one-third of patients. The legal status and usage of potentially lifesaving ivA should be evaluated in Europe.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda/terapia , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artesunato/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(8): 2400-2404, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most important healthcare-associated infections. We aimed to describe the incidence density of healthcare-associated CDI (HA-CDI) in Germany's largest hospital and to identify associations with ward-level antimicrobial consumption. METHODS: We used surveillance data on CDI and antimicrobial consumption from 2014 to 2017 and analysed a potential association by means of multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: We included 77 wards with 404998 admitted patients and 1850862 patient-days. Six hundred and seventy-one HA-CDI cases were identified, resulting in a pooled mean incidence density of 0.36/1000 patient-days (IQR = 0.34-0.39). HA-CDI incidence density on ICU and haematological-oncological wards was about three times higher than on surgical wards [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 3.00 (95% CI = 1.96-4.60) and IRR = 2.78 (95% CI = 1.88-4.11), respectively]. Ward-level consumption of third-generation cephalosporins was the sole antimicrobial risk factor for HA-CDI. With each DDD/100 patient-days administered, a ward's HA-CDI incidence density increased by 2% [IRR = 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01-1.04)]. Other risk factors were contemporaneous community-associated CDI cases [IRR = 1.32 (95% CI = 1.07-1.63)] and CDI cases in the previous month [IRR = 1.27 (95% CI = 1.07-1.51)]. Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in HA-CDI in 2017 compared with 2014 [IRR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.54-0.86)]. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that ward-level antimicrobial use influences HA-CDI and specifically identified third-generation cephalosporin consumption as a risk factor.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(8): 1381-6, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434054

RESUMO

Episodes of delayed hemolysis 2-6 weeks after treatment of severe malaria with intravenous artesunate have been described. We performed a prospective observational study of patients with uncomplicated malaria to investigate whether posttreatment hemolysis also occurs after oral artemisinin-based combination therapy. Eight of 20 patients with uncomplicated malaria who were given oral artemisinin-based combination therapy met the definition of posttreatment hemolysis (low haptoglobin level and increased lactate dehydrogenase level on day 14). Five patients had hemolysis persisting for 1 month. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had a median decrease in hemoglobin level of 1.3 g/dL (interquartile range 0.3-2.0 g/dL) in the posttreatment period, and patients without posttreatment hemolysis had a median increase of 0.3 g/dL (IQR -0.1 to 0.7 g/dL; p = 0.002). These findings indicate a need for increased vigilance for hemolytic events in malaria patients, particularly those with predisposing factors for anemia.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemeter , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Etanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lumefantrina , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 103(1): 177-82, 2006 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16371473

RESUMO

Genetic host factors play a substantial role in susceptibility to and severity of malaria, which continues to cause at least one million deaths per year. Recently, members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family have been shown to be involved in recognition of the etiologic organism Plasmodium falciparum: The glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor induces signaling in host cells via TLR-2 and -4, whereas hemozoin-induced immune activation involves TLR-9. Binding of microbial ligands to the respective TLRs triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines via the TLR/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain and may contribute to the host response in malaria, including cytokine induction and fever. In a case-control study among 870 Ghanaian children, we examined the influence of TLR-2, -4, and -9 polymorphisms in susceptibility to severe malaria. TLR-2 variants common in Caucasians and Asians were completely absent. However, we found a rare previously undescribed mutation (Leu658Pro), which impairs signaling via TLR-2. We failed to detect any polymorphisms within the TLR-9 Toll/IL-1 receptor domain. Two frequent TLR-9 promoter polymorphisms did not show a clear association with malaria severity. In contrast, the TLR-4-Asp299Gly variant occurred at a high rate of 17.6% in healthy controls and was even more frequent in severe malaria patients (24.1%, P < 0.05). Likewise, TLR-4-Thr399Ile was seen in 2.4% of healthy children and in 6.2% of patients (P = 0.02). TLR-4-Asp299Gly and TLR-4-Thr399Ile conferred 1.5- and 2.6-fold increased risks of severe malaria, respectively. These findings suggest TLR4-mediated responses to malaria in vivo and TLR-4 polymorphisms to be associated with disease manifestation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Malária Falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética
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