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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 138, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteoglycans are large and structurally complex macromolecules which can be found in abundancy in the extracellular matrix and on the surface of all animal cells. Mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes responsible for the formation of the tetrasaccharide linker region between the proteoglycan core protein and the glycosaminoglycan side chains lead to a spectrum of severe and overlapping autosomal recessive connective tissue disorders, collectively coined the 'glycosaminoglycan linkeropathies'. RESULTS: We report the clinical findings of two novel patients with a complex linkeropathy due to biallelic mutations in B3GAT3, the gene that encodes glucuronosyltransferase I, which catalyzes the addition of the ultimate saccharide to the linker region. We identified a previously reported c.667G > A missense mutation and an unreported homozygous c.416C > T missense mutation. We also performed a genotype and phenotype-oriented literature overview of all hitherto reported patients harbouring B3GAT3 mutations. A total of 23 patients from 10 families harbouring bi-allelic mutations and one patient with a heterozygeous splice-site mutation in B3GAT3 have been reported. They all display a complex phenotype characterized by consistent presence of skeletal dysplasia (including short stature, kyphosis, scoliosis and deformity of the long bones), facial dysmorphology, and spatulate distal phalanges. More variably present are cardiac defects, joint hypermobility, joint dislocations/contractures and fractures. Seven different B3GAT3 mutations have been reported, and although the number of patients is still limited, some phenotype-genotype correlations start to emerge. The more severe phenotypes seem to have mutations located in the substrate acceptor subdomain of the catalytic domain of the glucuronosyltransferase I protein while more mildly affected phenotypes seem to have mutations in the NTP-sugar donor substrate binding subdomain. CONCLUSIONS: Loss-of-function mutations in B3GAT3 are associated with a complex connective tissue phenotype characterized by disproportionate short stature, skeletal dysplasia, facial dysmorphism, spatulate distal phalanges and -to a lesser extent- joint contractures, joint hypermobility with dislocations, cardiac defects and bone fragility. Based on the limited number of reported patients, some genotype-phenotype correlations start to emerge.

2.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3087, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082715

RESUMO

Skeletal dysplasia with multiple dislocations are severe disorders characterized by dislocations of large joints and short stature. The majority of them have been linked to pathogenic variants in genes encoding glycosyltransferases, sulfotransferases or epimerases required for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Using exome sequencing, we identify homozygous mutations in SLC10A7 in six individuals with skeletal dysplasia with multiple dislocations and amelogenesis imperfecta. SLC10A7 encodes a 10-transmembrane-domain transporter located at the plasma membrane. Functional studies in vitro demonstrate that SLC10A7 mutations reduce SLC10A7 protein expression. We generate a Slc10a7-/- mouse model, which displays shortened long bones, growth plate disorganization and tooth enamel anomalies, recapitulating the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify decreased heparan sulfate levels in Slc10a7-/- mouse cartilage and patient fibroblasts. Finally, we find an abnormal N-glycoprotein electrophoretic profile in patient blood samples. Together, our findings support the involvement of SLC10A7 in glycosaminoglycan synthesis and specifically in skeletal development.

3.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 371-380, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28289185

RESUMO

Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Síndromes Orofaciodigitais/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Encefalocele/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa
4.
Hum Mutat ; 38(4): 365-372, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28181337

RESUMO

We identified two unrelated consanguineous families with three children affected by the rare association of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) diagnosed in the first days of life, of hypogonadism, and of prenatally detected adrenal calcifications, associated with congenital adrenal insufficiency in one case. Using exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing, two homozygous truncating mutations, c.1513C>T (p.Arg505*) and c.934delC (p.Leu312Phefs*30), were identified in SGPL1-encoding sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase 1. SGPL1 catalyzes the irreversible degradation of endogenous and dietary S1P, the final step of sphingolipid catabolism, and of other phosphorylated long-chain bases. S1P is an intracellular and extracellular signaling molecule involved in angiogenesis, vascular maturation, and immunity. The levels of SGPL1 substrates, S1P, and sphingosine were markedly increased in the patients' blood and fibroblasts, as determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vascular alterations were present in a patient's renal biopsy, in line with changes seen in Sgpl1 knockout mice that are compatible with a developmental defect in vascular maturation. In conclusion, loss of SGPL1 function is associated with CNS, adrenal calcifications, and hypogonadism.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Aldeído Liases/genética , Calcinose/genética , Mutação , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/congênito , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/enzimologia , Adulto , Aldeído Liases/deficiência , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Calcinose/enzimologia , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Síndrome Nefrótica/congênito , Síndrome Nefrótica/enzimologia , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/sangue , Esfingosina/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(2): 262-266, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27782104

RESUMO

The exceptionally large SYNE1 (spectrin repeat-containing nuclear envelope protein 1) gene encodes different nesprin-1 isoforms, which are differentially expressed in striated muscle and in cerebellar and cerebral neurons. Nesprin-1 isoforms can function in cytoskeletal, nuclear, and vesicle anchoring. SYNE1 variants have been associated with a spectrum of neurological and neuromuscular disease. Homozygosity mapping combined with exome sequencing identified a disease-causing nonsense mutation in the ultimate exon of full-length SYNE1 transcript in an 8-year-old boy with distal arthrogryposis and muscular hypotonia. mRNA analysis showed that the mutant transcript is expressed at wild-type levels. The variant truncates nesprin-1 isoforms for the C-terminal KASH (Klarsicht-ANC-Syne homology) domain. This is the third family with recessive arthrogryposis caused by homozygous distal-truncating SYNE1 variants. There is a SYNE1 genotype-phenotype correlation emerging, with more proximal homozygous SYNE1 variants causing recessive cerebellar ataxia of variable onset (SCAR8; ARCA-1).


Assuntos
Artrogripose/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Genótipo , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Criança , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Linhagem , Síndrome
6.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34017, 2016 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27687687

RESUMO

Multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) spectrum disorder is a rare inherited progressive skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) gene. Treatment options are limited. Herein we present successful bisphosphonate therapy in three affected patients. Patients were treated with bisphosphonates (either pamidronate or zoledronate) for different time periods. The following outcome variables were assessed: skeletal pain, range of motion, bone densitometry, internal medical problems as well as neurocognitive function. Skeletal pain was dramatically reduced in all patients soon after initiation of therapy and bone mineral density increased. Range of motion did not significantly improve. One patient is still able to walk with aids at the age of 14 years. Neurocognitive development was normal in all patients. Bisphosphonate therapy was effective especially in controlling skeletal pain in MONA spectrum disorder. Early initiation of treatment seems to be particularly important in order to achieve the best possible outcome.

7.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 28(7-8): 967-70, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25741938

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets 2 (ARHR2) is a rare form of renal tubular phosphate wasting disorder. Loss of function mutations of the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/pyrophosphodiesterase 1 gene (ENPP1) causes a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from lethal generalized arterial calcification of infancy to hypophosphatemic rickets with hypertension. Hearing loss was not previously thought to be one of the features of the disease entities and was merely regarded as a complication rather than a part of the disease. We report two children who presented in mid to late childhood with progressive varus deformity of their legs due to hypophosphatemic rickets caused by mutations in the ENPP1 gene. Both children had evidence of progressive hearing loss requiring the use of hearing aids. This report of two unrelated infants with compound heterozygous mutations in ENPP1 and previously published cases confirms that mild to moderate hearing loss is frequently associated with ARHR2. Early onset conductive hearing loss may further distinguish the autosomal recessive ENPP1 related type from other types of hypophosphatemia.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/complicações , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Mutação/genética , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Pirofosfatases/genética , Idade de Início , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prognóstico
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 21(3): 286-93, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22929031

RESUMO

The Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS [MIM 270400]) is an autosomal recessive malformation syndrome that shows a great variability with regard to severity. SLOS is caused by mutations in the Δ7sterol-reductase gene (DHCR7), which disrupt cholesterol biosynthesis. Phenotypic variability of the disease is already known to be associated with maternal apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. The aim of this study was to detect additional modifiers of the SLOS phenotype. We examined the association of SLOS severity with variants in the genes for ApoC-III, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, cholesteryl-ester transfer protein, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase. Our study group included 59 SLOS patients, their mothers, and 49 of their fathers. In addition, we investigated whether ApoE and ABCA1 genotypes are associated with the viability of severe SLOS cases (n=21) caused by two null mutations in the DHCR7 gene. Maternal ABCA1 genotypes show a highly significant correlation with clinical severity in SLOS patients (P=0.007). The rare maternal p.1587Lys allele in the ABCA1 gene was associated with milder phenotypes. ANOVA analysis demonstrated an association of maternal ABCA1 genotypes with severity scores (logarithmised) of SLOS patients of P=0.004. Maternal ABCA1 explains 15.4% (R²) of severity of SLOS patients. There was no association between maternal ApoE genotype and survival of the SLOS fetus carrying two null mutations. Regarding ABCA1 p.Arg1587Lys in mothers of latter SLOS cases, a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was observed (P=0.005). ABCA1 is an additional genetic modifier in SLOS. Modifying placental cholesterol transfer pathways may be an approach for prenatal therapy of SLOS.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Mutação , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/genética , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Feminino , Morte Fetal/genética , Frequência do Gene , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , Mães , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Fosfatidilcolina-Esterol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome de Smith-Lemli-Opitz/etiologia
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 32(3): 477-87, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22228566

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Standard therapy for lupus nephritis is based on non-specific immunosuppression. We aimed to identify specific alterations in T cell and cytokine homeostasis and possible associations with disease activity in children with lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: The phenotype of circulating T cells from children with LN and healthy controls (HC) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Intracellular expression of IL-17 and INF-γ was assessed after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Serum concentrations of IP10, CCL2, TGF-ß, IL-17, and IL-23 were measured by ELISA. Disease activity was determined using the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 update (SLEDAI-2K). RESULTS: Children with active LN displayed increased frequencies of effector memory CD4(+)CD45RO(+)CCR7(-) and terminal differentiated CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(-) T cells and reduced naive CD4(+)CD45RA(+)CCR7(+) T cells compared to those with inactive LN or HC. Circulating CD4(+)CXCR3(+) and CD4(+)CCR2(+) T cells correlated inversely with the renal SLEDAI-2K, whereas IP10 and CCL2 showed a positive correlation. Reduced CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and serum TFG-ß levels in active LN were associated with high serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels and correlated inversely with the renal SLEDAI-2K (r = -0.5855, p = 0.0013 and r = -0.6246, p = 0.0005, respectively), whereas IL-17 and IL-23 correlated positively (r = 0.5516, p = 0.0029 and r = 0.6116, p = 0.0007, respectively). Expansion of Th17 and Th1/Th17 cells in children with LN was significantly greater than in HC (p = 0.0304 and p = 0.0067, respectively). CONCLUSION: Children with active LN display high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with an increase in effector T cells and reduction of regulatory T cells. Therapeutic regulation of the aberrant cytokine profile might specifically interrupt pathogenic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Adolescente , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Criança , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/sangue , Masculino , Receptores CCR2/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Receptores de Citocinas/imunologia
10.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 27(5): 793-800, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22147121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell injury plays a key role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN) and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify factors involved in the process of endothelial damage in children and adolescents with LN. METHODS: We evaluated the relationship between plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its soluble receptors sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 and markers of endothelial inflammation and injury (angiopoietin-2 and thrombomodulin, respectively) in 23 children and adolescents with LN (active LN, n = 14; inactive LN, n = 9; mean age 15 years) and 20 healthy controls (HC; mean age 12 years). RESULTS: VEGF, sVEGFR-1, angiopoietin-2 and thrombomodulin levels were significantly higher in children and adolescents with active LN than in patients in remission or HC. In active LN, however, VEGF was inversely related to sVEGFR-1 (r = -0.802, p < 0.001), angiopoietin-2 (r = -0.684, p = 0.007) and thrombomodulin (r = -0.697, p = 0.006). There was a significant positive correlation between sVEGFR-1 and thrombomodulin (r = 0.814, p < 0.0001), but sVEGFR-2 did not significantly differ between the patient groups and did not correlate with thrombomodulin (r = 0.046, p = 0.833). CONCLUSIONS: sVEGFR-1 may play an important role in promoting endothelial damage in children and adolescents with active LN and could possibly be used to monitor disease severity.


Assuntos
Endotélio/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/sangue , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Angiopoietina-2/sangue , Biomarcadores , Criança , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Testes de Função Renal , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Masculino , Proteinúria/sangue , Trombomodulina/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hum Mutat ; 31(8): E1587-93, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648631

RESUMO

Cleidocranial Dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplastic or absent clavicles, increased head circumference, large fontanels, dental anomalies, and short stature. Hand malformations are also common. Mutations in RUNX2 cause CCD, but are not identified in all CCD patients. In this study we screened 135 unrelated patients with the clinical diagnosis of CCD for RUNX2 mutations by sequencing analysis and demonstrated 82 mutations 48 of which were novel. By quantitative PCR we screened the remaining 53 unrelated patients for copy number variations in the RUNX2 gene. Heterozygous deletions of different size were identified in 13 patients, and a duplication of the exons 1 to 4 of the RUNX2 gene in one patient. Thus, heterozygous deletions or duplications affecting the RUNX2 gene may be present in about 10% of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of CCD which corresponds to 26% of individuals with normal results on sequencing analysis. We therefore suggest that screening for intragenic deletions and duplications by qPCR or MLPA should be considered for patients with CCD phenotype in whom DNA sequencing does not reveal a causative RUNX2 mutation.


Assuntos
Displasia Cleidocraniana/genética , Deleção de Genes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 17(3): 395-400, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19225462

RESUMO

The 3M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder recently ascribed to mutations in the CUL7 gene and characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation. Studying a series of 33 novel cases of 3M syndrome, we have identified deleterious CUL7 mutations in 23/33 patients, including 19 novel mutations and one paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 encompassing a CUL7 mutation. Lack of mutations in 10/33 cases and exclusion of the CUL7 locus on chromosome 6p21.1 in six consanguineous families strongly support the genetic heterogeneity of the 3M syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas Culina/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Mutação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Família , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/patologia , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Radiografia , Síndrome
14.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 24(5): 536-40, 2007 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17958805

RESUMO

Transient, symptomatic zinc deficiency in breast-fed, low-birthweight infants is a rare, but probably underrecognized disorder hallmarked by periorificial and acral dermatitis. Unlike in acrodermatitis enteropathica, symptoms disappear when nursing ends. We report a breast-fed, preterm infant with demarcated, erythematous, and exudative patches with overlying crusts on the perioral, perianal, and acral areas. Laboratory investigations revealed lowered zinc levels in the infant's serum, but normal levels in his mother's milk. Oral zinc supplementation resulted in total clearing of skin lesions within 4 weeks. Our patient's presentation illustrates the importance of zinc in rapidly growing preterm infants and aims to stimulate awareness for this disorder. Symptomatic zinc deficiency can be easily diagnosed by careful examination and effectively treated with oral zinc substitution.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Gluconatos/administração & dosagem , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Dermatopatias/dietoterapia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Zinco/deficiência , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Zinco/sangue
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