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Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(37): 20613-20627, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528972


Atmospheric aerosol particles with a high viscosity may become inhomogeneously mixed during chemical processing. Models have predicted gradients in condensed phase reactant concentration throughout particles as the result of diffusion and chemical reaction limitations, termed chemical gradients. However, these have never been directly observed for atmospherically relevant particle diameters. We investigated the reaction between ozone and aerosol particles composed of xanthan gum and FeCl2 and observed the in situ chemical reaction that oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ using X-ray spectromicroscopy. Iron oxidation state of particles as small as 0.2 µm in diameter were imaged over time with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. We found that the loss off Fe2+ accelerated with increasing ozone concentration and relative humidity, RH. Concentric 2-D column integrated profiles of the Fe2+ fraction, α, out of the total iron were derived and demonstrated that particle surfaces became oxidized while particle cores remained unreacted at RH = 0-20%. At higher RH, chemical gradients evolved over time, extended deeper from the particle surface, and Fe2+ became more homogeneously distributed. We used the kinetic multi-layer model for aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB) to simulate ozone reaction constrained with our observations and inferred key parameters as a function of RH including Henry's Law constant for ozone, HO3, and diffusion coefficients for ozone and iron, DO3 and DFe, respectively. We found that HO3 is higher in our xanthan gum/FeCl2 particles than for water and increases when RH decreased from about 80% to dry conditions. This coincided with a decrease in both DO3 and DFe. In order to reproduce observed chemical gradients, our model predicted that ozone could not be present further than a few nanometers from a particle surface indicating near surface reactions were driving changes in iron oxidation state. However, the observed chemical gradients in α observed over hundreds of nanometers must have been the result of iron transport from the particle interior to the surface where ozone oxidation occurred. In the context of our results, we examine the applicability of the reacto-diffusive framework and discuss diffusion limitations for other reactive gas-aerosol systems of atmospheric importance.

Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12693, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978998


Organic interfaces that exist at the sea surface microlayer or as surfactant coatings on cloud droplets are highly concentrated and chemically distinct from the underlying bulk or overlying gas phase. Therefore, they may be potentially unique locations for chemical or photochemical reactions. Recently, photochemical production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was reported at a nonanoic acid interface however, subsequent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particle production was incapable of being observed. We investigated SOA particle formation due to photochemical reactions occurring at an air-water interface in presence of model saturated long chain fatty acid and alcohol surfactants, nonanoic acid and nonanol, respectively. Ozonolysis of the gas phase photochemical products in the dark or under continued UV irradiation both resulted in nucleation and growth of SOA particles. Irradiation of nonanol did not yield detectable VOC or SOA production. Organic carbon functionalities of the SOA were probed using X-ray microspectroscopy and compared with other laboratory generated and field collected particles. Carbon-carbon double bonds were identified in the condensed phase which survived ozonolysis during new particle formation and growth. The implications of photochemical processes occurring at organic coated surfaces are discussed in the context of marine SOA particle atmospheric fluxes.

Anal Chem ; 89(5): 2873-2879, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28192926


A significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles is composed of organic material with a highly complex but poorly characterized composition. For a better understanding of aerosol effects and processes in the atmosphere, a more detailed knowledge of aerosol components at a molecular level is needed. Peroxy acids might play a significant role in particle toxicity, due to their oxidizing properties, and they were recently found to be involved in particle formation. Because of the lack of appropriate standards, the identification and quantification of peroxy acids is often highly uncertain. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool to characterize unidentified compounds in complex mixtures. However, so far there is only little information regarding the ionization and fragmentation behavior of peroxy acids in mass spectrometers. To study their fragmentation patterns, we synthesized 12 peroxy acids with C8 to C10 carbon backbones and mono- or diperoxy acid functionality. The peroxy acids were separated using liquid chromatography, detected via negative mode electrospray ionization high-resolution MS, and their fragmentation patterns (MS/MS spectra) were identified. The MS/MS spectra of the peroxy acids showed fragmentation patterns clearly different from the corresponding acid, with a strong similarity between compounds of different chain length but analogous functional groups. Neutral loss of CH2O2 was observed for all investigated linear peroxy acids but not for carboxylic acids and could therefore serve as a diagnostic ion for peroxy acids. The obtained results are a large step toward unambiguous characterization of peroxy acids in the atmosphere.

Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(18): 12662-74, 2016 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095585


Heterogeneous and multiphase reactions of ozone are important pathways for chemical ageing of atmospheric organic aerosols. To demonstrate and quantify how moisture-induced phase changes can affect the gas uptake and chemical transformation of organic matter, we apply a kinetic multi-layer model to a comprehensive experimental data set of ozone uptake by shikimic acid. The bulk diffusion coefficients were determined to be 10(-12) cm(2) s(-1) for ozone and 10(-20) cm(2) s(-1) for shikimic acid under dry conditions, increasing by several orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) due to phase changes from amorphous solid over semisolid to liquid. Consequently, the reactive uptake of ozone progresses through different kinetic regimes characterised by specific limiting processes and parameters. At high RH, ozone uptake is driven by reaction throughout the particle bulk; at low RH it is restricted to reaction near the particle surface and kinetically limited by slow diffusion and replenishment of unreacted organic molecules. Our results suggest that the chemical reaction mechanism involves long-lived reactive oxygen intermediates, likely primary ozonides or O atoms, which may provide a pathway for self-reaction and catalytic destruction of ozone at the surface. Slow diffusion and ozone destruction can effectively shield reactive organic molecules in the particle bulk from degradation. We discuss the potential non-orthogonality of kinetic parameters, and show how this problem can be solved by using comprehensive experimental data sets to constrain the kinetic model, providing mechanistic insights into the coupling of transport, phase changes, and chemical reactions of multiple species in complex systems.

Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(46): 31101-9, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536455


Ageing of particulate organic matter affects the composition and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Driven by temperature and humidity, the organic fraction can vary its physical state between liquid and amorphous solid, or rarely even crystalline. These transitions can influence the reaction kinetics due to limitations of mass transport in such (semi-) solid states, which in turn may influence the chemical ageing of particles containing such compounds. We have used coated wall flow tube experiments to investigate the reaction kinetics of the ozonolysis of shikimic acid, which serves as a proxy for oxygenated, water-soluble organic matter and can form a glass at room temperature. Particular attention was paid to how the presence of water influences the reaction, since it acts a plasticiser and thereby induces changes in the physical state. We analysed the results by means of a traditional resistor model, which assumes steady-state conditions. The ozonolysis rate of shikimic acid is strongly increased in the presence of water, a fact we attribute to the increased transport of O3 and shikimic acid through the condensed phase at lower viscosities. The analysis using the resistor model suggests that the system undergoes both surface and bulk reaction. The second-order rate coefficient of the bulk reaction is 3.7 (+1.5/-3.2) × 10(3) L mol(-1) s(-1). At low humidity and long timescales, the resistor model fails to describe the measurements appropriately. The persistent O3 uptake at very low humidity suggests contribution of a self-reaction of O3 on the surface.