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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(2): 439-448, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022185

RESUMO

This paper investigates factors associated with motherhood among adolescents from 14 to 16 years of age in Porto Alegre, Brazil. This is a case-control study with 431 adolescent mothers (cases) and 862 adolescents who had never given birth (controls). D. ata were obtained through home visits by an interviewer-applied questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, quality of social and family relationships, lifestyle and history of abuse were studied as potential determinants to early adolescent motherhood. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis according to a two-stage hierarchical model. Results showed that lower economic class, schooling failure, tobacco consumption, alcoholic drunkenness at least once in life and having a mother who gave birth before 20 years of age were positively associated with early adolescent motherhood. Later menarche and having relatives or having friends in whom to trust remained as protective factors. Schooling failure, which obtained the highest risk, points to the important role of the school in this population's development and its potential to stimulate healthy life habits.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214869, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947294

RESUMO

Patient no-show is a prevalent problem in health care services leading to inefficient resources allocation and limited access to care. This study aims to develop and validate a patient no-show predictive model based on empirical data. A retrospective study was performed using scheduled appointments between 2011 and 2014 from a Brazilian public primary care setting. Fifty percent of the dataset was randomly assigned to model development, and 50% was assigned to validation. Predictive models were developed using stepwise naïve and mixed-effect logistic regression along with the Akaike Information Criteria to select the best model. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to assess the best model performance. Of the 57,586 scheduled appointments in the period, 70.7% (n = 40,740) were evaluated including 5,637 patients. The prevalence of no-show was 13.0% (n = 5,282). The best model presented an AUC of 80.9% (95% CI 80.1-81.7). The most important predictors were previous attendance and same-day appointments. The best model developed from data already available in the scheduling system, had a good performance to predict patient no-show. It is expected the model to be helpful to overbooking decision in the scheduling system. Further investigation is needed to explore the effectiveness of using this model in terms of improving service performance and its impact on quality of care compared to the usual practice.


Assuntos
Pacientes não Comparecentes , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Agendamento de Consultas , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pacientes não Comparecentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Lasers Med Sci ; 34(6): 1053-1062, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729351

RESUMO

Review effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the curative treatment of oral mucositis (OM) in patients receiving cancer therapy. A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases according to PRISMA guidelines, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) on OM in patients during and/or after cancer therapy and in which the therapeutic approach was LLLT, with wavelengths between 632 and 970 nm. We considered grade of OM as a dichotomous variable (such as an improvement or not in severe OM on the seventh day of therapy), with the analysis of subgroups of adult patients or children and adolescents and as a continuous variable with determination of the time for the complete resolution and the subgroup analysis occurred with the strata of the samples by treatment only with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This paper's protocol was registered a priori at https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO . We found five RCT (total of 315 patients) with adequate methodology. LLLT was effective, presenting a 62% risk reduction of severe mucositis on the seventh day of evaluation (RR = 0.38 [95% CI, 0.19-0.75]). When we analyzed subgroups, RR was 0.28 (95% CI 0.17-0.46) in the adult studies and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.46-1.78) in the studies with children and adolescents. We demonstrated a mean reduction of 4.21 days in the time of complete resolution of OM (CI - 5.65 to - 2.76) in favor of LLLT. There is moderate evidence that LLLT is effective in resolving OM lesions in adult patients undergoing cancer therapy. LLLT demonstrates potential for decreasing the resolution time of OM lesions by approximately 4.21 days.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Neoplasias Bucais/complicações , Neoplasias Bucais/radioterapia , Estomatite/complicações , Estomatite/radioterapia , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Manejo da Dor , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estomatite/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(4): 553-560, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776060

RESUMO

Importance: As the rate of publication of new and sometimes conflicting medical research increases, clinicians rely heavily on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to inform practice. However, CPGs are of widely variable quality, and there are no existing objective measures to rate the quality of CPGs. Objective: To systematically assess 421 CPGs for the management of common noncommunicable diseases in primary care using the validated Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation Instrument, version II (AGREE-II) tool and elucidate the factors associated with quality of CPGs. Evidence Review: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and 12 websites for CPGs were searched for CPGs for the management of common noncommunicable diseases in primary care published between January 1, 2011, and August 30, 2017. The assessment of the quality of CPGs was performed by 3 appraisers using the 6 domains of the AGREE-II instrument. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with quality of CPGs. Findings: Of the 421 CPGs reviewed, 23.5% (99) were classified as high quality. Among included guidelines, clarity of presentation (70%) and scope and purpose (61%) had the highest median AGREE-II scores. The domains with the lowest median scores were applicability (22%) and rigor of development (33%). Factors associated with high-quality CPGs included having more than 20 authors (odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 3.35-24.62), development at governmental institutions (odds ratio, 10.38; 95% CI, 2.72-39.60), and reporting funding (odds ratio, 10.34; 95% CI, 4.77-22.39). Year of publication, region, guideline version, and scope were not associated with quality among included CPGs. Conclusions and Relevance: Primary care professionals and policymakers should be aware that CPGs in primary care are of widely variable quality, with less than 25% of included CPGs rated as high quality. High-quality CPGs were associated with a higher number of authors, governmental institutions, and the report of funding. Region of origin was not associated with quality of CPGs, which suggests that the improvement of the quality of CPGs should be an international concern.

5.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 136(6): 501-504, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central blood pressure is a factor that may predict cardiovascular events. However, its use in clinical practice is not well consolidated. Therefore, the aim of our study will be to summarize the use of central hemodynamic parameters to predict cardiovascular-related outcomes and all-cause mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Protocol for systematic review of longitudinal observational studies conducted in healthcare institutions, as presented in the studies included. METHODS: We will perform a systematic search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE and LILACS (via Virtual Health Library (VHL)), using health descriptors terms for elderly people and for hemodynamic indices of central blood pressure. We will include articles that evaluated hemodynamic indices and at least one of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular death, total non-cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, revascularization and aortic syndromes. Two independent reviewers will conduct analysis on the abstracts selected and on the full-text articles. Two reviewers will independently perform data extraction and evaluate the methodological quality of the articles selected, and a third reviewer will evaluate any divergences. The methodological quality of the studies will be assessed in accordance with the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Through this systematic review, we intend to summarize evidence that supports the use of central hemodynamic parameters for central blood pressure to diagnose and perform prognostics on arterial hypertension in elderly patients within clinical practice and predict future cardiovascular events in this population. REGISTRATION: Prospero - CRD42018085264.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Idoso , Pressão Arterial , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 501-504, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-991689

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Central blood pressure is a factor that may predict cardiovascular events. However, its use in clinical practice is not well consolidated. Therefore, the aim of our study will be to summarize the use of central hemodynamic parameters to predict cardiovascular-related outcomes and all-cause mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: Protocol for systematic review of longitudinal observational studies conducted in healthcare institutions, as presented in the studies included. METHODS: We will perform a systematic search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE and LILACS (via Virtual Health Library (VHL)), using health descriptors terms for elderly people and for hemodynamic indices of central blood pressure. We will include articles that evaluated hemodynamic indices and at least one of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular death, total non-cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, revascularization and aortic syndromes. Two independent reviewers will conduct analysis on the abstracts selected and on the full-text articles. Two reviewers will independently perform data extraction and evaluate the methodological quality of the articles selected, and a third reviewer will evaluate any divergences. The methodological quality of the studies will be assessed in accordance with the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Through this systematic review, we intend to summarize evidence that supports the use of central hemodynamic parameters for central blood pressure to diagnose and perform prognostics on arterial hypertension in elderly patients within clinical practice and predict future cardiovascular events in this population. REGISTRATION: Prospero - CRD42018085264.

8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(6): e00116317, 2018 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947660

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines are traditionally drafted by expert consensus. The benefits of mammographic screening have been questioned in recent years, owing to biases detected in the clinical trials that popularized its widespread use. Meanwhile, growing body of evidence on harms associated with mammographic screening also required a new approach, taking into account the uncertainties on the benefits and a balance between the gains and possible harms from screening. This article discusses the development of the new guidelines for early detection of breast cancer in Brazil, with details on the drafting methods and implications for the new recommendations. The new methodology features systematic literature reviews, assessment of the validity of the evidence, and the balance between each intervention's risks and benefits, ensuring greater transparency, reproducibility, and validity in the drafting process. The new guidelines also include recommendations for cases with suspicious signs and symptoms. The authors provide a detailed discussion of the advantages of the approach as compared to the traditional expert consensus model, as well as the methods' limitations and disadvantages. They also address the implications of various decisions, such as choices on study designs, screening effectiveness outcomes, definition of overdiagnosis, and methods for calculation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Brasil , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(6): e00046317, 2018 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952397

RESUMO

The objective of the current article is to present the main challenges for the implementation of the new recommendations for early detection of breast cancer in Brazil, and to reflect on the barriers and the strategies to overcome them. The implementation of evidence-based guidelines is a global challenge, and traditional strategies based only on disseminating their recommendations have proven insufficient for changing prevailing clinical practice. A major challenge for adherence to the new guidelines for early detection of breast cancer in Brazil is the current pattern in the use of mammographic screening in the country, which very often includes young women and a short interval between tests. Such practice, harmful to the population's health, is reinforced by the logic of defensive medicine and the dissemination of erroneous information that overestimates the benefits of screening and underestimates or even omits its harms. In addition, there is a lack of policies and measures focused on early diagnosis of symptomatic cases. To overcome these barriers, changes in the regulation of care, financing, and implementation of shared decision-making in primary care are essential. Audit and feedback, academic detailing, and the incorporation of decision aids are some of the strategies that can facilitate implementation of the new recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto/normas , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Humanos , Mamografia/normas , Mamografia/tendências
10.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 26: e2999, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop and validate the content of a clinical protocol aimed at prevention of cervical cancer in primary care. METHOD: technological research according to the steps: (1) submission of the project to the research ethics committee; (2) bibliographic survey; (3) elaboration of the clinical protocol; and (4) content validation. In the third step, the information was collected through bibliographic research and gynecology specialists were consulted. For the final step, four judges were selected to evaluate the clinical protocol according to AGREE 2. Domains that reached the minimum level of agreement of 75% in the scores were considered validated. RESULTS: the scores obtained in each domain of the instrument were as follows: domain 1 (scope and purpose) = 87.5%; domain 2 (stakeholder involvement) = 83.3%; domain 3 (development rigor) = 79.7%; domain 4 (clarity of presentation) = 76.3%; domain 5 (applicability) = 78.1%; and domain 6 (editorial independence) = 85.4. CONCLUSION: the clinical protocol proved to be a validated material with scores above the minimum required. The protocol obtained positive recommendations with modifications and went through adjustments in order to make it more effective.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
Pharm Res ; 35(6): 116, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacious cefazolin prophylactic dose for bariatric surgery using free subcutaneous concentrations accessed by microdialysis after 2 g or 3 g i.v. bolus dosing to morbidly obese women and POPPK modeling. METHODS: A POPPK model with variable plasma and subcutaneous tissue protein binding was developed to simultaneously describe plasma and tissue data sets. The outcomes was predicted for common surgical site infection (SSI) bacteria over 3, 4, 5 and 6 h periods postdose, as probability of target attainment (PTA) using Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: CFZ 2 g warrant up to 5 h SSI prophylaxis for bacteria with MICs ≤1 mg/L such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. For species such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, which present MIC distribution frequency of 2 mg/L, the maintenance of PTA ≥ 90% occurs with a 3 g dose for surgeries lasting up to 5 h, and 2 g dose provide an adequate response up to 4 h (PTA of 89%). CONCLUSIONS: Effectiveness of CFZ 2 g is similar to 3 g against bacteria with a MIC up to 2 mg/L, especially if the surgery does not last for more than 4 h.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Cefazolina/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microdiálise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 32(8): e4254, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656496

RESUMO

Antimicrobial prophylactic dosing of morbidly obese patients may differ from normal weighted individuals owing to alterations in drug tissue distribution. Drug subcutaneous tissue distribution can be investigated by microdialysis patients and animals. The need for cefazolin prophylactic dose adjustment in obese patients remains under discussion. The paper describes the validation of an HPLC-UV method for cefazolin quantification in plasma and microdialysate samples from clinical and pre-clinical studies. A C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase was used for drug separation, with detection at 272 nm. Total and unbound cefazolin lower limit of quantitation was 5 µg/mL in human plasma, 2 µg/mL in rat plasma, and 0.5 and 0.025 µg/mL in human and rat microdialysate samples, respectively. The maximum intra- and inter-day imprecisions were 10.7 and 8.1%, respectively. The inaccuracy was <9.7%. The limit of quantitation imprecision and inaccuracy were < 15%. Cefazolin stability in the experimental conditions was confirmed. Cefazolin plasma concentrations and subcutaneous tissue penetration were determined by microdialysis in morbidly obese patients (2 g i.v. bolus) and diet-induced obese rats (30 mg/kg i.v. bolus) using the method. This method has the main advantages of easy plasma clean-up and practicability and has proven to be useful in cefazolin clinical and pre-clinical pharmacokinetic investigations.


Assuntos
Cefazolina/sangue , Cefazolina/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Cefazolina/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Microdiálise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tela Subcutânea/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e2999, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | BDENF - Enfermagem, LILACS | ID: biblio-901963

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and validate the content of a clinical protocol aimed at prevention of cervical cancer in primary care. Method: technological research according to the steps: (1) submission of the project to the research ethics committee; (2) bibliographic survey; (3) elaboration of the clinical protocol; and (4) content validation. In the third step, the information was collected through bibliographic research and gynecology specialists were consulted. For the final step, four judges were selected to evaluate the clinical protocol according to AGREE 2. Domains that reached the minimum level of agreement of 75% in the scores were considered validated. Results: the scores obtained in each domain of the instrument were as follows: domain 1 (scope and purpose) = 87.5%; domain 2 (stakeholder involvement) = 83.3%; domain 3 (development rigor) = 79.7%; domain 4 (clarity of presentation) = 76.3%; domain 5 (applicability) = 78.1%; and domain 6 (editorial independence) = 85.4. Conclusion: the clinical protocol proved to be a validated material with scores above the minimum required. The protocol obtained positive recommendations with modifications and went through adjustments in order to make it more effective.


RESUMO Objetivos: desenvolver e validar o conteúdo de um protocolo clínico direcionado à prevenção do câncer cervical na atenção primária. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de desenvolvimento tecnológico em saúde(8) realizada em quatro etapas: (1) submissão do projeto ao comitê de ética em pesquisa; (2) levantamento bibliográfico; (3) elaboração do protocolo clínico; e (4) validação de conteúdo. Na terceira etapa, as informações foram levantadas mediante pesquisa bibliográfica e consultados especialistas em ginecologia. Para a etapa final, foram selecionados quatro juízes que avaliaram o protocolo clínico segundo o AGREE 2. Foram considerados validados os domínios que obtiveram nível de concordância mínimo de 75% nas pontuações. Resultados: as pontuações obtidas, em cada domínio do instrumento, foram as seguintes: domínio 1 (escopo e finalidade)=87,5%; domínio 2 (envolvimento das partes interessadas)=83,3%; domínio 3 (rigor do desenvolvimento)=79,7%; domínio 4 (clareza da apresentação)=76,3%; domínio 5 (aplicabilidade)=78,1%; e domínio 6 (independência editorial)=85,4. Conclusão: o protocolo clínico mostrou-se um material validado com pontuações superiores ao mínimo exigido. Obteve recomendações positivas com modificações e passou por ajustes a fim de torná-lo mais efetivo.


RESUMEN Objetivos: desarrollar y validar el contenido de un protocolo clínico dirigido a la prevención del cáncer cervical en atención primaria. Método: investigación tecnológica conforme a las etapas: (1) sujeción del proyecto al comité de ética en investigación; (2) levantamiento bibliográfico; (3) elaboración del protocolo clínico; y (4) validación de contenido. En la tercera etapa, las informaciones fueron levantadas mediante investigación bibliográfica y consultados especialistas en ginecología. Para la etapa final, fueron seleccionados cuatro jueces que evaluaron el protocolo clínico según el AGREE 2. Fueron considerados válidos los dominios que obtuvieron nivel de concordancia mínimo de 75% en las puntuaciones. Resultados: las puntuaciones obtenidas, en cada dominio del instrumento, fueron las siguientes: dominio 1 (alcance y finalidad) = 87,5%; dominio 2 (implicación de las partes interesadas) - 83,3%; dominio 3 (rigor del desarrollo) = 79,7%; dominio 4 (claridad de la presentación) = 76,3%; dominio 5 (aplicabilidad) = 78,1% y dominio 6 (independencia editorial) = 85,4. Conclusión: el protocolo clínico se mostró como un material válido con puntuaciones superiores al mínimo exigido. Obtuvo recomendaciones positivas con modificaciones y pasó por ajustes a fin de hacerlo más efectivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Protocolos Clínicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e2999, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-901942

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to develop and validate the content of a clinical protocol aimed at prevention of cervical cancer in primary care. Method: technological research according to the steps: (1) submission of the project to the research ethics committee; (2) bibliographic survey; (3) elaboration of the clinical protocol; and (4) content validation. In the third step, the information was collected through bibliographic research and gynecology specialists were consulted. For the final step, four judges were selected to evaluate the clinical protocol according to AGREE 2. Domains that reached the minimum level of agreement of 75% in the scores were considered validated. Results: the scores obtained in each domain of the instrument were as follows: domain 1 (scope and purpose) = 87.5%; domain 2 (stakeholder involvement) = 83.3%; domain 3 (development rigor) = 79.7%; domain 4 (clarity of presentation) = 76.3%; domain 5 (applicability) = 78.1%; and domain 6 (editorial independence) = 85.4. Conclusion: the clinical protocol proved to be a validated material with scores above the minimum required. The protocol obtained positive recommendations with modifications and went through adjustments in order to make it more effective.


RESUMO Objetivos: desenvolver e validar o conteúdo de um protocolo clínico direcionado à prevenção do câncer cervical na atenção primária. Método: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de desenvolvimento tecnológico em saúde(8) realizada em quatro etapas: (1) submissão do projeto ao comitê de ética em pesquisa; (2) levantamento bibliográfico; (3) elaboração do protocolo clínico; e (4) validação de conteúdo. Na terceira etapa, as informações foram levantadas mediante pesquisa bibliográfica e consultados especialistas em ginecologia. Para a etapa final, foram selecionados quatro juízes que avaliaram o protocolo clínico segundo o AGREE 2. Foram considerados validados os domínios que obtiveram nível de concordância mínimo de 75% nas pontuações. Resultados: as pontuações obtidas, em cada domínio do instrumento, foram as seguintes: domínio 1 (escopo e finalidade)=87,5%; domínio 2 (envolvimento das partes interessadas)=83,3%; domínio 3 (rigor do desenvolvimento)=79,7%; domínio 4 (clareza da apresentação)=76,3%; domínio 5 (aplicabilidade)=78,1%; e domínio 6 (independência editorial)=85,4. Conclusão: o protocolo clínico mostrou-se um material validado com pontuações superiores ao mínimo exigido. Obteve recomendações positivas com modificações e passou por ajustes a fim de torná-lo mais efetivo.


RESUMEN Objetivos: desarrollar y validar el contenido de un protocolo clínico dirigido a la prevención del cáncer cervical en atención primaria. Método: investigación tecnológica conforme a las etapas: (1) sujeción del proyecto al comité de ética en investigación; (2) levantamiento bibliográfico; (3) elaboración del protocolo clínico; y (4) validación de contenido. En la tercera etapa, las informaciones fueron levantadas mediante investigación bibliográfica y consultados especialistas en ginecología. Para la etapa final, fueron seleccionados cuatro jueces que evaluaron el protocolo clínico según el AGREE 2. Fueron considerados válidos los dominios que obtuvieron nivel de concordancia mínimo de 75% en las puntuaciones. Resultados: las puntuaciones obtenidas, en cada dominio del instrumento, fueron las siguientes: dominio 1 (alcance y finalidad) = 87,5%; dominio 2 (implicación de las partes interesadas) - 83,3%; dominio 3 (rigor del desarrollo) = 79,7%; dominio 4 (claridad de la presentación) = 76,3%; dominio 5 (aplicabilidad) = 78,1% y dominio 6 (independencia editorial) = 85,4. Conclusión: el protocolo clínico se mostró como un material válido con puntuaciones superiores al mínimo exigido. Obtuvo recomendaciones positivas con modificaciones y pasó por ajustes a fin de hacerlo más efectivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Mulher , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(6): e00046317, 2018. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952398

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar os principais desafios à implementação das novas recomendações para a detecção precoce do câncer de mama no Brasil, bem como refletir sobre as barreiras e estratégias para a sua superação. A implementação de diretrizes baseadas em evidências é um desafio em todo o mundo, e estratégias tradicionais baseadas apenas na disseminação de seu texto são comprovadamente insuficientes para gerar mudanças na prática clínica vigente. Um grande desafio à adesão às novas diretrizes para a detecção precoce do câncer de mama no Brasil é o atual padrão de uso do rastreamento mamográfico no país, que acaba incluindo muito frequentemente mulheres jovens e intervalo curto entre os exames. Essa prática danosa à saúde da população é reforçada pela lógica da medicina defensiva e pela difusão de informações equivocadas, que superestimam os benefícios do rastreamento e subestimam ou mesmo omitem seus riscos. Além disso, há carência de políticas e ações voltadas para o diagnóstico precoce de casos sintomáticos. Para superar essas barreiras, mudanças relacionadas à regulação da assistência, financiamento e a implantação do processo de decisão compartilhada na atenção primária são essenciais. Auditoria-feedback, detalhamento acadêmico e incorporação de ferramentas de suporte à decisão são algumas das estratégias que podem facilitar o processo de implementação das novas recomendações.


El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar los principales desafíos para la implementación de las nuevas recomendaciones en la detección precoz del cáncer de mama en Brasil, así como reflexionar sobre las barreras y estrategias para su superación. La implementación de directrices, basadas en evidencias, es un desafío en todo el mundo, y las estrategias tradicionales basadas sólo en la propagación de las mismas son comprobadamente insuficientes para generar cambios en la práctica clínica vigente. Un gran desafío para la adhesión a las nuevas directrices para la detección precoz del cáncer de mama en Brasil es el actual patrón de uso del rastreo mamográfico en el país, que incluye a menudo a mujeres jóvenes e intervalo corto entre los exámenes. Esta práctica perjudicial para la salud de la población es reforzada por la lógica de la medicina defensiva y por la difusión de información equivocada, que sobrestiman los beneficios del rastreo y subestiman o incluso omiten sus riesgos. Asimismo, existe una carencia de políticas y acciones dirigidas al diagnóstico precoz de casos sintomáticos. Para superar estas barreras, son imprescindibles cambios relacionados con la regulación de la asistencia, financiación y la implantación del proceso de decisión compartida en la atención primaria. Algunas de las estrategias que pueden facilitar el proceso de implementación de las nuevas recomendaciones son: auditoría con retroalimentación, detalle académico e incorporación de herramientas de apoyo a la decisión son algunas de las estrategias que pueden facilitar el proceso de implementación de las nuevas recomendaciones.


The objective of the current article is to present the main challenges for the implementation of the new recommendations for early detection of breast cancer in Brazil, and to reflect on the barriers and the strategies to overcome them. The implementation of evidence-based guidelines is a global challenge, and traditional strategies based only on disseminating their recommendations have proven insufficient for changing prevailing clinical practice. A major challenge for adherence to the new guidelines for early detection of breast cancer in Brazil is the current pattern in the use of mammographic screening in the country, which very often includes young women and a short interval between tests. Such practice, harmful to the population's health, is reinforced by the logic of defensive medicine and the dissemination of erroneous information that overestimates the benefits of screening and underestimates or even omits its harms. In addition, there is a lack of policies and measures focused on early diagnosis of symptomatic cases. To overcome these barriers, changes in the regulation of care, financing, and implementation of shared decision-making in primary care are essential. Audit and feedback, academic detailing, and the incorporation of decision aids are some of the strategies that can facilitate implementation of the new recommendations.

19.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(6): e00116317, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952408

RESUMO

Tradicionalmente, diretrizes clínicas são elaboradas a partir do consenso de opiniões de especialistas. Nos últimos anos, a magnitude dos benefícios do rastreamento mamográfico vem sendo questionada em função dos vieses detectados nos ensaios clínicos que popularizaram a disseminação dessa prática. Paralelamente, o crescente corpo de evidências sobre danos associados ao rastreamento mamográfico também demandava uma nova abordagem que considerasse as incertezas sobre os benefícios e um balanço entre ganhos e possíveis danos. O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar o processo de elaboração das novas diretrizes para detecção precoce do câncer de mama no Brasil, detalhando os métodos utilizados, bem como suas implicações para as novas recomendações. A nova abordagem metodológica apresenta como pilares a realização de revisões sistemáticas da literatura, a avaliação da validade das evidências e o balanço entre riscos e benefícios de cada intervenção, garantindo maior transparência, reprodutibilidade e validade no processo de elaboração. Outra inovação das novas diretrizes é a presença de recomendações dirigidas a casos com sinais e sintomas suspeitos. As vantagens da abordagem adotada frente ao modelo tradicional de consenso de especialistas são discutidas com detalhes, bem como os limites e desvantagens dos métodos utilizados. Também são discutidas as implicações de diversas decisões, como escolhas sobre desenhos de estudo, desfechos sobre efetividade do rastreamento, além da definição de sobrediagnóstico e forma de cálculo.


Tradicionalmente, las directrices clínicas se elaboran a partir del consenso de opiniones de especialistas. En los últimos años, la magnitud de los beneficios del rastreo mamográfico ha sido cuestionada, debido a los sesgos detectados en los ensayos clínicos que popularizaron la propagación de esta práctica. Paralelamente, el creciente cuerpo de evidencias sobre daños asociados al rastreo mamográfico también demandaba un nuevo enfoque que considerase las incertidumbres sobre los beneficios y un balance entre ventajas y posibles daños. Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar el proceso de elaboración de las nuevas directrices para la detección precoz del cáncer de mama en Brasil, detallando los métodos utilizados, así como sus implicaciones para las nuevas recomendaciones. El nuevo enfoque metodológico presenta como pilares la realización de revisiones sistemáticas de la literatura, la evaluación de la validez de las evidencias y el balance entre riesgos y beneficios de cada intervención, garantizando una mayor transparencia, reproductibilidad y validez en el proceso de elaboración. Otra innovación de las nuevas diretrices es la presencia de recomendaciones dirigidas a casos con signos y síntomas sospechosos. Las ventajas del enfoque adoptado, frente al modelo tradicional de consenso por parte de los especialistas, se discute en detalle, así como los límites y desventajas de los métodos utilizados. Asimismo, se discuten las implicaciones de diversas decisiones, como las decisiones en relación con diseños de estudio, resultados sobre efectividad del rastreo, así como la definición de sobrediagnóstico y forma de cálculo.


Clinical guidelines are traditionally drafted by expert consensus. The benefits of mammographic screening have been questioned in recent years, owing to biases detected in the clinical trials that popularized its widespread use. Meanwhile, growing body of evidence on harms associated with mammographic screening also required a new approach, taking into account the uncertainties on the benefits and a balance between the gains and possible harms from screening. This article discusses the development of the new guidelines for early detection of breast cancer in Brazil, with details on the drafting methods and implications for the new recommendations. The new methodology features systematic literature reviews, assessment of the validity of the evidence, and the balance between each intervention's risks and benefits, ensuring greater transparency, reproducibility, and validity in the drafting process. The new guidelines also include recommendations for cases with suspicious signs and symptoms. The authors provide a detailed discussion of the advantages of the approach as compared to the traditional expert consensus model, as well as the methods' limitations and disadvantages. They also address the implications of various decisions, such as choices on study designs, screening effectiveness outcomes, definition of overdiagnosis, and methods for calculation.

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