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1.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2022 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000066

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to maternal depression increases the risk for onset of emotional and behavioral disorders in children. We investigated the effects of exposure to prenatal depression on white matter microstructural integrity at birth and at 2-3 years, and associated neurodevelopment. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired for children of the Drakenstein Child Health Study at 2-4 weeks postpartum (n=70, 47% boys) and at 2-3 years of age (n=60, 58% boys). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to compare, using an ROI based approach, diffusion tensor metrics across groups defined by presence (>19 on Beck's Depression Inventory and/or >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) or absence (below depression thresholds) of depression, and associations with neurodevelopmental measures at age 2-3 years were determined. We did not detect group differences in white matter integrity at neonatal age, but at 2-3 years, children in the exposed group demonstrated higher fractional anisotropy, and lower mean and radial diffusivity in association tracts compared to controls. This was notable in the sagittal stratum (radial diffusivity: p<0.01). Altered white matter integrity metrics were also observed in projection tracts, including the corona radiata, which associated with cognitive and motor outcomes in exposed 2-3-year-olds (p<0.05). Our findings of widespread white matter alterations in 2-3-year-old children with prenatal exposure to depression are consistent with previous findings, as well as with neuroimaging findings in adults with major depression. Further, we identified novel associations of altered white matter integrity with cognitive development in depression-exposed children, suggesting that these neuroimaging findings may have early functional impact.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985581

RESUMO

Mother-infant dyads in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may be exposed to a range of factors associated with suboptimal development. Optimal infant development is likely supported by synchronicity in the early mother-infant relationship, but limited corroborative research is available in LMICs. The Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS) provided an opportunity to study this synchronicity and its associations in South Africa. A South African birth cohort study investigating early-life determinants of child health in a LMIC context provided participants. The Shared Pleasure (SP) paradigm helped assess early mother-infant synchronicity in videos of a sub-set of 291 mother-infant dyads at their 14-week well baby visit. General linear regression models investigated the relationship between selected maternal and infant characteristics and the presence of Shared Pleasure moments. Out of a possible 291 dyads, 82% (n = 239) yielded Shared Pleasure moments. The mean age of mothers was 27 years, while infant sex distribution comprised 54% females and 46% males. The shortest single Shared Pleasure moment lasted at least 0.5 s and the longest 28 s. Shared Pleasure moments were associated with higher gestation age at delivery (p = 0.008) and higher infant birth weight (p = 0.006), but were not related to mother's mental health and infant health outcomes at 14 weeks. The high frequency of positive Shared Pleasure moments in reciprocal dyadic interactions in this sample suggests that significant disruption in shared pleasure may be present only in extreme cases (e.g. mothers with severe mental disorders). Further work is needed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the associations between early mother-infant synchronicity and better outcomes noted here, and to assess whether SP may serve as a culturally appropriate screen for assessing connectedness.

3.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 28: 100234, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024348

RESUMO

Introduction: The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) is the gold standard for neuropsychological assessment in psychotic disorders but is rarely used in low resource settings. This study used the MCCB to determine the prevalence, profile and associations of various exposures with cognitive impairment in Ugandan first-episode psychosis patients. Methods: Patients and matched healthy controls were recruited at Butabika Hospital in Uganda. Clinical variables were first collated, and after the resolution of psychotic symptoms, a neuropsychological assessment of seven cognitive domains was performed using the MCCB. Cognitive impairment was defined as two standard deviations (SD) below the mean in one domain or 1SD below the mean in two domains. Descriptive statistics determined the prevalence and profile of impairment while regression models determined the association between various exposures with cognitive scores while controlling for age, sex and education. Results: Neuropsychological assessment with the MCCB found the burden of cognitive impairment in first-episode psychosis patients five times that of healthy controls. The visual learning and memory domain was most impaired in first-episode psychosis patients, while it was the working memory domain for the healthy controls. Increased age was associated with impairment in the domains of the speed of processing (p < 0.001) and visual learning and memory (p = 0.001). Cassava-rich diets and previous alternative and complementary therapy use were negatively associated with impairment in the visual learning (p = 0.04) and attention/vigilance domains (p = 0.012), respectively. There were no significant associations between sex, history of childhood trauma, or illness severity with any cognitive domain. Conclusion: A significant burden of cognitive impairment in Ugandan first-episode psychosis patients is consistent with prior data from other contexts. However, the profile of and risk factors for impairment differ from that described in such work. Therefore, interventions to reduce cognitive impairment in FEP patients specific to this setting, including dietary modifications, are required.

4.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-12, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early detection of neurodevelopmental delay is crucial for intervention and treatment strategies. We analysed associations between newborn DNA methylation (DNAm), neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) neuroimaging data, and neurodevelopment. METHODS: Neurodevelopment was assessed in 161 children from the South African Drakenstein Child Health Study at 2 years of age using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III. We performed an epigenome-wide association study of neurodevelopmental delay using DNAm from cord blood. Subsequently, we analysed if associations between DNAm and neurodevelopmental delay were mediated by altered neonatal brain volumes (subset of 51 children). RESULTS: Differential DNAm at SPTBN4 (cg26971411, Δbeta = -0.024, p-value = 3.28 × 10-08), and two intergenic regions (chromosome 11: cg00490349, Δbeta = -0.036, p-value = 3.02 × 10-08; chromosome 17: cg15660740, Δbeta = -0.078, p-value = 6.49 × 10-08) were significantly associated with severe neurodevelopmental delay. While these associations were not mediated by neonatal brain volume, neonatal caudate volumes were independently associated with neurodevelopmental delay, particularly in language (Δcaudate volume = 165.30 mm3, p = 0.0443) and motor (Δcaudate volume = 365.36 mm3, p-value = 0.0082) domains. CONCLUSIONS: Differential DNAm from cord blood and increased neonatal caudate volumes were independently associated with severe neurodevelopmental delay at 2 years of age. These findings suggest that neurobiological signals for severe developmental delay may be detectable in very early life.

6.
Int J Clin Health Psychol ; 22(1): 100281, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934423

RESUMO

Background/Objective: The most recent versions of the two main mental disorders classifications-the World Health Organization's ICD-11 and the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-5-differ substantially in their diagnostic categories related to transgender identity. ICD-11 gender incongruence (GI), in contrast to DSM-5 gender dysphoria (GD), is explicitly not a mental disorder; neither distress nor dysfunction is a required feature. The objective was compared ICD-11 and DSM-5 diagnostic requirements in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, discriminability and ability to predict the use of gender-affirming medical procedures. Method: A total of 649 of transgender adults in six countries completed a retrospective structured interview. Results: Using ROC analysis, sensitivity of the diagnostic requirements was equivalent for both systems, but ICD-11 showed greater specificity than DSM-5. Regression analyses indicated that history of hormones and/or surgery was predicted by variables that are an intrinsic aspect of GI/GD more than by distress and dysfunction. IRT analyses showed that the ICD-11 diagnostic formulation was more parsimonious and contained more information about caseness than the DSM-5 model. Conclusions: This study supports the ICD-11 position that GI/GD is not a mental disorder; additional diagnostic requirements of distress and/or dysfunction in DSM-5 reduce the predictive power of the diagnostic model.

7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 230: 109185, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine and illicit stimulants are very addictive substances. Although associations between grey matter and dependence on stimulants have been frequently reported, white matter correlates have received less attention. METHODS: Eleven international sites ascribed to the ENIGMA-Addiction consortium contributed data from individuals with dependence on cocaine (n = 147), methamphetamine (n = 132) and nicotine (n = 189), as well as non-dependent controls (n = 333). We compared the fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD) and mean diffusivity (MD) of 20 bilateral tracts. Also, we compared the performance of various machine learning algorithms in deriving brain-based classifications on stimulant dependence. RESULTS: The cocaine and methamphetamine groups had lower regional FA and higher RD in several association, commissural, and projection white matter tracts. The methamphetamine dependent group additionally showed lower regional AD. The nicotine group had lower FA and higher RD limited to the anterior limb of the internal capsule. The best performing machine learning algorithm was the support vector machine (SVM). The SVM successfully classified individuals with dependence on cocaine (AUC = 0.70, p < 0.001) and methamphetamine (AUC = 0.71, p < 0.001) relative to non-dependent controls. Classifications related to nicotine dependence proved modest (AUC = 0.62, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Stimulant dependence was related to FA disturbances within tracts consistent with a role in addiction. The multivariate pattern of white matter differences proved sufficient to identify individuals with stimulant dependence, particularly for cocaine and methamphetamine.

8.
Addiction ; 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Graph theoretic analysis of structural covariance networks (SCN) provides an assessment of brain organization that has not yet been applied to alcohol dependence (AD). We estimated whether SCN differences are present in adults with AD and heavy drinking adolescents at age 19 and age 14, prior to substantial exposure to alcohol. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample of adults and a cohort of adolescents. Correlation matrices for cortical thicknesses across 68 regions were summarized with graph theoretic metrics. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 745 adults with AD and 979 non-dependent controls from 24 sites curated by the ENIGMA-Addiction working group, and 297 hazardous drinking adolescents and 594 controls at age 14 and 19 from the IMAGEN study, all from Europe. MEASUREMENTS: Metrics of network segregation (modularity, clustering coefficient, and local efficiency) and integration (average shortest path length and global efficiency). FINDINGS: The younger AD adults had lower network segregation and higher integration relative to non-dependent controls. Compared with controls, the hazardous drinkers at age 19 showed lower modularity (Area-under-the-curve [AUC] difference = -0.0142, confidence interval [CI] 95% [-0.1333, 0.0092]; p-value = 0.017), clustering coefficient (AUC difference = -0.0164 CI 95% [-0.1456, 0.0043], p-value = 0.008), and local efficiency (AUC difference = -0.0141 CI 95% [-0.0097, 0.0034], p-value = 0.010), as well as lower average shortest path length (AUC difference = -0.0405 CI 95% [-0.0392, 0.0096]; p-value = 0.021) and higher global efficiency (AUC difference = 0.0044 CI 95% [-0.0011, 0.0043]; p-value = 0.023). The same pattern was present at age 14 with lower clustering coefficient (AUC difference = -0.0131 CI 95% [-0.1304, 0.0033]; p-value = 0.024), lower average shortest path length (AUC difference = -0.0362 CI 95% [-0.0334, 0.0118]; p-value = 0.019), and higher global efficiency (AUC difference = 0.0035 CI 95% [-0.0011, 0.0038]; p-value = 0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional analyses indicate a specific structural covariance network profile is an early marker of alcohol dependence in adults. Similar effects in a cohort of heavy drinking adolescents, observed both at age 19 and prior to substantial alcohol exposure at age 14, suggest that this pattern may be a pre-existing risk factor for problematic drinking.

10.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13281, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734487

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been linked to poor fetal and infant growth. However, factors underlying this relationship are not well understood, particularly in the postnatal time period. In a South African cohort, we investigated (1) associations between IPV in pregnancy and growth at birth as well as postnatal IPV and child growth at 12 months and (2) whether maternal depression, tobacco or alcohol use or infant hospitalizations mediated IPV-growth relationships. Mothers were enrolled in pregnancy. Maternal IPV was measured during pregnancy and 10 weeks postpartum; depression, alcohol and tobacco use were measured during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. Child weight and length were measured at birth and 12 months and converted to z-scores for analysis. Linear regression and structural equation models investigated interrelationships between IPV and potential mediators of IPV-growth relationships. At birth, among 1,111 mother-infant pairs, maternal emotional and physical IPV were associated with reduced weight-for-age z-scores (WFAZ). Only physical IPV was associated with length-for-age z-scores (LFAZ) at birth. Antenatal maternal alcohol and tobacco use mediated IPV-growth relationships at birth. Postnatally, among 783 mother-infant pairs, emotional and physical IPV were associated with reduced WFAZ at 12 months. Only emotional IPV was associated with LFAZ at 12 months. Maternal tobacco use was a mediator postnatally. Findings highlight the role of physical and emotional IPV as risk factors for compromised fetal and infant growth. Findings underscore the importance of programmes to address interrelated risk factors for compromised infant growth, specifically IPV and substance use, which are prevalent in high-risk settings.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743402

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to contribute to the paucity of literature on disability in youth with OCD, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: In South Africa (a LMIC), data was collected from 26 children and adolescents with OCD (12 girls, 14 boys; age range 6-18 years), and their parents, on an outpatient basis. Clinical measures aimed at assessing functional impairment due to OCD were administered. RESULTS: Key findings were 1) that children with OCD reported being most significantly affected by their OC symptomatology within the school domain whereas parents placed emphasis on the impairment within the social domain; 2) scores on the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale - Revised and the Children's Global Assessment Scale, were consistent, and 3) clinician-rated symptom severity was positively associated with parental reports on children's impairment due to OCD. Findings show similarities with data from similar studies in a high-income country (HIC) context. CONCLUSIONS: Children with OCD and their parents do not necessarily agree on the ways in which OCD impacts their lives. A comprehensive view of functional impairment in children with OCD, that is, from the viewpoints of the patient, parents, and clinicians, is critical when treatment is planned. Such information may assist with selection of relevant treatment targets, and ultimately improve the quality of life of all affected.

12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e70, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761736

RESUMO

AIMS: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterised by a recurrent course and high comorbidity rates. A lifespan perspective may therefore provide important information regarding health outcomes. The aim of the present study is to examine mental disorders that preceded 12-month MDD diagnosis and the impact of these disorders on depression outcomes. METHODS: Data came from 29 cross-sectional community epidemiological surveys of adults in 27 countries (n = 80 190). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess 12-month MDD and lifetime DSM-IV disorders with onset prior to the respondent's age at interview. Disorders were grouped into depressive distress disorders, non-depressive distress disorders, fear disorders and externalising disorders. Depression outcomes included 12-month suicidality, days out of role and impairment in role functioning. RESULTS: Among respondents with 12-month MDD, 94.9% (s.e. = 0.4) had at least one prior disorder (including previous MDD), and 64.6% (s.e. = 0.9) had at least one prior, non-MDD disorder. Previous non-depressive distress, fear and externalising disorders, but not depressive distress disorders, predicted higher impairment (OR = 1.4-1.6) and suicidality (OR = 1.5-2.5), after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Further adjustment for MDD characteristics weakened, but did not eliminate, these associations. Associations were largely driven by current comorbidities, but both remitted and current externalising disorders predicted suicidality among respondents with 12-month MDD. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrate the importance of careful psychiatric history taking regarding current anxiety disorders and lifetime externalising disorders in individuals with MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 572, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750344

RESUMO

Around 15-65% of women globally experience depression during pregnancy, prevalence being particularly high in low- and middle-income countries. Prenatal depression has been associated with adverse birth and child development outcomes. DNA methylation (DNAm) may aid in understanding this association. In this project, we analyzed associations between prenatal depression and DNAm from cord blood from participants of the South African Drakenstein Child Health Study. We examined DNAm in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of 248 mother-child pairs. DNAm was measured using the Infinium MethylationEPIC (N = 145) and the Infinium HumanMethylation450 (N = 103) arrays. Prenatal depression scores, obtained with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), were analyzed as continuous and dichotomized variables. We used linear robust models to estimate associations between depression and newborn DNAm, adjusted for measured (smoking status, household income, sex, preterm birth, cell type proportions, and genetic principal components) and unmeasured confounding using Cate and Bacon algorithms. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing. DMRcate and dmrff were used to test for differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Differential DNAm was significantly associated with BDI-II variables, in cg16473797 (Δ beta = -1.10E-02, p = 6.87E-08), cg23262030 (Δ beta per BDI-II total IQR = 1.47E-03, p = 1.18E-07), and cg04859497 (Δ beta = -6.42E-02, p = 1.06E-09). Five DMRs were associated with at least two depression variables. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and investigate their biological impact.

14.
Neurosci Res ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736961

RESUMO

Large nest building behaviour (LNB), as expressed by a subpopulation of laboratory housed deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii), is persistent and repetitive. However, the response of LNB to an anxiogenic environment has not yet been investigated. Here, we employed LNB and normal nesting (NNB) expressing mice, subdivided into three drug-exposed groups per cohort, i.e. water (28 days), escitalopram (50 mg/kg/day, 28 days) and lorazepam (2 mg/kg/day; 4 days) to investigate this theme. During the last 4 days of drug exposure, mice were placed inside anxiogenic open field arenas which contained a separate enclosed and dark area for 4 consecutive nights during which open field and/or nest building assessments were performed. We show that LNB behaviour in deer mice is stable, irrespective of the anxiety-related context in which it is assessed, and that LNB mice find an open field arena to be less aversive compared to NNB mice. Escitalopram and lorazepam differentially affected the nesting and open field behaviour of LNB expressing mice, confirming deer mouse LNB as a repetitive behavioural phenotype that is related to a compulsive-like process which is regulated by the serotonergic system.

15.
Neurobiol Stress ; 15: 100400, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611531

RESUMO

There is a well-known association of traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with body size and composition, including consistent differences between sexes. However, the biology underlying these associations is unclear. To understand the genetic underpinnings of this complex relationship, we investigated genome-wide datasets informative of African and European ancestries from the Psychiatric Genomic Consortium, the UK Biobank, the GIANT Consortium, and the Million Veteran Program. We used genome-wide association statistics to estimate sex-specific genetic correlations (r g ) of traumatic experiences, social support, and PTSD with multiple anthropometric traits. After multiple testing corrections (false discovery rate, FDR q < 0.05), we observed 58 significant r g relationships in females (e.g., childhood physical abuse and body mass index, BMI r g  = 0.245, p = 3.88 × 10-10) and 21 significant r g relationships in males (e.g., been involved in combat or exposed to warzone and leg fat percentage; r g  = 0.405, p = 4.42 × 10-10). We performed causal inference analyses of these genetic overlaps using Mendelian randomization and latent causal variable approaches. Multiple female-specific putative causal relationships were observed linking body composition/size with PTSD (e.g., leg fat percentage→PTSD; beta = 0.319, p = 3.13 × 10-9), traumatic experiences (e.g., childhood physical abuse→waist circumference; beta = 0.055, p = 5.07 × 10-4), and childhood neglect (e.g., "someone to take you to doctor when needed as a child"→BMI; beta = -0.594, p = 1.09 × 10-5). In males, we observed putative causal effects linking anthropometric-trait genetic liabilities to traumatic experiences (e.g., BMI→childhood physical abuse; beta = 0.028, p = 8.19 × 10-3). Some of these findings were replicated in individuals of African descent although the limited sample size available did not permit us to conduct a sex-stratified analysis in this ancestry group. In conclusion, our findings provide insights regarding sex-specific causal networks linking anthropometric traits to PTSD, traumatic experiences, and social support.

16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 138(4): 633-646, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use during pregnancy with the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), and low Apgar scores. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and PsycINFO up to June 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: Data were sought from studies examining associations of depression, depressive symptoms, or use of antidepressants during pregnancy with gestational age, birth weight, SGA, or Apgar scores. Authors shared the raw data of their studies for incorporation into this individual participant data meta-analysis. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: We performed one-stage random-effects meta-analyses to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. The 215 eligible articles resulted in 402,375 women derived from 27 study databases. Increased risks were observed for preterm birth among women with a clinical diagnosis of depression during pregnancy irrespective of antidepressant use (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and among women with depression who did not use antidepressants (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.7-3.0), as well as for low Apgar scores in the former (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7), but not the latter group. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use was associated with preterm birth among women who used antidepressants with or without restriction to women with depressive symptoms or a diagnosis of depression (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5 and OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, respectively), as well as with low Apgar scores among women in the latter group (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.8). CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms or a clinical diagnosis of depression during pregnancy are associated with preterm birth and low Apgar scores, even without exposure to antidepressants. However, SSRIs may be independently associated with preterm birth and low Apgar scores. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42016035711.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 733773, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630184

RESUMO

Introduction: Many individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) delay seeking help, leading to greater illness severity, additional comorbidity, and increased functional impairment. Patterns of help-seeking for OCD have however not yet been described in South Africa, a low-and middle-income country with many health service challenges. Using the health belief model as a conceptual framework, study aims were to identify predictors of and barriers to help-seeking among South Africans with OCD. Methods: Fifty adults with OCD completed an online survey to assess (1) socio-demographic characteristics, (2) OCD symptom severity, (3) treatment barriers, (4) perceived treatment benefits, (5) self-efficacy, and (6) help-seeking intention. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish predictors of help-seeking intention. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the most endorsed help-seeking barriers. Results: 42.6% of the variance in help-seeking intention was explained by the investigated constructs (R 2 = 0.426, F = 4.45 and p < 0.01). Perceived treatment benefits were the only significant predictor of help-seeking intention (B = 1.37, t = 5.16, and p < 0.01). More than a third (36%) of the sample endorsed wanting to handle the problem independently as a significant barrier, followed by treatment concerns (26%), affordability (22%), and shame (20%). Conclusion: An innovative analysis of help-seeking patterns suggested that perceived treatment benefits were the only significant predictor of help-seeking intention among South African adults with OCD. Psychoeducation and mental health literacy programmes may be useful in increasing public appreciation of the benefits of OCD treatment, and in mitigating key help-seeking barriers.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1138-1150, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report results of an internet-based field study evaluating the diagnostic guidelines for ICD-11 mood disorders. Accuracy of clinicians' diagnostic judgments applying draft ICD-11 as compared to the ICD-10 guidelines to standardized case vignettes was assessed as well as perceived clinical utility. METHODS: 1357 clinician members of the World Health Organization's Global Clinical Practice Network completed the study in English, Spanish, Japanese or Russian. Participants were randomly assigned to apply ICD-11 or ICD-10 guidelines to one of eleven pairs of case vignettes. RESULTS: Clinicians using the ICD-11 and ICD-10 guidelines achieved similar levels of accuracy in diagnosing mood disorders depicted in vignettes. Those using the ICD-11 were more accurate in identifying depressive episode in recurrent depressive disorder. There were no statistically significant differences detected across classifications in the accuracy of identifying dysthymic or cyclothymic disorder. Circumscribed problems with the proposed ICD-11 guidelines were identified including difficulties differentiating bipolar type I from bipolar type II disorder and applying revised severity ratings to depressive episodes. Clinical utility of ICD-11 bipolar disorders was found to be significantly lower than for ICD-10 equivalent categories. LIMITATIONS: Standardized case vignettes were manipulated to evaluate specific changes. The degree of accuracy of clinicians' diagnostic judgments may not reflect clinical decision-making with patients. CONCLUSIONS: Alignment of the ICD-11 with current research appears to have been achieved without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy or clinical utility though specific training may be necessary as ICD-11 is implemented worldwide. Areas in which the ICD-11 guidelines did not perform as intended resulted in further revisions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Julgamento , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Federação Russa
20.
World Psychiatry ; 20(3): 336-356, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505377

RESUMO

The clinical construct of "anxiety neurosis" was broad and poorly defined, so that the delineation of specific anxiety disorders in the DSM-III was an important advance. However, anxiety and related disorders are not only frequently comorbid, but each is also quite heterogeneous; thus diagnostic manuals provide only a first step towards formulating a management plan, and the development of additional decision support tools for the treatment of anxiety conditions is needed. This paper aims to describe systematically important domains that are relevant to the personalization of management of anxiety and related disorders in adults. For each domain, we summarize the available research evidence and review the relevant assessment instruments, paying special attention to their suitability for use in routine clinical practice. We emphasize areas where the available evidence allows the clinician to personalize the management of anxiety conditions, and we point out key unmet needs. Overall, the evidence suggests that we are becoming able to move from simply recommending that anxiety and related disorders be treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or their combination, to a more complex approach which emphasizes that the clinician has a broadening array of management modalities available, and that the treatment of anxiety and related disorders can already be personalized in a number of important respects.

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