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1.
Brain Behav ; : e01456, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A promising approach to reducing the phenotypic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders involves the identification of homogeneous subtypes. Careful study of comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) contributed to the identification of the DSM-5 subtype of OCD with tics. Here we investigated one of the largest available cohorts of clinically diagnosed trichotillomania (TTM) to determine whether subtyping TTM based on comorbidity would help delineate clinically meaningful subgroups. METHODS: As part of an ongoing international collaboration, lifetime comorbidity data were collated from 304 adults with pathological hair-pulling who fulfilled criteria for DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 TTM. Cluster analysis (Ward's method) based on comorbidities was undertaken. RESULTS: Three clusters were identified, namely Cluster 1: cases without any comorbidities (n = 63, 20.7%) labeled "simple TTM," Cluster 2: cases with comorbid major depressive disorder only (N = 49, 16.12%) labeled "depressive TTM," and Cluster 3: cases presenting with combinations of the investigated comorbidities (N = 192, 63.16%) labeled "complex TTM." The clusters differed in terms of hair-pulling severity (F = 3.75, p = .02; Kruskal-Wallis [KW] p < .01) and depression symptom severity (F = 5.07, p = <.01; KW p < .01), with cases with any comorbidity presenting with increased severity. Analysis of the temporal nature of these conditions in a subset suggested that TTM onset generally preceded major depressive disorder in (subsets of) Clusters 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: The findings here are useful in emphasizing that while many TTM patients present without comorbidity, depression is present in a substantial proportion of cases. In clinical practice, it is crucial to assess comorbidity, given the links demonstrated here between comorbidity and symptom severity. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and to determine whether cluster membership based on comorbidity predicts response to treatment.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 348, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic use of the Internet has been highlighted as needing further study by international bodies, including the European Union and American Psychiatric Association. Knowledge regarding the optimal classification of problematic use of the Internet, subtypes, and associations with clinical disorders has been hindered by reliance on measurement instruments characterized by limited psychometric properties and external validation. METHODS: Non-treatment seeking individuals were recruited from the community of Stellenbosch, South Africa (N = 1661), and Chicago, United States of America (N = 827). Participants completed an online version of the Internet Addiction Test, a widely used measure of problematic use of the Internet consisting of 20-items, measured on a 5-point Likert-scale. The online questions also included demographic measures, time spent engaging in different online activities, and clinical scales. The psychometric properties of the Internet Addiction Test, and potential problematic use of the Internet subtypes, were characterized using factor analysis and latent class analysis. RESULTS: Internet Addiction Test data were optimally conceptualized as unidimensional. Latent class analysis identified two groups: those essentially free from Internet use problems, and those with problematic use of the Internet situated along a unidimensional spectrum. Internet Addiction Test scores clearly differentiated these groups, but with different optimal cut-offs at each site. In the larger Stellenbosch dataset, there was evidence for two subtypes of problematic use of the Internet that differed in severity: a lower severity "impulsive" subtype (linked with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and a higher severity "compulsive" subtype (linked with obsessive-compulsive personality traits). CONCLUSIONS: Problematic use of the Internet as measured by the Internet Addiction Test reflects a quasi-trait - a unipolar dimension in which most variance is restricted to a subset of people with problems regulating Internet use. There was no evidence for subtypes based on the type of online activities engaged in, which increased similarly with overall severity of Internet use problems. Measures of comorbid psychiatric symptoms, along with impulsivity, and compulsivity, appear valuable for differentiating clinical subtypes and could be included in the development of new instruments for assessing the presence and severity of Internet use problems.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 243: 112619, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715540

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A common concern in African genomic research is that such work may cause, or increase, stigma associated with particular diseases or population groups. While there is some evidence suggesting that genetic attribution of disease might impact stigma, there exists no evidence for the situation in African populations. With increasing genomic research in African populations, questions about the effect of genetic attribution on disease-related stigma are salient for stakeholders involved in implementation and regulation. To understand better the relationship between stigma and genetic attribution, we interviewed people with Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) in the Western Cape of South Africa. METHOD: We conducted 11 focus group discussions with RHD patients of mixed-ancestry in the Western Cape, exploring the impact of genetic attribution on stigma. Participants had previously consented to participate in genomic research, attending information sessions on genetics. We explored the impact of genetic attribution by introducing both genetic and environmental causes to RHD and by specifically probing how these various causes would likely impact selected features of disease stigma. RESULTS: Participants reported varying experiences of stigma relating to RHD, such as labelling, social exclusion and discrimination at the workplace. They had some understanding of genetics, either in general, or in relation to their illness. Participants' understanding depicted multiple causal models to explain RHD including genetic, environmental and bacterial causation. Overall, participants did not make a connection between genetics as a cause of RHD and their experiences of stigma. DISCUSSION: In this study we found no support for the concern that genetic attribution of RHD, understood by participants in our study as a genetic predisposition to developing the disease, would impact stigma associated with it. Our findings provide some reassurance that genomic research may be unlikely to cause an increase in disease-related stigma in the South African context.

4.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of perinatal psychological adversity (ie, stressors and distress) with infant lung function (ILF) and development is not well studied in Africa and elsewhere. We determined the association between maternal perinatal psychological adversity and ILF in African infants. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal follow up of the Drakenstein Child Health Study birth cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred and sixty-two infants aged 6 to 10 weeks and 485 infants who had data for both maternal perinatal psychological adversity and ILF (measured at 6 to 10 weeks and 12 months). METHODS: The main analyses were based on cross-sectional measures of ILF at each assessment (6 to 10 weeks or 12 months), using generalized linear models, and then on the panel-data of both longitudinal ILF assessments, using generalised estimating equations, that allowed specification of the within-group correlation structure. RESULTS: Prenatal intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure was associated with reduced respiratory resistance at 6 to 10 weeks (beta coefficient [ß] = -.131, P = .023); postnatal IPV with reduced ratio of time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time (tPTEF /tE ) at 12 months (ß = -.206, P = .016); and prenatal depression with lower respiratory rate at 6 to 10 weeks (ß = -.044, P = .032) and at 12 months (ß = -.053, P = .021). Longitudinal analysis found an association of prenatal IPV with reduced tPTEF /tE (ß = -.052, P < .0001); postnatal IPV with decreased functional residual capacity (FRC; ß = -.086, P < .0001); prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder with increased FRC (ß = .017, P < .0001); prenatal depression with increased FRC (ß = .026, P < .0001) and postnatal depression with increased FRC (ß = .021, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Screening for psychological adversity and understanding the mechanisms involved may help identify children at risk of altered lung development and inform approaches to treatment.

5.
Curr Biol ; 29(20): 3532-3537.e3, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607530

RESUMO

Trust and betrayal are central to our social world, and adaptive responses to generous and selfish behavior are crucial to our economic and social well-being [1]. We learn about others' trustworthiness through trial and error during repeated interactions [2]. By reinforcing and suppressing behavior during positive and negative interactions with conspecifics, rodent research has established a crucial role for the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in social experiential learning [3, 4]. The human BLA has undergone a reorganization with massive expansion relative to other amygdala nuclei [5], and there is no translational research on its role in experiential learning. The human amygdala is traditionally researched as a single structure [6], neglecting the sub-nuclei's structural und functional differences [7], which might explain inconsistent findings in research on social interactions [8, 9]. Here, we study whether the human BLA is necessary for social and non-social experiential learning by testing a group of five humans with selective bilateral damage to the BLA. We compared their learning behavior in a repeated trust game, and a non-social control task, to healthy, matched controls. Crucially, BLA-damaged subjects, unlike control subjects, completely failed to adapt their investments when interacting with a trustworthy and an untrustworthy partner. In the non-social task, BLA-damaged subjects learned from positive outcomes but differed from the controls by not learning from negative outcomes. Our data extend findings in rodent research by showing that the human BLA is essential for social experiential learning and provide confirmatory evidence of divergent mechanisms for differentially valenced outcomes in non-social learning.

6.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585485

RESUMO

Fundamental human studies which address associations between glutamate and iron metabolism are needed. Basic research reports associations between glutamate and iron metabolism. Human studies report sex differences in iron metabolism and glutamate concentrations, which suggest that these relationships may differ by sex. We hypothesised associations would be apparent between in vivo glutamate and peripheral markers of iron metabolism, and these associations would differ by sex. To test this, we recruited 40 healthy adults (20 men, 20 women) and measured (a) standard clinical biomarker concentrations for iron metabolism and (b) an in vivo proxy for glutamate concentration, glutamate with glutamine in relation to total creatine containing metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies with a two-dimensional chemical shift imaging slice, with voxels located in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, anterior cingulate cortices and frontal white matter. Only the female group reported significant associations between peripheral markers of iron metabolism and Glx:tCr concentration: (a) right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex Glx:tCr associated positively with serum transferrin (r = .60, p = .006) and negatively with transferrin saturation (r = -.62, p = .004) and (b) right frontal white matter Glx:tCr associated negatively with iron concentration (r = -.59, p = .008) and transferrin saturation (r = -.65, p = .002). Our results support associations between iron metabolism and our proxy for in vivo glutamate concentration (Glx:tCr). These associations were limited to women, suggesting a stronger regulatory control between iron and glutamate metabolism. These associations support additional fundamental research into the molecular mechanisms of this regulatory control.

7.
Nature ; 574(7778): 333, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616095
8.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 21(2): 167-175, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636491

RESUMO

The prevailing paradigm for psychopharmacology focuses on understanding brain mechanisms as the key to finding new medications and improving clinical outcomes, but frustration with slow progress has inspired many pleas for new approaches. Evolutionary psychiatry brings in an additional basic science that poses new questions about why natural selection left us vulnerable to so many mental disorders, and new insights about how drugs work. The integration of neuroscience with evolutionary psychiatry is synergistic, going beyond reductionism to provide a model like the one used by the rest of medicine. It recognizes negative emotions as symptoms, that are, like pain and cough, useful defenses whose presence should initiate a search for causes. An integrative evolutionary approach explains why agents that block useful aversive responses are usually safe, and how to anticipate when they may cause harm. More generally, an evolutionary framework suggests novel practical strategies for finding and testing new drugs.
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9.
J Neurovirol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482439

RESUMO

There is evidence of HIV affecting cognitive functioning across age groups, with adult studies showing related deficits in frontostriatal and hippocampal regional activity. Additionally, delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in HIV-infected youth. Little is known, however, of the neural correlates underlying such cognitive deficits in youth populations. We investigated maintenance working memory-related brain activity in South African HIV-infected youth and controls, and the effect of ART initiation age on underlying structures. Sixty-four perinatally infected youth (ages 9-12) and 20 controls (ages 9-13) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing 1-back and 0-back blocks of the N-back task. At an uncorrected p value threshold of 0.001, the HIV-infected group showed decreased activation in the left superior temporal gyrus, pre- and postcentral gyri, insula, and putamen as well as bilateral hippocampus, and mid cingulum. The HIV patients with delayed ART initiation showed less activation during processing conditions in the mid cingulum; left inferior parietal gyrus; and right inferior frontal, bilateral thalamic, and superior temporal regions. When these regions were tested for structural differences, the mid cingulum and right inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and thalamus were found to have less cortical thickness, surface area, or volume in the group with delayed ART initiation. Regional differences between HIV-infected youth and controls noted in the N-back task are consistent with impairments in structures involved in maintenance working memory. These data support earlier ART initiation in perinatally infected individuals.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12959, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506497

RESUMO

There is extensive evidence of an association between early adversity and enduring neural changes that impact socioemotional processing throughout life. Yet little is known about the effects of on-going social discrimination on socioemotional functioning. Here we examined how cumulative experiences of social discrimination impact brain response during empathic responding-a crucial issue in South Africa, given its historical apartheid context and continuing legacies. White and Black South Africans completed measures of social adversity (early adversity and social discrimination), and underwent fMRI while viewing video clips depicting victims and perpetrators of apartheid crimes. Increased neural response was detected in brain regions associated with cognitive rather than affective empathy, and greater social adversity was associated with reduced reported compassion across participants. Notably, social discrimination (due to income level, weight, gender) in White participants was associated with increased amygdala reactivity, whereas social discrimination (due to race) in Black participants mediated the negative associations of temporoparietal junction and inferior frontal gyrus activation with compassion during emotionally provocative conditions. These findings suggest that (i) social discrimination has comparable associations at the neural level as other psychosocial stressors, and that (ii) the mechanisms underlying empathic responding vary as a function of the type of social discrimination experienced.

11.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(10): e1375-e1387, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be dominated by infectious diseases, countries in this region are undergoing a demographic transition leading to increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). To inform health system responses to these changing patterns of disease, we aimed to assess changes in the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2017. METHODS: We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to analyse the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)-with crude counts as well as all-age and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population-with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We examined changes in burden between 1990 and 2017, and differences across age, sex, and regions. We also compared the observed NCD burden across countries with the expected values based on a country's Socio-demographic Index. FINDINGS: All-age total DALYs due to NCDs increased by 67·0% between 1990 (90·6 million [95% UI 81·0-101·9]) and 2017 (151·3 million [133·4-171·8]), reflecting an increase in the proportion of total DALYs attributable to NCDs (from 18·6% [95% UI 17·1-20·4] to 29·8% [27·6-32·0] of the total burden). Although most of this increase can be explained by population growth and ageing, the age-standardised DALY rate (per 100 000 population) due to NCDs in 2017 (21 757·7 DALYs [95% UI 19 377·1-24 380·7]) was almost equivalent to that of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (26 491·6 DALYs [25 165·2-28 129·8]). Cardiovascular diseases were the second leading cause of NCD burden in 2017, resulting in 22·9 million (21·5-24·3) DALYs (15·1% of the total NCD burden), after the group of disorders categorised as other NCDs (28·8 million [25·1-33·0] DALYs, 19·1%). These categories were followed by neoplasms, mental disorders, and digestive diseases. Although crude DALY rates for all NCDs have decreased slightly across sub-Saharan Africa, age-standardised rates are on the rise in some countries (particularly those in southern sub-Saharan Africa) and for some NCDs (such as diabetes and some cancers, including breast and prostate cancer). INTERPRETATION: NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa are posing an increasing challenge for health systems, which have to date largely focused on tackling infectious diseases and maternal, neonatal, and child deaths. To effectively address these changing needs, countries in sub-Saharan Africa require detailed epidemiological data on NCDs. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Centre (Australia).

12.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002920, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 250 million (43%) children under the age of 5 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are failing to meet their developmental potential. Risk factors are recognised to contribute to this loss of human potential. Expanding understanding of the risks that lead to poor outcomes and which protective factors contribute to resilience in children may be critical to improving disparities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a population-based birth cohort in the Western Cape, South Africa. Pregnant women were enrolled between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation from two community clinics from 2012 to 2015; sociodemographic and psychosocial data were collected antenatally. Mothers and children were followed through birth until 2 years of age. Developmental assessments were conducted by trained assessors blinded to background, using the Bayley-III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III), validated for use in South Africa, at 24 months of age. The study assessed all available children at 24 months; however, some children were not able to attend, because of loss to follow-up or unavailability of a caregiver or child at the correct age. Of 1,143 live births, 1,002 were in follow-up at 24 months, and a total of 734 children (73%) had developmental assessments, of which 354 (48.2%) were girls. This sample was characterised by low household employment (n = 183; 24.9%) and household income (n = 287; 39.1% earning 1 domain affected, and 75 (10.2%) had delay in all domains. Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed several factors that were associated with developmental outcomes. These included protective factors (maternal education, higher birth weight, and socioeconomic status) and risk factors (maternal anaemia in pregnancy, depression or lifetime intimate partner violence, and maternal HIV infection). Boys consistently performed worse than girls (in cognition [ß = -0.74; 95% CI -1.46 to -0.03, p = 0.042], receptive language [ß = -1.10; 95% CI -1.70 to -0.49, p < 0.001], expressive language [ß = -1.65; 95% CI -2.46 to -0.84, p < 0.001], and fine motor [ß = -0.70; 95% CI -1.20 to -0.20, p = 0.006] scales). There was evidence that child sex interacted with risk and protective factors including birth weight, maternal anaemia in pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors. Important limitations of the study include attrition of sample from birth to assessment age and missing data in some exposure areas from those assessed. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides reliable developmental data from a sub-Saharan African setting in a well-characterised sample of mother-child dyads. Our findings highlight not only the important protective effects of maternal education, birth weight, and socioeconomic status for developmental outcomes but also sex differences in developmental outcomes and key risk and protective factors for each group.

13.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(11): 803-813, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is known to cause developmental delay, but the effects of HIV exposure without infection during pregnancy on child development are unclear. We compared the neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children during their first 2 years of life. METHODS: Pregnant women (>18 years of age) at 20-28 weeks' gestation were enrolled into the Drakenstein Child Health cohort study while attending routine antenatal appointments at one of two peri-urban community-based clinics in Paarl, South Africa. Livebirths born to enrolled women during follow-up were included in the birth cohort. Mothers and infants received antenatal and postnatal HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy per local guidelines. Developmental assessments on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (BSID-III), were done in a subgroup of infants at 6 months of age, and in the full cohort at 24 months of age, with assessors masked to HIV exposure status. Mean raw scores and the proportions of children categorised as having a delay (scores <-2 SDs from the reference mean) on BSID-III were compared between HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children. FINDINGS: 1225 women were enrolled between March 5, 2012, and March 31, 2015. Of 1143 livebirths, 1065 (93%) children were in follow-up at 6 months and 1000 (87%) at 24 months. Two children were diagnosed with HIV infection between birth and 24-month follow-up and were excluded from the analysis. BSID-III assessments were done in 260 (24%) randomly selected children (61 HIV-exposed uninfected, 199 HIV-unexposed) at 6 months and in 732 (73%) children (168 HIV-exposed uninfected, 564 HIV-unexposed) at 24 months. All HIV-exposed uninfected children were exposed to antiretrovirals (88% to maternal triple antiretroviral therapy). BSID-III outcomes did not significantly differ between HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children at 6 months. At 24 months, HIV-exposed uninfected children scored lower than HIV-unexposed for receptive language (adjusted mean difference -1·03 [95% CI -1·69 to -0·37]) and expressive language (-1·17 [-2·09 to -0·24]), whereas adjusted differences in cognitive (-0·45 [-1·32 to 0·43]), fine motor (0·09 [-0·49 to 0·66]), and gross motor (-0·41 [-1·09 to 0·27]) domain scores between groups were not significant. Correspondingly, the proportions of HIV-exposed uninfected children with developmental delay were higher than those of HIV-unexposed children for receptive language (adjusted odds ratio 1·96 [95% CI 1·09 to 3·52]) and expressive language (2·14 [1·11 to 4·15]). INTERPRETATION: Uninfected children exposed to maternal HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy have increased odds of receptive and expressive language delays at 2 years of age. Further long-term work is needed to understand developmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected children, especially in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa that have a high prevalence of HIV exposure among children. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, SA Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from high-income countries suggests that childhood trauma is associated with schizophrenia. Studies of childhood trauma and schizophrenia in low and middle income (LMIC) countries are limited. This study examined the prevalence of childhood traumatic experiences among cases and controls and the relationship between specific and cumulative childhood traumatic experiences and schizophrenia in a sample in South Africa. METHODS: Data were from the Genomics of Schizophrenia in the South African Xhosa people study. Cases with schizophrenia and matched controls were recruited from provincial hospitals and clinics in the Western and Eastern Cape regions in South Africa. Childhood traumatic experiences were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Adjusted logistic regression models estimated associations between individual and cumulative childhood traumatic experiences and schizophrenia. RESULTS: Traumatic experiences were more prevalent among cases than controls. The odds of schizophrenia were 2.44 times higher among those who experienced any trauma than those who reported no traumatic experiences (95% CI 1.77-3.37). The odds of schizophrenia were elevated among those who experienced physical/emotional abuse (OR 1.59, CI 1.28-1.97), neglect (OR 1.39, CI 1.16-1.68), and sexual abuse (OR 1.22, CI 1.03-1.45) compared to those who did not. Cumulative physical/emotional abuse and neglect experiences increased the odds of schizophrenia as a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSION: Childhood trauma is common in this population. Among many other benefits, interventions to prevent childhood trauma may contribute to a decreasing occurrence of schizophrenia.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388873

RESUMO

Dysregulated expression of neuro-immune markers has previously been linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. We undertook an exploratory approach in a HIV clade-C cohort, investigating the association between eight immune markers and neurocognitive performance in 99 HIV+ and 51 HIV- participants. Markers were selected on preliminary and putative evidence of their link to key neuro-immune functions. Cognitive performance was established using a battery of tests sensitive to HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, with domain-based scores utilized in analysis. The markers Thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP) and Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were significantly higher while Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)9 was significantly lower in HIV+ participants. Our results further showed that in the HIV+ group, worse psychomotor processing speed was associated with higher TYMP and NGAL levels and worse motor function was associated with higher NGAL levels. Future studies should explore the underlying mechanisms of these markers in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Graphical Abstract The association of peripheral immune markers with neurocognitive performance in South African HIV-positive patients.

17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(8): e25386, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441211

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) are at risk of chronic disease due to long-standing immune suppression, HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure. However, there are few data on multisystem disease in this population. We investigated the overlapping burden of neurocognitive, cardiovascular, respiratory and/or renal impairment among PHIV positive (PHIV+) adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, participants aged 9 to 14 years on ART for >6 months were recruited from seven sites across Cape Town from July 2013 through March 2015, together with age-matched HIV-negative (HIV-) adolescents. Impairment at enrolment was assessed across neurocognitive functioning (using the youth-International HIV Dementia Scale); cardiac function (echocardiogram abnormality); respiratory function (abnormal spirometry) and renal function (abnormal glomerular filtration rate). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, 384 PHIV+ and 95 HIV- adolescents were included (mean age, 11.9 years; 49% female). Median age of ART initiation was 4.2 years (IQR: 1.7 to 7.6) and median CD4 count was 709 (IQR: 556 to 944) with 302 (79%) of PHIV+ adolescents virologically suppressed. Abacavir and Zidovudine were the most commonly used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with 60% of adolescents on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and 38% on a protease inhibitor (PI). Among PHIV+ adolescents, 167 (43.5%) had single system impairment only, 110 (28.6%) had two systems involved, and 39 (10.2%) had three or four systems involved. PHIV+ participants had more 2-system and 3-system impairment than HIV-, 110 (28.6%) versus 17 (17.9%), p = 0.03 and 39 (10.2%) versus 3 (4.3%), p = 0.03. PHIV+ participants who had failed a year of school (73.8% vs. 46.4%, p = 0.00) and with a viral load >1000 copies/mL at enrolment (16.8% vs. 8.1%, p = 0.03) were more likely to have dual or multisystem impairment. Of those with cardiac impairment, 86.7% had an additional system impaired. Similarly, in those with neurocognitive impairment, almost 60% had additional systems impaired and of those with respiratory impairment, 74% had additional systems impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Despite relatively early ART initiation, there is a substantial burden of multisystem chronic impairment among PHIV+ adolescents. This phenomenon needs to be further explored as this population ages and begins to engage in adult lifestyle factors that may compound these impairments.

18.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376114

RESUMO

Trichotillomania (TTM) is a disorder characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Key processes affected in TTM comprise affective, cognitive, and motor functions. Emerging evidence suggests that brain matter aberrations in fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic brain networks and the cerebellum may characterize the pathophysiology of TTM. The aim of the present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study was to evaluate whole brain grey and white matter volume alteration in TTM and its correlation with hair-pulling severity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (3 T) data were acquired from 29 TTM patients and 28 age-matched healthy controls (CTRLs). All TTM participants completed the Massachusetts General Hospital Hair-Pulling Scale (MGH-HPS) to assess illness/pulling severity. Using whole-brain VBM, between-group differences in regional brain volumes were measured. Additionally, within the TTM group, the relationship between MGH-HPS scores, illness duration and brain volumes were examined. All data were corrected for multiple comparisons using family-wise error (FWE) correction at p < 0.05. Patients with TTM showed larger white matter volumes in the parahippocampal gyrus and cerebellum compared to CTRLs. Estimated white matter volumes showed no significant association with illness duration or MGH-HPS total scores. No significant between-group differences were found for grey matter volumes. Our observations suggest regional alterations in cortico-limbic and cerebellar white matter in patients with TTM, which may underlie deficits in cognitive and affective processing. Such volumetric white matter changes may precipitate impaired cortico-cerebellar communication leading to a reduced ability to control hair pulling behavior.

19.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(13): 2285-2293, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434102

RESUMO

Fronto-limbic white matter (WM) abnormalities are assumed to lie at the heart of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD); however, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported heterogeneous results and it is not clear how the clinical heterogeneity is related to the observed differences. This study aimed to identify WM abnormalities that differentiate patients with BD from healthy controls (HC) in the largest DTI dataset of patients with BD to date, collected via the ENIGMA network. We gathered individual tensor-derived regional metrics from 26 cohorts leading to a sample size of N = 3033 (1482 BD and 1551 HC). Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) from 43 regions of interest (ROI) and average whole-brain FA were entered into univariate mega- and meta-analyses to differentiate patients with BD from HC. Mega-analysis revealed significantly lower FA in patients with BD compared with HC in 29 regions, with the highest effect sizes observed within the corpus callosum (R2 = 0.041, Pcorr < 0.001) and cingulum (right: R2 = 0.041, left: R2 = 0.040, Pcorr < 0.001). Lithium medication, later onset and short disease duration were related to higher FA along multiple ROIs. Results of the meta-analysis showed similar effects. We demonstrated widespread WM abnormalities in BD and highlighted that altered WM connectivity within the corpus callosum and the cingulum are strongly associated with BD. These brain abnormalities could represent a biomarker for use in the diagnosis of BD. Interactive three-dimensional visualization of the results is available at www.enigma-viewer.org.

20.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 279-287, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression affects 21-50% of women in South Africa and poses significant health risks to mothers and children. Trajectories of depressive symptoms change over time and have not been well characterized during the perinatal period in low and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data from women enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Paarl, South Africa with at least 3 depression measures from pregnancy through 18 months postpartum (N = 831) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured continuously using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Group-based trajectory models were used to estimate trajectories of depressive symptoms during the perinatal period and multinomial multivariable models to identify predictors of trajectory group membership. RESULTS: Five distinct trajectory patterns of depressive symptoms were identified: moderate levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy but minimal postpartum (3.5%), minimal levels during pregnancy and increasing postpartum (3.7%), unstable levels peaking at 12 months postpartum (6.6%), mild levels with slight decrease postpartum (82.9%), and severe levels during pregnancy and postpartum (3.1%). Membership in the chronic severe symptom group was associated with stressful life events, sexual intimate partner violence and tobacco use. LIMITATIONS: Modeling limitations prevented determining how changes in psychosocial predictors over time may influence depressive symptom trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Mild to severe depressive symptoms during pregnancy/postpartum were common among this South African cohort. Interventions to treat women with severe chronic depressive symptoms with co-occurring psychosocial issues are urgently needed.

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