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1.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405096

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence includes psychological aggression, physical violence, sexual violence, and stalking from a current or former intimate partner. Past research suggests that exposure to intimate partner violence can impact cognitive and psychological functioning, as well as neurological outcomes. These seem to be compounded in those who suffer a brain injury as a result of trauma to the head, neck or body due to physical and/or sexual violence. However, our understanding of the neurobehavioral and neurobiological effects of head trauma in this population is limited due to factors including difficulty in accessing/recruiting participants, heterogeneity of samples, and premorbid and comorbid factors that impact outcomes. Thus, the goal of the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium Intimate Partner Violence Working Group is to develop a global collaboration that includes researchers, clinicians, and other key community stakeholders. Participation in the working group can include collecting harmonized data, providing data for meta- and mega-analysis across sites, or stakeholder insight on key clinical research questions, promoting safety, participant recruitment and referral to support services. Further, to facilitate the mega-analysis of data across sites within the working group, we provide suggestions for behavioral surveys, cognitive tests, neuroimaging parameters, and genetics that could be used by investigators in the early stages of study design. We anticipate that the harmonization of measures across sites within the working group prior to data collection could increase the statistical power in characterizing how intimate partner violence-related head trauma impacts long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological health.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414496

RESUMO

An important challenge in mental health research is to translate findings from cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging research into effective treatments that target the neurobiological alterations involved in psychiatric symptoms. To address this challenge, in this review we propose a heuristic neurocircuit-based taxonomy to guide the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We do this by integrating information from several sources. First, we provide case vignettes in which patients with OCD describe their symptoms and discuss different clinical profiles in the phenotypic expression of the condition. Second, we link variations in these clinical profiles to underlying neurocircuit dysfunctions, drawing on findings from neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies in OCD. Third, we consider behavioral, pharmacological, and neuromodulatory treatments that could target those specific neurocircuit dysfunctions. Finally, we suggest methods of testing this neurocircuit-based taxonomy as well as important limitations to this approach that should be considered in future research.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2031190, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449093

RESUMO

Importance: Despite more widely accessible combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-1 infection remains a global public health challenge. Even in treated patients with chronic HIV infection, neurocognitive impairment often persists, affecting quality of life. Identifying the neuroanatomical pathways associated with infection in vivo may delineate the neuropathologic processes underlying these deficits. However, published neuroimaging findings from relatively small, heterogeneous cohorts are inconsistent, limiting the generalizability of the conclusions drawn to date. Objective: To examine structural brain associations with the most commonly collected clinical assessments of HIV burden (CD4+ T-cell count and viral load), which are generalizable across demographically and clinically diverse HIV-infected individuals worldwide. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study established the HIV Working Group within the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium to pool and harmonize data from existing HIV neuroimaging studies. In total, data from 1295 HIV-positive adults were contributed from 13 studies across Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Regional and whole brain segmentations were extracted from data sets as contributing studies joined the consortium on a rolling basis from November 1, 2014, to December 31, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Volume estimates for 8 subcortical brain regions were extracted from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to identify associations with blood plasma markers of current immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell counts) or detectable plasma viral load (dVL) in HIV-positive participants. Post hoc sensitivity analyses stratified data by cART status. Results: After quality assurance, data from 1203 HIV-positive individuals (mean [SD] age, 45.7 [11.5] years; 880 [73.2%] male; 897 [74.6%] taking cART) remained. Lower current CD4+ cell counts were associated with smaller hippocampal (mean [SE] ß = 16.66 [4.72] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P < .001) and thalamic (mean [SE] ß = 32.24 [8.96] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P < .001) volumes and larger ventricles (mean [SE] ß = -391.50 [122.58] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P = .001); in participants not taking cART, however, lower current CD4+ cell counts were associated with smaller putamen volumes (mean [SE] ß = 57.34 [18.78] mm3 per 100 cells/mm3; P = .003). A dVL was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes (d = -0.17; P = .005); in participants taking cART, dVL was also associated with smaller amygdala volumes (d = -0.23; P = .004). Conclusions and Relevance: In a large-scale international population of HIV-positive individuals, volumes of structures in the limbic system were consistently associated with current plasma markers. Our findings extend beyond the classically implicated regions of the basal ganglia and may represent a generalizable brain signature of HIV infection in the cART era.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Childhood maltreatment elevates risk for common mental disorders (CMDs) during late adolescence and adulthood. Although CMDs are highly prevalent among university students, few studies have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and 12 month CMDs in a low- to middle-income countries. This paper describes the prevalence of maltreatment and the relationship between type, number and patterns of maltreatment exposure and 12 month CMDs among first-year university students in South Africa. METHODS: Maltreatment and CMD data were collected via well-validated self-report scales (corresponding with DSM-IV diagnoses) in a web-based survey of first-year students from two large urban universities (n = 1290) in South Africa. Various multivariate modelling approaches (additive, restrictive interactive and latent class) were used to examine the relationship between maltreatment and CMDs. RESULTS: Overall, 48.4% of participants reported childhood maltreatment, the most common type being emotional abuse (26.7%). Regardless of the modelling approach used, emotional abuse was the only type of maltreatment independently associated with 12-month diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) or drug use disorder (DUD) even after adjusting for types and number of types of maltreatment. Similarly, students in the latent class reflecting histories of emotional abuse (either alone or combined with physical abuse) were more likely to meet criteria for 12-month MDD, GAD or DUD. CONCLUSION: Findings confirm the high prevalence of childhood maltreatment among South African students. As this exposure elevates risk for MDD, GAD and DUD, interventions aimed at preventing and treating CMDs among first-year students should address experiences of childhood maltreatment.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456050

RESUMO

Genomewide association studies have found significant genetic correlations among many neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, we know much less about the degree to which structural brain alterations are similar among disorders and, if so, the degree to which such similarities have a genetic etiology. From the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium, we acquired standardized mean differences (SMDs) in regional brain volume and cortical thickness between cases and controls. We had data on 41 brain regions for: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), epilepsy, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). These data had been derived from 24,360 patients and 37,425 controls. The SMDs were significantly correlated between SCZ and BD, OCD, MDD, and ASD. MDD was positively correlated with BD and OCD. BD was positively correlated with OCD and negatively correlated with ADHD. These pairwise correlations among disorders were correlated with the corresponding pairwise correlations among disorders derived from genomewide association studies (r = 0.494). Our results show substantial similarities in sMRI phenotypes among neuropsychiatric disorders and suggest that these similarities are accounted for, in part, by corresponding similarities in common genetic variant architectures.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk factors for a first episode of psychosis in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not well described. The study compared the association of different risk factors in patients with first-episode psychosis patients and healthy controls from an LMIC context. METHODS: A comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in antipsychotic naïve first-episode psychosis patients and healthy controls at the National referral hospital in Uganda. Standardized tools were used to assess sociodemographic (e.g., age, sex, socioeconomic status) and clinical (e.g., childhood trauma, quality of life) variables. First episode psychosis participants were compared to healthy controls in terms of sociodemographic and clinical variables, and logistic regression was used to determine predictors of FEP. RESULTS: Our final sample included 198 antipsychotic naïve first-episode psychosis participants and 82 controls. Most participants were female (68.5%) with a mean age of 29.4 years. After adjusting for age and sex, FEP patients when compared to controls were less likely to be female [AOR 0.18 (95%CI 0.03-0.85; p = .031)], more likely to have experienced emotional abuse [AOR 1.30 (95%CI 1.02-1.65; p = .032)] and more likely to have a poor quality of life [AOR 0.93 (95%CI 0.89-0.97; p = .002)]. DISCUSSION: The risk factors for a first episode of psychosis in this low and middle-income population were like those described in high-income countries. Further studies on interventions to prevent the transition to psychotic disorders in this sub-groups of patients are recommended. Also, the use of specialized early intervention services in improving the quality of life needs to be evaluated.

8.
Addiction ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Following the recognition of 'internet gaming disorder' (IGD) as a condition requiring further study by the DSM-5, 'gaming disorder' (GD) was officially included as a diagnostic entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). However, the proposed diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder remain the subject of debate, and there has been no systematic attempt to integrate the views of different groups of experts. To achieve a more systematic agreement on this new disorder, this study employed the Delphi expert consensus method to obtain expert agreement on the diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value of the DSM-5 criteria and ICD-11 clinical guidelines for GD. METHODS: A total of 29 international experts with clinical and/or research experience in GD completed three iterative rounds of a Delphi survey. Experts rated proposed criteria in progressive rounds until a pre-determined level of agreement was achieved. RESULTS: For DSM-5 IGD criteria, there was an agreement both that a subset had high diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value and that some (e.g., tolerance, deception) had low diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value. Crucially, some DSM-5 criteria (e.g., escapism/mood regulation, tolerance) were regarded as incapable of distinguishing between problematic and non-problematic gaming. In contrast, ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines for GD (except for the criterion relating to diminished non-gaming interests) were judged as presenting high diagnostic validity, clinical utility, and prognostic value. CONCLUSIONS: This Delphi survey provides a foundation for identifying the most diagnostically valid and clinically useful criteria for gaming disorder (GD). There was expert agreement that some DSM-5 criteria were not clinically relevant and may pathologize non-problematic patterns of gaming, whereas ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines are likely to diagnose GD adequately and avoid pathologizing.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psychotic disorders may increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, relatively little work in this field has emerged from low-resourced contexts. This study investigated the prevalence, correlates, and treatment patterns of metabolic disorders in patients with psychotic disorders in Western Kenya. METHODS: 300 patients with psychosis and 300 controls were recruited at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Data on demographic characteristics, weight, height, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, and treatments were collected. Categorical and continuous data were compared between the patient and control groups using Pearson's chi-squared tests and t-tests, respectively. Variables found to be significantly different between these groups were included in logistic regression models to determine potential predictors of metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with psychosis were found to have a higher mean random blood glucose [5.23 vs 4.79, p = 0.003], higher body mass index [5.23 vs 4.79, p = 0.001], higher triglycerides [1.98 vs 1.56, p<0.001], larger waist circumference [89.23 vs 86.39, p = 0.009] and lower high density lipoprotein [1.22 vs 1.32, p<0.001]. The odds of developing metabolic syndrome were increased with age [OR = 1.05, CI: 1.02-1.07] and presence of a psychotic disorder [OR = 2.09 [CI 1.23-3.55]; and were reduced with female gender [OR 0.41, CI 0.25-0.67], among those who were never married [OR 0.52, CI 0.28-0.94] and among the widowed/separated/ divorced marital status [OR 0.38, CI 0.17-0.81]. While the majority of patients received treatment with olanzapine, there was no association between olanzapine use and metabolic syndrome and its components. More than half of the patients in this study sample were not receiving treatment for the various components of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: In the study setting of Eldoret, metabolic syndrome and its components were more prevalent among patients with psychotic disorders than in controls; and a clear treatment gap for these disorders was evident. There is a need for efforts to ensure adequate screening and treatment for these physical disorders in resource-limited settings.

10.
Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging ; 2020: 995-998, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299534

RESUMO

We present a new method for constructing structural inference brain networks from functional measures of cortical features. Instead of averaging vertex-wise cortical features, we propose the use of full functions of spatial densities of measures such as thickness and use two dimensional pairwise correlations between regions to construct population networks. We show increased within group correlations for both healthy controls and toddlers with prenatal alcohol exposure compared to the existing mean-based correlation approach. Further, we also show significant differences in brain connectivity between the healthy controls and the exposed group.

11.
Child Dev ; 2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369736

RESUMO

Maternal responses to infant facial expressions were examined in two socioeconomically diverse samples of South African mothers (Study I, N = 111; and Study II, N = 214; age: 17-44 years) using pupil and gaze tracking. Study I showed increased pupil response to infant distress expressions in groups recruited from private as compared to public maternity clinics, possibly reflecting underlying differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across the groups. Study II, sampling uniformly low-SES neighborhoods, found increased pupil dilation and faster orientation to expressions of infant distress, but only in the highest income group. These results are consistent with maternal physiological and attentional sensitivity to infant distress cues but challenge the universality of this sensitivity across socioeconomic diversity.

12.
Front Genet ; 11: 1018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133134

RESUMO

Background: The genetic architecture of psychotic disorders is complex, with hundreds of genetic risk loci contributing to a polygenic model of disease. Overlap in the genetics of psychotic disorders and brain measures has been found in European populations, but has not been explored in populations of African ancestry. The aim of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between a schizophrenia-derived PRS and (i) methamphetamine associated psychosis (MAP), and (ii) brain structural measures, in a South African population. Methods: The study sample consisted of three participant groups: 31 individuals with MAP, 48 with apsychotic methamphetamine dependence, and 49 healthy controls. Using PRSice, PRS was generated for each of the participants with GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia working group (PGC-SCZ2) as the discovery dataset. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations of PRS, with diagnosis, whole brain, and regional gray and white matter measures. Results: Schizophrenia-derived PRS did not significantly predict MAP diagnosis. After correction for multiple testing, no significant associations were found between PRS and brain measures across all groups. Discussion: The lack of significant associations here may indicate that the study is underpowered, that brain volumes in MAP are due to factors other than polygenic risk for schizophrenia, or that PRS derived from a largely European discovery set has limited utility in individuals of African ancestry. Larger studies, that include diverse populations, and more nuanced brain measures, may help elucidate the relationship between schizophrenia-PRS, brain structural changes, and psychosis. Conclusion: This research presents the first PRS study to investigate shared genetic effects across psychotic disorders and brain structural measures in an African population. Ancestrally comparable discovery datasets may be useful for future African genetic research.

13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172654

RESUMO

Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (BFRBs) include Trichotillomania (TTM; Hair pulling disorder) and Excoriation (Skin Picking) Disorder (SPD). These conditions are prevalent, highly heterogeneous, under-researched, and under-treated. In order for progress to be made in optimally classifying and treating these conditions, it is necessary to identify meaningful subtypes. 279 adults (100 with TTM, 81 with SPD, 40 with both TTM and SPD, and 58 controls) were recruited for an international, multi-center between-group comparison using mixture modeling, with stringent correction for multiple comparisons. The main outcome measure was to examine distinct subtypes (aka latent classes) across all study participants using item-level data from gold-standard instruments assessing detailed clinical measures. Mixture models identified 3 subtypes of TTM (entropy 0.98) and 2 subtypes of SPD (entropy 0.99) independent of the control group. Significant differences between these classes were identified on measures of disability, automatic and focused symptoms, perfectionism, trait impulsiveness, and inattention and hyperactivity. These data indicate the existence of three separate subtypes of TTM, and two separate subtypes of SPD, which are distinct from controls. The identified clinical differences between these latent classes may be useful to tailor future treatments by focusing on particular traits. Future work should examine whether these latent subtypes relate to treatment outcomes, or particular psychobiological findings using neuroimaging techniques.

14.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e9, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripartum common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) such as South Africa. With limited public mental health resources, task sharing approaches to treatment are showing promise. However, little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of, as well as responses associated with problem-solving therapy (PST) for the treatment of prepartum CMD symptoms in South African public health settings. AIM: To investigate participants' preliminary responses to a task sharing PST intervention, and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. SETTING: A Midwife and Obstetrics Unit attached to a Community Health Centre in a Western Cape district. METHODS: Using mixed methods, 38 participants' responses to a PST intervention, and their perceptions of its feasibility and acceptability, were explored. Primary outcomes included psychological distress (Self Reporting Questionnaire; SRQ-20) and depression symptoms (Edinborough Postnatal Depression Scale; EPDS). Semi-structured interviews were conducted three after the last session. Six stakeholders were also interviewed. RESULTS: Significant reductions were seen on EPDS (Cohen's d = 0.61; Hedges g = 0.60) and SRQ-20 (Cohen's d = 0.68; Hedges g = 0.67) scores. The intervention's acceptability lay in the opportunity for confidential disclosure of problems; and in relieving staff of the burden of managing of patients' distress. Barriers included lack of transport and work commitments. CONCLUSION: Results support task sharing PST to Registered Counsellors to treat antenatal CMDs in perinatal primary health care settings. Research is needed on how such programmes might be integrated into public health settings, incorporating other non-specialists.

15.
J Gambl Stud ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006105

RESUMO

Gambling disorder (GD) is classified as a behavioural addiction and has some phenotypic similarities with substance use disorders (SUDs). Childhood adversity and life stressors are associated with increased risk for SUDs in adulthood. However, there is limited research investigating the association between childhood trauma, stressors and behavioural addictions such as GD. In this case-control cross-sectional study, 31 adult patients with GD were compared to 31 matched healthy controls (HCs) in terms of exposure to early adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF). In addition, past 12-month stressful life event exposure was assessed using the Life Event Stress Scale (LESS) and investigated as a possible moderator of the relationship between childhood trauma and GD by means of a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Logistic regression analyses were used to test if childhood trauma (CTQ-SF) and its subtypes were significant predictors of a diagnosis of GD. Severity of childhood trauma in general, and on all five subtypes, was significantly higher in GD patients compared to HCs. Childhood trauma was a significant predictor of a diagnosis of GD, with physical neglect being the single trauma subtype to significantly increase odds of GD in adulthood. Stressful life events moderated the relationship between childhood trauma and GD, i.e. childhood trauma was significantly higher in GD patients compared to HCs when LESS was low. The findings support a link between childhood trauma and GD, with current stress as a moderating variable, and may be useful for future individualized therapeutic strategies.

16.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053074

RESUMO

The development of "omic" technologies and deep phenotyping may facilitate a systems biology approach to understanding anxiety disorders. Systems biology approaches incorporate data from multiple modalities (e.g., genomic, neuroimaging) with functional analyses (e.g., animal and tissue culture models) and mathematical modeling (e.g., machine learning) to investigate pathological biophysical networks at various scales. Here we review: i) the neurobiology of anxiety disorders; ii) how systems biology approaches have advanced this work; and iii) the clinical implications and future directions of this research. Systems biology approaches have provided an improved functional understanding of candidate biomarkers and have suggested future potential for refining the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of anxiety disorders. The systems biology approach for anxiety disorders is, however, in its infancy and in some instances is characterized by insufficient power and replication. The studies reviewed here represent important steps to further untangling the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064342

RESUMO

To identify neuroimaging biomarkers of alcohol dependence (AD) from structural magnetic resonance imaging, it may be useful to develop classification models that are explicitly generalizable to unseen sites and populations. This problem was explored in a mega-analysis of previously published datasets from 2,034 AD and comparison participants spanning 27 sites curated by the ENIGMA Addiction Working Group. Data were grouped into a training set used for internal validation including 1,652 participants (692 AD, 24 sites), and a test set used for external validation with 382 participants (146 AD, 3 sites). An exploratory data analysis was first conducted, followed by an evolutionary search based feature selection to site generalizable and high performing subsets of brain measurements. Exploratory data analysis revealed that inclusion of case- and control-only sites led to the inadvertent learning of site-effects. Cross validation methods that do not properly account for site can drastically overestimate results. Evolutionary-based feature selection leveraging leave-one-site-out cross-validation, to combat unintentional learning, identified cortical thickness in the left superior frontal gyrus and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, cortical surface area in the right transverse temporal gyrus, and left putamen volume as final features. Ridge regression restricted to these features yielded a test-set area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.768. These findings evaluate strategies for handling multi-site data with varied underlying class distributions and identify potential biomarkers for individuals with current AD.

18.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 22: 100187, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874938

RESUMO

Introduction: Several studies of neuropsychological measures have been undertaken in patients with psychotic disorders from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is, however, unclear if the measures used in these studies are appropriate for cognitive screening in clinical settings. We undertook a systematic review to determine if measures investigated in research on psychotic disorders in LMICs meet the clinical utility criteria proposed by The Working Group on Screening and Assessment. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were employed. We determined if tests had been validated against a comprehensive test battery, the duration and scope of the tests, the personnel administering the tests, and the means of administration. Results: A total of 31 articles were included in the review, of which 11 were from Africa. The studies included 3254 participants with psychosis and 1331 controls. 3 studies reported on the validation of the test against a comprehensive cognitive battery. Assessments took 1 h or less to administer in 6/31 studies. The average number of cognitive domains assessed was four. Nonspecialized staff were used in only 3/31 studies, and most studies used pen and paper tests (17/31). Conclusion: Neuropsychological measures used in research on psychotic disorders in LMICs typically do not meet the Working Group on Screening and Assessment clinical utility criteria for cognitive screening. Measures that have been validated in high-income countries but not in LMICs that do meet these criteria, such as the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, therefore deserve further study in LMIC settings.

19.
J Health Serv Res Policy ; : 1355819620954232, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore health care providers' views on the acceptability and feasibility of two models for integrating facility-based counsellor delivered mental health counselling into chronic disease care, and how such an approach could be improved in South Africa. METHODS: Fourteen focus group discussions and 25 in-depth individual interviews were conducted with 109 health care workers and facility managers from 24 primary health clinics in the Western Cape, South Africa. RESULTS: Findings suggested that despite recent efforts to integrate mental health counselling into chronic disease services for common mental disorders, there remains limited availability of psychosocial and psychological counselling. Feedback on the two models of integration suggested equipoise and the potential of a hybrid approach where these approaches may be tailored to the specific needs and available resources of each facility. Participants identified constraints within the health system and broader social context that require consideration for integrating mental health counselling into chronic disease care. CONCLUSION: Although study participants unanimously agreed that counselling for common mental disorders should be integrated into chronic disease services, they had differing views on the type of model that should be adopted. There is a need for further testing of the two models and aspects of the health service that may require strengthening to implement any such model.

20.
World Psychiatry ; 19(3): 269-293, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931110

RESUMO

Depression is widely acknowledged to be a heterogeneous entity, and the need to further characterize the individual patient who has received this diagnosis in order to personalize the management plan has been repeatedly emphasized. However, the research evidence that should guide this personalization is at present fragmentary, and the selection of treatment is usually based on the clinician's and/or the patient's preference and on safety issues, in a trial-and-error fashion, paying little attention to the particular features of the specific case. This may be one of the reasons why the majority of patients with a diagnosis of depression do not achieve remission with the first treatment they receive. The predominant pessimism about the actual feasibility of the personalization of treatment of depression in routine clinical practice has recently been tempered by some secondary analyses of databases from clinical trials, using approaches such as individual patient data meta-analysis and machine learning, which indicate that some variables may indeed contribute to the identification of patients who are likely to respond differently to various antidepressant drugs or to antidepressant medication vs. specific psychotherapies. The need to develop decision support tools guiding the personalization of treatment of depression has been recently reaffirmed, and the point made that these tools should be developed through large observational studies using a comprehensive battery of self-report and clinical measures. The present paper aims to describe systematically the salient domains that should be considered in this effort to personalize depression treatment. For each domain, the available research evidence is summarized, and the relevant assessment instruments are reviewed, with special attention to their suitability for use in routine clinical practice, also in view of their possible inclusion in the above-mentioned comprehensive battery of measures. The main unmet needs that research should address in this area are emphasized. Where the available evidence allows providing the clinician with specific advice that can already be used today to make the management of depression more personalized, this advice is highlighted. Indeed, some sections of the paper, such as those on neurocognition and on physical comorbidities, indicate that the modern management of depression is becoming increasingly complex, with several components other than simply the choice of an antidepressant and/or a psychotherapy, some of which can already be reliably personalized.

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