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1.
Radiology ; : 192793, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662761

RESUMO

Background Cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) may be measured by using an acetazolamide test to clinically evaluate patients with cerebrovascular disease. However, acetazolamide use may be contraindicated and/or undesirable in certain clinical settings. Purpose To predict CVR images generated from acetazolamide vasodilation with a deep learning network by using only images before acetazolamide administration. Materials and Methods Simultaneous oxygen 15 (15O)-labeled water PET/MRI before and after acetazolamide injection were retrospectively analyzed for patients with Moyamoya disease and healthy control participants from April 2017 to May 2019. Inputs to deep learning models were perfusion-based images (arterial spin labeling [ASL]), structural scans (T2 fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery, T1), and brain location. Two models, that is, 15O-labeled water PET cerebral blood flow (CBF) and MRI (PET-plus-MRI model) before acetazolamide administration and only MRI (MRI-only model) before acetazolamide administration, were trained and tested with sixfold cross-validation. The models learned to predict a voxelwise relative CBF change (rΔCBF) map by using rΔCBF measured with PET due to acetazolamide as ground truth. Quantitative analysis included image quality metrics (peak signal-to-noise ratio, root mean square error, and structural similarity index), as well as comparison between the various methods by using correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Identification of vascular territories with impaired rΔCBF was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic metrics. Results Thirty-six participants were included: 24 patients with Moyamoya disease (mean age ± standard deviation, 41 years ± 12; 17 women) and 12 age-matched healthy control participants (mean age, 39 years ± 16; nine women). The rΔCBF maps predicted by both deep learning models demonstrated better image quality metrics than did ASL (all P < .001 in patients) and higher correlation coefficient with PET than with ASL (PET-plus-MRI model, 0.704; MRI-only model, 0.690 vs ASL, 0.432; both P < .001 in patients). Both models also achieved high diagnostic performance in identifying territories with impaired rΔCBF (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.95 for PET-plus-MRI model [95% confidence interval: 0.90, 0.99] and 0.95 for MRI-only model [95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.98]). Conclusion By using only images before acetazolamide administration, PET-plus-MRI and MRI-only deep learning models predicted cerebrovascular reserve images without the need for vasodilator injection. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

2.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perforator arteries, the absence of an aneurysm discrete neck, and the often-extensive nature of posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms present treatment challenges. There have been advances in microsurgical and endovascular approaches, including flow diversion, and the authors sought to review these treatments in a long-term series at their neurovascular referral center. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective chart review from 1990 to 2018. Primary outcomes were modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at follow-up. The authors also examined neurological complication rates. Using regression techniques, they reviewed independent and dependent variables, including presenting features, aneurysm location and size, surgical approach, and pretreatment and posttreatment thrombosis. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 53 years, and 49 (58%) were female. Forty-one (49%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Aneurysms were located on the vertebral artery (VA) or posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 50 (60%) patients, basilar artery (BA) or vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) in 22 (26%), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in 12 (14%). Thirty-one (37%) patients were treated with microsurgical and 53 (63%) with endovascular approaches. Six aneurysms were treated with endovascular flow diversion. The authors found moderate disability or better (mRS score ≤ 3) in 85% of the patients at a mean 14-month follow-up. The GOS score was ≥ 4 in 82% of the patients. The overall neurological complication rate was 12%. In the regression analysis, patients with VA or PICA aneurysms had better functional outcomes than the other groups (p < 0.001). Endovascular strategies were associated with better outcomes for BA-VBJ aneurysms (p < 0.01), but microsurgery was associated with better outcomes for VA-PICA and PCA aneurysms (p < 0.05). There were no other significant associations between patient, aneurysm characteristics, or treatment features and neurological complications (p > 0.05). Patients treated with flow diversion had more complications than those who underwent other endovascular and microsurgical strategies, but the difference was not significant in regression models. CONCLUSIONS: Posterior circulation fusiform aneurysms remain a challenging aneurysm subtype, but an interdisciplinary treatment approach can result in good outcomes. While flow diversion is a useful addition to the armamentarium, traditional endovascular and microsurgical techniques continue to offer effective options.

3.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural history of unilateral moyamoya disease (MMD) progressing to bilateral MMD remains an enigma in modern vascular neurosurgery. Few, small series with limited follow-up have reported relatively high rates of contralateral stenosis progression. OBJECTIVE: To review our large series of unilateral MMD patients and evaluate radiographic and surgical progression rates, and identify any factors associated with progression. METHODS: We included all unilateral MMD cases treated from 1991 to 2017 in an observational study. We examined time to contralateral radiographic progression and contralateral progression requiring surgery. Using Cox regression analysis, we evaluated factors potentially associated with contralateral progression. RESULTS: There were 217 patients treated for unilateral MMD. About 71% were female, and the average age at first surgery was 33.8 yr. Average follow-up was 5.8 yr (range 1-22 yr). A total of 18 patients (8.3%) developed contralateral progression. And 8 of these (3.7%) developed progression requiring bypass surgery. Baseline stenosis and hyperlipidemia (HLD) were significantly associated with radiographic progression (hazard ratio [HR] = 9.7, P = .006; HR = 4.0, P = .024). Baseline stenosis was associated with surgical progression (HR = 44.2, P = .002). Results were similar when controlling for possible confounders using multivariate regression. CONCLUSION: Previous series showed relatively high rates of progression in unilateral MMD (15%-30%), but these studies were small and long-term follow-up was rarely available. Our large series indicates that the rate of progression is lower than previously reported but still warrants yearly noninvasive screening. These data may provide indirect support for statin therapy in MMD.

4.
Neurosurgery ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with moyamoya disease who develop incidental cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have higher risk of developing subsequent symptomatic repeat macro hemorrhages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of surgical revascularization on development of de novo CMHs and assess its correlation with repeat hemorrhage rates and functional outcome in hemorrhagic onset moyamoya disease (HOMMD). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively managed departmental database of all patients presenting with HOMMD treated between 1987 and 2019. The search yielded 121 patients with adequate MRI follow-up for inclusion into the study. RESULTS: In total, 42 preoperative CMHs were identified in 18 patients (15%). Patients presenting with preoperative CMH were more likely to develop de novo CMH after surgical revascularization. 7 de novo CHMs were identified in 6 patients (5%) on routine postoperative MRI at distinct locations from previous sites of hemorrhage or CMH. Symptomatic repeat macro hemorrhage was confirmed radiographically in 15 patients (12%). A total 5 (83%) of 6 patients with de novo CMHs later suffered symptomatic repeat macro hemorrhage with 4 of 5 (80%) hemorrhages occurring at sites of previous CMH. On univariate and multivariate analysis, de novo CMHs was the only significant variable predictive for developing repeat symptomatic hemorrhage. Development of delayed repeat symptomatic hemorrhage was prognostic for higher modified Rankin Score and therefore poorer functional status, whereas preoperative functional status was predictive of final outcome. CONCLUSION: De novo CMHs after surgical revascularization might serve as a radiographic biomarker for refractory disease and suggest patients are at risk for future symptomatic macro hemorrhage.

5.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661768

RESUMO

Post-stroke optogenetic stimulation has been shown to enhance neurovascular coupling and functional recovery. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been implicated as a key regulator of the neurovascular response in acute stroke; however, its role in subacute recovery remains unclear. We investigated the expression of nNOS in stroke mice undergoing optogenetic stimulation of the contralesional lateral cerebellar nucleus (cLCN). We also examined the effects of nNOS inhibition on functional recovery using a pharmacological inhibitor targeting nNOS. Optogenetically stimulated stroke mice demonstrated significant improvement on the horizontal rotating beam task at post-stroke days 10 and 14. nNOS mRNA and protein expression was significantly and selectively decreased in the contralesional primary motor cortex (cM1) of cLCN-stimulated mice. The nNOS expression in cM1 was negatively correlated with improved recovery. nNOS inhibitor (ARL 17477)-treated stroke mice exhibited a significant functional improvement in speed at post-stroke day 10, when compared to stroke mice receiving vehicle (saline) only. Our results show that optogenetic stimulation of cLCN and systemic nNOS inhibition both produce functional benefits after stroke, and suggest that nNOS may play a maladaptive role in post-stroke recovery.

6.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-12, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The only effective treatment for ischemic moyamoya disease (iMMD) is cerebral revascularization by an extracranial to intracranial bypass. The preferred revascularization method remains controversial: direct versus indirect bypass. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that method choice should be personalized based on angiographic, hemodynamic, and clinical characteristics to balance the risk of perioperative major stroke against treatment efficacy. METHODS: Patients with iMMD were identified retrospectively from a prospectively maintained database. Those with mild to moderate internal carotid artery or M1 segment stenosis, preserved cerebrovascular reserve, intraoperative M4 segment anterograde flow ≥ 8 ml/min, or the absence of frequent and severe transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or stroke had been assigned to indirect bypass. The criteria for direct bypass were severe ICA or M1 segment stenosis or occlusion, impaired cerebrovascular reserve or steal phenomenon, intraoperative M4 segment retrograde flow or anterograde flow < 8 ml/min, and the presence of frequent and severe TIAs or clinical strokes. The primary study endpoint was MRI-confirmed symptomatic stroke ≤ 7 days postoperatively resulting in a decline in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively. As a secondary endpoint, the authors assessed 6-month postoperative DSA-demonstrated revascularization, which was classified as < 1/3, 1/3-2/3, or > 2/3 of the middle cerebral artery territory. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-eight patients with iMMD affecting 195 hemispheres revascularized in the period from March 2016 to June 2018 were included in this analysis. One hundred thirty-three hemispheres were revascularized with direct bypass and 62 with indirect bypass. The perioperative stroke rate was 4.7% and 6.8% in the direct and indirect groups, respectively (p = 0.36). Degree of revascularization was higher in the direct bypass group (p = 0.03). The proportion of patients improving to an mRS score 0-1 (from preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively) tended to be higher in the direct bypass group, although the difference between the two bypass groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: The selective use of an indirect bypass procedure for iMMD did not decrease the perioperative stroke rate. Direct bypass provided a significantly higher degree of revascularization. The authors conclude that direct bypass is the treatment of choice for iMMD.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 603, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360676

RESUMO

Cavernous malformations of the midbrain require careful consideration of the risks and benefits of intervention as well as the optimal surgical approach for these challenging lesions. Excellent results can be achieved with careful surgical planning and technique. We demonstrate a contralateral left pterional craniotomy for a translamina terminalis approach to carbon dioxide laser-assisted microsurgical resection of a thalamomesencephalic cavernoma in a 59-year-old woman with progressive debilitating diplopia secondary to partial third nerve palsy (Video 1). We performed a contralateral left modified pterional craniotomy in which we limited dissection of the temporalis muscle to approximately one third rather than extending the muscle split down to the zygoma. The cavernous malformation was resected with no complications, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 3. She noted immediate improvement and nearly complete resolution of symptoms over ensuing weeks. This approach offers a direct route to the lesion with minimal brain transgression, while avoiding the critical structures within the interpeduncular cistern, including the basilar artery and thalamomesencephalic perforating arteries, as well as bordering neural structures, including cerebral peduncles, oculomotor nerves, and mamillary bodies. Use of the carbon dioxide laser with its 0.55-mm tip offers a low surgical profile and allows for precise cutting, thus minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissues. The translamina terminalis approach through a pterional craniotomy offers a safe and potentially less morbid alternative to select thalamomesencephalic lesions compared with exposure through the mesencephalic surface, which in our experience often necessitates an orbitozygomatic craniotomy.

10.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precise delivery of liquid embolic agents (LEAs) remains a challenge in the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVFs) and cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs). Despite significant advances in the past decade, LEA reflux and catheter navigability remain shortcomings of current endovascular technology, particularly in small and tortuous arteries. The Scepter Mini dual-lumen balloon microcatheter aims to address these issues by decreasing the distal catheter profile (1.6 French) while allowing for a small (2.2 mm diameter) balloon at its tip. METHODS: We report our initial experience with the Scepter Mini in two patients with anterior cranial fossa dAVFs that were treated with transophthalmic artery embolization. RESULTS: In both patients, the Scepter Mini catheter was able to be safely advanced into the distal ophthalmic artery close to the fistula site, and several centimeters past the origins of the central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries. A single Onyx injection without any reflux resulted in angiographic cure of the dAVF in both cases, and neither patient suffered any vision loss. CONCLUSIONS: These initial experiences suggest that the Scepter Mini represents a significant advance in the endovascular treatment of dAVFs and cAVMs and will allow for safer and more efficacious delivery of LEAs into smaller and more distal arteries while diminishing the risk of LEA reflux.

11.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-10, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cavernous malformations (CMs) are commonly treated cerebrovascular anomalies in the pediatric population; however, the data on radiographic recurrence of pediatric CMs after surgery are limited. The authors aimed to study the clinical presentation, outcomes, and recurrence rate following surgery for a large cohort of CMs in children. METHODS: Pediatric patients (≤ 18 years old) who had a CM resected at a single institution were identified and retrospectively reviewed. Fisher's exact test of independence was used to assess differences in categorical variables. Survival curves were evaluated using the Mantel-Cox method. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients aged 3 months to 18 years underwent resection of 74 symptomatic CMs between 1996 and 2018 at a single institution. The median length of follow-up was 5.65 years. Patients most commonly presented with seizures (45.3%, n = 24) and the majority of CMs were cortical (58.0%, n = 43). Acute radiographic hemorrhage was common at presentation (64.2%, n = 34). Forty-two percent (n = 22) of patients presented with multiple CMs, and they were more likely to develop de novo lesions (71%) compared to patients presenting with a single CM (3.4%). Both radiographic hemorrhage and multiple CMs were independently prognostic for a higher risk of the patient requiring subsequent surgery. Fifty percent (n = 6) of the 12 patients with both risk factors required additional surgery within 2.5 years of initial surgery compared to none of the patients with neither risk factor (n = 9). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with either acute radiographic hemorrhage or multiple CMs are at higher risk for subsequent surgery and require long-term MRI surveillance. In contrast, patients with a single CM are unlikely to require additional surgery and may require less frequent routine imaging.

12.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-10, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Craniocervical junction-related syringomyelia (CCJS) is the most common form of syringomyelia. Approximately 30% of patients treated with foramen magnum decompression (FMD) will show persistence, recurrence, or progression of the syrinx. The authors present a pilot study with a new minimally invasive surgery technique targeting the pathophysiology of CCJS in adult patients. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and radiological features of a consecutive series of patients treated for CCJS. An FMD and FM durectomy were performed through a 1.5- to 2-cm skin incision. Then arachnoid adhesions were cleared, creating a permanent communication from the fourth ventricle to the new paraspinal extradural cavity (obexostomy) and with the spinal subarachnoid space. The hypothesis was that the new CSF pouch acts like a pressure leak, interrupting the CCJS pathogenesis. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (13 female, 21-61 years old) were treated between 2014 and 2018. The etiology of CCJS was Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) in 20 patients (83.3%), Chiari malformation type 0 (CM-0) in 2 patients (8.3%), and CCJ arachnoiditis in 2 patients (8.3%). Two patients underwent reoperations after failed FMD for CM-I at other institutions. No major surgical complication occurred. One patient had postoperative meningitis with no CSF fistula. On postoperative MRI, shrinkage of the syrinx was seen in all patients. No patients experienced recurrence of the CCJS. No patient required a subsequent operation. The mean duration of surgery was 72 ± 11 minutes (mean ± SD), and blood loss was 35-80 ml (mean 51 ml). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 58 months. The average overall improvement in modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores was 10% (p < 0.001). The Odom scale showed that 19 patients (79.1%) were satisfied, 4 (16.7%) remained the same, and 1 (4.2%) reported a poor outcome. All patients experienced postoperative improvement in perception of quality of life (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Minimally invasive FM durectomy and obexostomy is a safe and effective treatment for CCJS and for patients who have not responded to other treatment.

13.
World Neurosurg ; 138: 214-217, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasospasm following clipping of an unruptured aneurysm is a rare phenomenon. When it does occur, cerebral vasospasm usually occurs on the side ipsilateral to the surgical intervention. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 68-year-old man underwent right-sided pterional craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm and experienced contralateral vasospasm 5 days later. CONCLUSIONS: We further discuss the pathophysiology underlying vasospasm after uncomplicated craniotomy and nonhemorrhagic aneurysm clipping.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/etiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
14.
Neurosurgery ; 86(2): 257-265, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor natural history of hemorrhagic Moyamoya disease (MMD) is related to high rehemorrhage rates between 32% and 61%. Postrevascularization, rehemorrhage rates reportedly decrease to 12% to 17%. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term functional outcomes and rehemorrhage rates of hemorrhagic MMD patients treated with surgical revascularization and examine these in relation to clinical and radiological factors. METHODS: Patients treated surgically for hemorrhagic MMD over a 26-yr period were identified. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) was used to assess clinical status at presentation and functional outcomes. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with rehemorrhage rates and functional outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients (mean age: 38.04 yr) were identified. The mean mRS score at baseline was 1.3. Of 172 revascularized hemispheres, 157 (91.3%) were direct superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypasses and the rest indirect. Over the mean follow-up of 61.4 mo, 8 of 104 patients (7.7%) experienced rehemorrhage with rehemorrhage rate per person-years of 1.9%. A total of 4 patients died with 1 related to rehemorrhage. At the last follow-up, mean mRS score improved to 1.1. No significant risk factors were identified in relation to the rehemorrhage rates (P < .05). The patients' initial mRS score was positively associated with mRS scores at the final follow-up (P < .001). STA-MCA direct bypass was associated with better performance status (P = .033). CONCLUSION: Rehemorrhage rate following surgical revascularization of the hemorrhagic MMD patients at 7.7% is lower compared with much higher natural history rates. Surgical revascularization improved patients' performance status. These outcomes support performing revascularization procedure with a preference for direct STA-MCA bypasses.

15.
Neurosurgery ; 86(4): 530-537, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease often leads to ischemic strokes visible on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with subsequent cognitive impairment. In adults with moyamoya, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is correlated with regions of steal phenomenon and executive dysfunction prior to white matter changes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate quantitative global diffusion changes in pediatric moyamoya patients prior to explicit structural ischemic damage. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed children (<20 yr old) with moyamoya disease and syndrome who underwent bypass surgery at our institution. We identified 29 children with normal structural preoperative MRI and without findings of cortical infarction or chronic white matter ischemic changes. DWI datasets were used to calculate ADC maps for each subject as well as for 60 age-matched healthy controls. Using an atlas-based approach, the cerebral white matter, cerebral cortex, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and brainstem were segmented in each DWI dataset and used to calculate regional volumes and ADC values. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of covariance using the regional ADC and volume values as dependent variables and age and gender as covariates revealed a significant difference between the groups (P < .001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated significantly elevated ADC values for children with moyamoya in the cerebral cortex, white matter, caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. No significant volume differences were found. CONCLUSION: Prior to having bypass surgery, and in the absence of imaging evidence of ischemic stroke, children with moyamoya exhibit cerebral diffusion changes. These findings could reflect microstructural changes stemming from exhaustion of cerebrovascular reserve.

16.
Neurosurgery ; 86(5): 665-675, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resection of deep intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) is associated with a higher risk of neurological deterioration and uncertainty regarding clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To examine diffusion tractography imaging (DTI) data evaluating the corticospinal tract (CST) in relation to motor and functional outcomes in patients with surgically resected deep CMs. METHODS: Perilesional CST was characterized as disrupted, displaced, or normal. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for whole ipsilateral CST and in 3 regions: subcortical (proximal), perilesional, and distally. Mean FA values in anatomically equivalent regions in the contralateral CST were obtained. Clinical and radiological data were collected independently. Multivariable regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients [brainstem (15) and thalamus/basal ganglia (3); median follow-up: 270 d] were identified over 2 yr. The CST was identified preoperatively as disrupted (6), displaced (8), and normal (4). Five of 6 patients with disruption had weakness. Higher preoperative mean FA values for distal ipsilateral CST segment were associated with better preoperative lower (P < .001), upper limb (P = .004), postoperative lower (P = .005), and upper limb (P < .001) motor examination. Preoperative mean FA values for distal ipsilateral CST segment (P = .001) and contralateral perilesional CST segment (P < .001) were negatively associated with postoperative modified Rankin scale scores. CONCLUSION: Lower preoperative mean FA values for overall and defined CST segments corresponded to worse patient pre- and postoperative motor examination and/or functional status. FA value for the distal ipsilateral CST segment has prognostic potential with respect to clinical outcomes.

17.
J Neuroradiol ; 47(1): 13-19, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) treatment by stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is effective, but AVM obliteration following SRS may take two years or longer. MRI with arterial-spin labeling (ASL) may detect brain AVMs with high sensitivity. We determined whether brain MRI with ASL may accurately detect residual AVM following SRS treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent brain AVM evaluation by DSA between June 2010 and June 2015. Inclusion criteria were: (1) AVM treatment by SRS, (2) follow-up MRI with ASL at least 30 months after SRS, (3) DSA within 3 months of the follow-up MRI with ASL, and (4) no intervening AVM treatment between the MRI and DSA. Four neuroradiologists blindly and independently reviewed follow-up MRIs. Primary outcome measure was residual AVM indicated by abnormal venous ASL signal. RESULTS: 15 patients (12 females, mean age 29 years) met inclusion criteria. There were three posterior fossa AVMs and 12 supratentorial AVMs. Spetzler-Martin (SM) Grades were: SM1 (8%), SM2 (33%), SM3 (17%), SM4 (25%), and SM5 (17%). DSA demonstrated residual AVM in 10 patients. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of venous ASL signal for predicting residual AVM were 100% (95% CI: 0.9-1.0), 95% (95% CI: 0.7-1.0), 98% (95% CI: 0.9-1.0), and 100% (95% CI: 0.8-1.0), respectively. High inter-reader agreement as found by Fleiss' Kappa analysis (k = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: ASL is highly sensitive and specific in the detection of residual cerebral AVM following SRS treatment.

18.
Neurosurgery ; 86(2): 203-212, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional moyamoya disease (MMD) classification relies on morphological digital subtraction angiography (DSA) assessment, which do not reflect hemodynamic status, clinical symptoms, or surgical treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: To (1) validate the new Berlin MMD preoperative symptomatology grading system and (2) determine the clinical application of the grading system in predicting radiological and clinical outcomes after surgical revascularization. METHODS: Ninety-six MMD patients (192 hemispheres) with all 3 investigations (DSA, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], Xenon-CT) performed preoperatively at our institution (2007-2013) were included. Two clinicians independently graded the imaging findings according to the proposed criteria. Patients' modified Rankin Score (mRS) scores (preoperative, postoperative, last follow-up), postoperative infarct (radiological, clinical) were collected and statistical correlations performed. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-seven direct superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses were performed on 96 patients (66 female, mean age 41 yr, mean follow-up 4.3 yr). DSA, MRI, and cerebrovascular reserve capacity were independent factors associated hemispheric symptomatology (when analyzed individually or in the combined grading system). Mild (grade I), moderate (grade II), severe (grade III) were graded in 45, 71, and 76 hemispheres respectively; of which, clinical symptoms were found in 33% of grade I, 92% of grade II, 100% of grade III hemispheres (P < .0001). Two percent of grade I, 11% of grade II, 20% of grade III hemispheres showed postoperative radiological diffusion weighted image-positive ischemic changes or hemorrhage on MRI (P = .018). Clinical postoperative stroke was observed in 1.4% of grade II, 6.6% of grade III hemispheres (P = .077). The grading system also correlated well to dichotomized mRS postoperative outcome. CONCLUSION: The Berlin MMD grading system is able to stratify preoperative hemispheric symptomatology. Furthermore, it correlated with postoperative new ischemic changes on MRI, and showed a strong trend in predicting clinical postoperative stroke.

19.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 51(1): 183-194, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: H2 15 O-positron emission tomography (PET) is considered the reference standard for absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, this technique requires an arterial input function measured through continuous sampling of arterial blood, which is invasive and has limitations with tracer delay and dispersion. PURPOSE: To demonstrate a new noninvasive method to quantify absolute CBF with a PET/MRI hybrid scanner. This blood-free approach, called PC-PET, takes the spatial CBF distribution from a static H2 15 O-PET scan, and scales it to the whole-brain average CBF value measured by simultaneous phase-contrast MRI. STUDY TYPE: Observational. SUBJECTS: Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 patients with Moyamoya disease (MM) as a model of chronic ischemic disease. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: 3T/2D cardiac-gated phase-contrast MRI and H2 15 O-PET. ASSESSMENT: PC-PET CBF values from whole brain (WB), gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) in HCs were compared with literature values since 2000. CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), which is defined as the percent CBF change between baseline and post-acetazolamide (vasodilator) scans, were measured by PC-PET in MM patients and HCs within cortical regions corresponding to major vascular territories. Statistical Tests: Linear, mixed effects models were created to compare CBF and CVR, respectively, between patients and controls, and between different degrees of stenosis. RESULTS: The mean CBF values in WB, GM, and WM in HC were 42 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, 50 ± 7 ml/100 g/min, and 23 ± 3 ml/100 g/min, respectively, which agree well with literature values. Compared with normal regions (57 ± 23%), patients showed significantly decreased CVR in areas with mild/moderate stenosis (47 ± 17%, P = 0.011) and in severe/occluded areas (40 ± 16%, P = 0.016). Data Conclusion: PC-PET identifies differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between healthy controls and cerebrovascular patients. PC-PET is suitable for CBF measurement when arterial blood sampling is not accessible, and warrants comparison to fully quantitative H2 15 O-PET in future studies. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:183-194.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5504, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796741

RESUMO

3D histology, slice-based connectivity atlases, and diffusion MRI are common techniques to map brain wiring. While there are many modality-specific tools to process these data, there is a lack of integration across modalities. We develop an automated resource that combines histologically cleared volumes with connectivity atlases and MRI, enabling the analysis of histological features across multiple fiber tracts and networks, and their correlation with in-vivo biomarkers. We apply our pipeline in a murine stroke model, demonstrating not only strong correspondence between MRI abnormalities and CLARITY-tissue staining, but also uncovering acute cellular effects in areas connected to the ischemic core. We provide improved maps of connectivity by quantifying projection terminals from CLARITY viral injections, and integrate diffusion MRI with CLARITY viral tracing to compare connectivity maps across scales. Finally, we demonstrate tract-level histological changes of stroke through this multimodal integration. This resource can propel investigations of network alterations underlying neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia , Animais , Automação , Axônios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
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