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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20092, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, organised germline screening, independent of the personal and family cancer history, has been frequently proposed. Since ethnic and geographic populations significantly differ in their mutation spectra and prevalence, one critical prerequisite would be the knowledge of the expected carrier frequencies. OBJECTIVE: For the first time, in a retrospective non-cancer related cohort from a single Swiss genetic centre, we systematically assessed the prevalence of secondary findings in 19 genes (BRCA1/2 plus 17 non-BRCA genes) previously designated by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) germline testing. DESIGN: A total of 400 individuals without a cancer diagnosis undergoing whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) from 2015 to 2017 at IMG Zurich were included after quality assessment. Among these, 180 were unaffected parental couples, 27 unaffected parental singles and 13 NDD index patients (mean age 43 years). The majority of the cohort was of Caucasian ethnicity (n = 336, 84.0%) and of Northwest European ancestry (n = 202, 50.5%), for 70 of whom (42.5%) an autochthonous Swiss descent was assumed. For WES filtering of rare, potentially actionable secondary variants in HBOC genes, an overall minor allele frequency (MAF) below 0.65% was used as cut-off. Each rare variant was manually evaluated according to the recommended ACGM-AMP standards, with some adaptations including “hypomorphic” as an additional distinct pathogenicity class. RESULTS: Overall, 526 rare secondary variants (339 different variants) were encountered, with the BRCA1/2 genes accounting for 27.2% of the total variant yield. If stratified for variant pathogenicity, for BRCA1/2, three pathogenic variants were found in three females of Italian ancestry (carrier frequency of 0.8%). In the non-BRCA genes, five carriers of (likely) pathogenic variants (1.3%) were identified, with two Swiss individuals harbouring the same CHEK2 Arg160Gly variant known to be recurrent among Caucasians. Hence, the overall carrier rate added up to 2.0%. Additionally, seven various hypomorphic HBOC predisposing alleles were detected in 22 individuals (5.5%). CONCLUSION: We provide the first evidence of a high prevalence of HBOC-related cancer susceptibility in the heterogeneous Swiss general population and relevant subpopulations, particularly in individuals of Italian descent. These pioneering data may substantiate population-based HBOC screening in Switzerland.

3.
Mol Med ; 25(1): 6, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deleterious variants in the voltage-gated sodium channel type 2 (Nav1.2) lead to a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from benign familial neonatal-infantile epilepsy (BFNIE), severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) and intellectual disability (ID) to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. METHODS: To further elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation of SCN2A variants we investigated the functional effects of six variants representing the phenotypic spectrum by whole-cell patch-clamp studies in transfected HEK293T cells and in-silico structural modeling. RESULTS: The two variants p.L1342P and p.E1803G detected in patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) showed profound and complex changes in channel gating, whereas the BFNIE variant p.L1563V exhibited only a small gain of channel function. The three variants identified in ID patients without seizures, p.R937C, p.L611Vfs*35 and p.W1716*, did not produce measurable currents. Homology modeling of the missense variants predicted structural impairments consistent with the electrophysiological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that complete loss-of-function variants lead to ID without seizures, small gain-of-function variants cause BFNIE and EE variants exhibit variable but profound Nav1.2 gating changes. Moreover, structural modeling was able to predict the severity of the variant impact, supporting a potential role of structural modeling as a prognostic tool. Our study on the functional consequences of SCN2A variants causing the distinct phenotypes of EE, BFNIE and ID contributes to the elucidation of mechanisms underlying the broad phenotypic variability reported for SCN2A variants.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/genética , Síndromes Epilépticas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Epilepsia Neonatal Benigna/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Epilépticas/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 408-421, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552426

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and combined developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous severely devastating conditions. Recent studies emphasized de novo variants as major underlying cause suggesting a generally low-recurrence risk. In order to better understand the full genetic landscape of EE and DEE, we performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in combination with whole-exome sequencing in 63 deeply phenotyped independent patients. After bioinformatic filtering for rare variants, diagnostic yield was improved for recessive disorders by manual data curation as well as molecular modeling of missense variants and untargeted plasma-metabolomics in selected patients. In total, we yielded a diagnosis in ∼42% of cases with causative copy number variants in 6 patients (∼10%) and causative sequence variants in 16 established disease genes in 20 patients (∼32%), including compound heterozygosity for causative sequence and copy number variants in one patient. In total, 38% of diagnosed cases were caused by recessive genes, of which two cases escaped automatic calling due to one allele occurring de novo. Notably, we found the recessive gene SPATA5 causative in as much as 3% of our cohort, indicating that it may have been underdiagnosed in previous studies. We further support candidacy for neurodevelopmental disorders of four previously described genes (PIK3AP1, GTF3C3, UFC1, and WRAP53), three of which also followed a recessive inheritance pattern. Our results therefore confirm the importance of de novo causative gene variants in EE/DEE, but additionally illustrate the major role of mostly compound heterozygous or hemizygous recessive inheritance and consequently high-recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 948-967, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526868

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions due to defects in genes involved in development and function of the nervous system. Individuals with NDD, in addition to their primary neurodevelopmental phenotype, may also have accompanying syndromic features that can be very helpful diagnostically especially those with recognizable facial appearance. In this study, we describe ten similarly affected individuals from six unrelated families of different ethnic origins having bi-allelic truncating variants in TMEM94, which encodes for an uncharacterized transmembrane nuclear protein that is highly conserved across mammals. The affected individuals manifested with global developmental delay/intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facial features including triangular face, deep set eyes, broad nasal root and tip and anteverted nostrils, thick arched eye brows, hypertrichosis, pointed chin, and hypertelorism. Birthweight in the upper normal range was observed in most, and all but one had congenital heart defects (CHD). Gene expression analysis in available cells from affected individuals showed reduced expression of TMEM94. Global transcriptome profiling using microarray and RNA sequencing revealed several dysregulated genes essential for cell growth, proliferation and survival that are predicted to have an impact on cardiotoxicity hematological system and neurodevelopment. Loss of Tmem94 in mouse model generated by CRISPR/Cas9 was embryonic lethal and led to craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities and abnormal neuronal migration pattern, suggesting that this gene is important in craniofacial, cardiovascular, and nervous system development. Our study suggests the genetic etiology of a recognizable dysmorphic syndrome with NDD and CHD and highlights the role of TMEM94 in early development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/genética , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

9.
Brain ; 141(7): 1934-1945, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868776

RESUMO

The post-translational modification of proteins through the addition of UFM1, also known as ufmylation, plays a critical developmental role as revealed by studies in animal models. The recent finding that biallelic mutations in UBA5 (the E1-like enzyme for ufmylation) cause severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly implicates ufmylation in human brain development. More recently, a homozygous UFM1 variant was proposed as a candidate aetiology of severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly. Here, we establish a locus for severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly based on two families, and map the phenotype to a novel homozygous UFM1 mutation. This mutation has a significantly diminished capacity to form thioester intermediates with UBA5 and with UFC1 (the E2-like enzyme for ufmylation), with resulting impaired ufmylation of cellular proteins. Remarkably, in four additional families where eight children have severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly, we identified two biallelic UFC1 mutations, which impair UFM1-UFC1 intermediate formation with resulting widespread reduction of cellular ufmylation, a pattern similar to that observed with UFM1 mutation. The striking resemblance between UFM1- and UFC1-related clinical phenotype and biochemical derangements strongly argues for an essential role for ufmylation in human brain development. The hypomorphic nature of UFM1 and UFC1 mutations and the conspicuous depletion of biallelic null mutations in the components of this pathway in human genome databases suggest that it is necessary for embryonic survival, which is consistent with the embryonic lethal nature of knockout models for the orthologous genes.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 959-964, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737001

RESUMO

Primrose syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by macrocephaly, tall stature, intellectual disability, autistic traits, and disturbances of glucose metabolism with insulin-resistant diabetes and distal muscle wasting occurring in adulthood. The disorder is caused by functional dysregulation of ZBTB20, a transcriptional repressor controlling energetic metabolism and developmental programs. ZBTB20 maps in a genomic region that is deleted in the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome, which explains the clinical overlap between the two disorders. A narrow spectrum of amino acid substitutions in a restricted region of ZBTB20 encompassing the first and second zinc-finger motifs have been reported thus far. Here, we characterize clinically and functionally the first truncating mutation [(c.1024delC; p.(Gln342Serfs*42)] and a missense change affecting the third zinc-finger motif of the protein [(c.1931C > T; p.(Thr644Ile)]. Our data document that both mutations have dominant negative impact on wild-type ZBTB20, providing further evidence of the specific behavior of PS-causing mutations on ZBTB20 function.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 197-209, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321670

RESUMO

Acrocallosal syndrome (ACLS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder caused by KIF7 defects and belongs to the heterogeneous group of ciliopathies related to Joubert syndrome (JBTS). While ACLS is characterized by macrocephaly, prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, and hypertelorism, facial dysmorphism has not been emphasized in JBTS cohorts with molecular diagnosis. To evaluate the specificity and etiology of ACLS craniofacial features, we performed whole exome or targeted Sanger sequencing in patients with the aforementioned overlapping craniofacial appearance but variable additional ciliopathy features followed by functional studies. We found (likely) pathogenic variants of KIF7 in 5 out of 9 families, including the original ACLS patients, and delineated 1000 to 4000-year-old Swiss founder alleles. Three of the remaining families had (likely) pathogenic variants in the JBTS gene C5orf42, and one patient had a novel de novo frameshift variant in SHH known to cause autosomal dominant holoprosencephaly. In accordance with the patients' craniofacial anomalies, we showed facial midline widening after silencing of C5orf42 in chicken embryos. We further supported the link between KIF7, SHH, and C5orf42 by demonstrating abnormal primary cilia and diminished response to a SHH agonist in fibroblasts of C5orf42-mutated patients, as well as axonal pathfinding errors in C5orf42-silenced chicken embryos similar to those observed after perturbation of Shh signaling. Our findings, therefore, suggest that beside the neurodevelopmental features, macrocephaly and facial widening are likely more general signs of disturbed SHH signaling. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up revealed that C5orf42-mutated patients showed catch-up development and fainting of facial features contrary to KIF7-mutated patients.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 985-994, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198724

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in chromosomal region 20p12 belongs to a gene superfamily encoding TGF-ß-signaling proteins involved in bone and cartilage biology. Monoallelic deletions of 20p12 are variably associated with cleft palate, short stature, and developmental delay. Here, we report a cranioskeletal phenotype due to monoallelic truncating and frameshift BMP2 variants and deletions in 12 individuals from eight unrelated families that share features of short stature, a recognizable craniofacial gestalt, skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart disease. De novo occurrence and autosomal-dominant inheritance of variants, including paternal mosaicism in two affected sisters who inherited a BMP2 splice-altering variant, were observed across all reported families. Additionally, we observed similarity to the human phenotype of short stature and skeletal anomalies in a heterozygous Bmp2-knockout mouse model, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of BMP2 could be the primary phenotypic determinant in individuals with predicted truncating variants and deletions encompassing BMP2. These findings demonstrate the important role of BMP2 in human craniofacial, skeletal, and cardiac development and confirm that individuals heterozygous for BMP2 truncating sequence variants or deletions display a consistent distinct phenotype characterized by short stature and skeletal and cardiac anomalies without neurological deficits.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Nanismo/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Animais , Osso e Ossos/embriologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Coração/embriologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(6): 907-925, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575647

RESUMO

Yin and yang 1 (YY1) is a well-known zinc-finger transcription factor with crucial roles in normal development and malignancy. YY1 acts both as a repressor and as an activator of gene expression. We have identified 23 individuals with de novo mutations or deletions of YY1 and phenotypic features that define a syndrome of cognitive impairment, behavioral alterations, intrauterine growth restriction, feeding problems, and various congenital malformations. Our combined clinical and molecular data define "YY1 syndrome" as a haploinsufficiency syndrome. Through immunoprecipitation of YY1-bound chromatin from affected individuals' cells with antibodies recognizing both ends of the protein, we show that YY1 deletions and missense mutations lead to a global loss of YY1 binding with a preferential retention at high-occupancy sites. Finally, we uncover a widespread loss of H3K27 acetylation in particular on the YY1-bound enhancers, underscoring a crucial role for YY1 in enhancer regulation. Collectively, these results define a clinical syndrome caused by haploinsufficiency of YY1 through dysregulation of key transcriptional regulators.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transcrição Genética , Fator de Transcrição YY1/genética , Acetilação , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Pré-Escolar , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Hemizigoto , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Fator de Transcrição YY1/química
14.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(9): 451-464, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645799

RESUMO

A decade after the designation of MED13L as a gene and its link to intellectual disability (ID) and dextro-looped transposition of great arteries in 2003, we previously described a recognizable syndrome due to MED13L haploinsufficiency. Subsequent reports of 22 further patients diagnosed by genome-wide testing further delineated the syndrome with expansion of the phenotypic spectrum and showed reduced penetrance for congenital heart defects. We now report two novel patients identified by whole exome sequencing, one with a de novo MED13L truncating mutation and the other with a de novo missense mutation. The first patient indicates some facial resemblance to Kleefstra syndrome as a novel differential diagnosis, and the second patient shows, for the first time, recurrence of a MED13L missense mutation (p.(Asp860Gly)). Notably, our in silico modelling predicted this missense mutation to decrease the stability of an alpha-helix and thereby affecting the MED13L secondary structure, while the majority of published missense mutations remain variants of uncertain significance. Review of the reported patients with MED13L haploinsufficiency indicates moderate to severe ID and facial anomalies in all patients, as well as severe speech delay and muscular hypotonia in the majority. Further common signs include abnormal MRI findings of myelination defects and abnormal corpus callosum, ataxia and coordination problems, autistic features, seizures/abnormal EEG, or congenital heart defects, present in about 20-50% of the patients. With reference to facial anomalies, the majority of patients were reported to show broad/prominent forehead, low set ears, bitemporal narrowing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed/flat nasal bridge, bulbous nose, and abnormal chin, but macroglossia and horizontal eyebrows were also observed in ∼30%. The latter are especially important in the differential diagnosis of 1p36 deletion and Kleefstra syndromes, while the more common facial gestalt shows some resemblance to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Despite the fact that MED13L was found to be one of the most common ID genes in the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, further detailed patient descriptions are needed to explore the full clinical spectrum, potential genotype-phenotype correlations, as well as the role of missense mutations and potential mutational hotspots along the gene.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0176363, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463998

RESUMO

Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration associated with mutations in the mitochondrial aconitase 2 gene (ACO2) has been recently described as a neurodegenerative disease of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date there is no biomarker for ACO2 deficiency and diagnosis relies on genetic analysis. Here we report global metabolic profiling in eight patients with ACO2 deficiency. Using an LC-MS-based metabolomics platform we have identified several metabolites with affected plasma concentrations including the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites cis-aconitate, isocitrate and alpha-ketoglutarate, as well as phosphoenolpyruvate and hydroxybutyrate. Taken together we report a diagnostic metabolic fingerprint for mitochondrial aconitase 2 deficiency.


Assuntos
Aconitato Hidratase/deficiência , Aconitato Hidratase/genética , Ácido Aconítico/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hidroxibutiratos/sangue , Isocitratos/sangue , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Fosfoenolpiruvato/sangue
17.
Nat Genet ; 49(2): 238-248, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067909

RESUMO

Arhinia, or absence of the nose, is a rare malformation of unknown etiology that is often accompanied by ocular and reproductive defects. Sequencing of 40 people with arhinia revealed that 84% of probands harbor a missense mutation localized to a constrained region of SMCHD1 encompassing the ATPase domain. SMCHD1 mutations cause facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 2 (FSHD2) via a trans-acting loss-of-function epigenetic mechanism. We discovered shared mutations and comparable DNA hypomethylation patterning between these distinct disorders. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated alteration of smchd1 in zebrafish yielded arhinia-relevant phenotypes. Transcriptome and protein analyses in arhinia probands and controls showed no differences in SMCHD1 mRNA or protein abundance but revealed regulatory changes in genes and pathways associated with craniofacial patterning. Mutations in SMCHD1 thus contribute to distinct phenotypic spectra, from craniofacial malformation and reproductive disorders to muscular dystrophy, which we speculate to be consistent with oligogenic mechanisms resulting in pleiotropic outcomes.


Assuntos
Atresia das Cóanas/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Microftalmia/genética , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Mutação/genética , Nariz/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
18.
J Med Genet ; 54(1): 64-72, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptions of the FOXP2 gene, encoding a forkhead transcription factor, are the first known monogenic cause of a speech and language disorder. So far, mainly chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations or larger deletions affecting FOXP2 have been reported. Intragenic deletions or convincingly pathogenic point mutations in FOXP2 have up to date only been reported in three families. We thus aimed at a further characterisation of the mutational and clinical spectrum. METHODS: Chromosomal microarray testing, trio exome sequencing, multigene panel sequencing and targeted sequencing of FOXP2 were performed in individuals with variable developmental disorders, and speech and language deficits. RESULTS: We identified four different truncating mutations, two novel missense mutations within the forkhead domain and an intragenic deletion in FOXP2 in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families. Mutations occurred de novo in four families and were inherited from an affected parent in the other four. All index patients presented with various manifestations of language and speech impairment. Apart from two individuals with normal onset of speech, age of first words was between 4 and 7 years. Articulation difficulties such as slurred speech, dyspraxia, stuttering and poor pronunciation were frequently noted. Motor development was normal or only mildly delayed. Mild cognitive impairment was reported for most individuals. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying intragenic deletions or mutations in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families with variable developmental delay/cognitive impairment and speech and language deficits, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with aberrations in FOXP2.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fala/fisiologia
19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 200: 72-5, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26989803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is increasingly being used in prenatal aneuploidy screening. The objective of this study was to assess the positive predictive value in our cohort of 68 cases with positive NIPT result. In addition, we wondered if the use of NIPT in cases with ultrasound abnormalities is appropriate, given the limited number of chromosomes investigated. DESIGN: We performed confirmative invasive testing using karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis. RESULTS: In line with the published data, the positive NIPT result was confirmed in 64.7% of cases. Inconclusive and negative NIPT results followed by cytogenetically pathologic findings were encountered in three and in five cases, respectively. Four of the five fetuses with negative NIPT but pathologic cytogenetic findings were born with several malformations and diagnosed right after birth with severe genetic conditions. Of note, in all of those four cases, NIPT was offered despite the finding of major fetal ultrasound abnormalities and despite the fact that the family would not have opposed invasive testing or pregnancy termination. CONCLUSION: More education of health care providers and caution in counseling and interpretation of test results are needed in order to meet the challenges that this new test, which enriches our diagnostic options in prenatal testing, poses.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Genético , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Aneuploidia , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Análise Citogenética , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Idade Materna , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Gravidez , Trissomia
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(2): 392-402, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545172

RESUMO

Hypomorphic germline mutations in the PIGA (phosphatidylinositol glycan class A) gene recently were recognized as the cause of a clinically heterogeneous spectrum of X-linked disorders including (i) early onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe muscular hypotonia, dysmorphism, multiple congenital anomalies, and early death ("MCAHS2"), (ii) neurodegenerative encephalopathy with systemic iron overload (ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome, "FCCS"), and (iii) intellectual disability and seizures without dysmorphism. Previous studies showed that the recurrent PIGA germline mutation c.1234C>T (p.Arg412*) leads to a clinical phenotype at the most severe end of the spectrum associated with early infantile lethality. We identified three additional individuals from two unrelated families with the same PIGA mutation. Major clinical findings include early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy with a burst-suppression pattern on EEG, generalized muscular hypotonia, structural brain abnormalities, macrocephaly and increased birth weight, joint contractures, coarse facial features, widely spaced eyes, a short nose with anteverted nares, gingival overgrowth, a wide mouth, short limbs with short distal phalanges, and a small penis. Based on the phenotypic overlap with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2), we hypothesized that both disorders might have the same underlying cause. We were able to confirm the same c.1234C>T (p.Arg412*) mutation in the DNA sample from an affected fetus of the original family affected with SGBS2. We conclude that the recurrent PIGA germline mutation c.1234C>T leads to a recognizable clinical phenotype with a poor prognosis and is the cause of SGBS2.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo
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