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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101592, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698189

RESUMO

The Renpenning syndrome spectrum is a rare X-linked mental retardation syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, microcephaly, low stature, lean body and hypogonadism. Mutations in the polyglutamine tract binding protein 1 (PQBP1) locus are causative for disease. Here, we describe the generation of an iPSC line from a patient mutated in the polar amino acid-rich domain of PQBP1 resulting in a C-terminal truncated protein (c.459_462 delAGAG, type p.R153fs193X).

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1045, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 significantly contribute to hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. Here, we report a novel BRCA2 duplication of exons 22-24 in a female patient with bilateral breast cancer at age 35 and 44. The duplicated region was initially detected by gene panel sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. However, the location and orientation of the duplicated region was unknown. Therefore, it was initially classified as a variant of unknown significance. METHODS: The spatial directional characterization of the BRCA2 duplication was achieved by targeted enrichment of the whole-genomic BRCA2 locus including exons and introns, and subsequent high-throughput sequencing. Subsequently, bioinformatics tools and a breakpoint-spanning PCR were used for identification of location and orientation of the duplication. RESULTS: The duplicated region was arranged in tandem and direct orientation (Chr13(GRCh37):g.32951579_32960394dup; NM_000059.3 c.8754 + 651_9256+6112dup p.(Ala3088Phefs*3)). It is predicted to result in a frameshift and a premature stop codon likely triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Consequently, it is regarded as pathogenic. CONCLUSION: This case study demonstrates that a comprehensive characterization of a structural variant by breakpoint assessment is crucial for its correct classification. Therefore, sequencing strategies including non-coding regions might be necessary to identify cancer predispositions in affected families.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601692

RESUMO

ABL-class fusions other than BCR-ABL1 characterize about 2-3% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case series indicated that patients suffering from these subtypes have a dismal outcome and may benefit from the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We analyzed clinical characteristics and outcome of 46 ABL-class fusion positive cases other than BCR-ABL1 treated according to AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 and 2009 protocols; 13 of them received a tyrosine kinase inhibitor during different phases of treatment. ABL-class fusion positive cases had a poor early treatment response: minimal residual disease levels of >5x10-4 were observed in 71.4% of patients after induction treatment and in 51.2% after consolidation phase. For the entire cohort of 46 cases the 5-year probability of event-free survival was 49.1+8.9% and that of overall survival 69.6+7.8%; the cumulative incidence of relapse was 25.6+8.2% and treatment-related mortality 20.8+6.8%. One out of 13 cases with tyrosine kinase inhibitor added to chemotherapy relapsed while eight of 33 cases without tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment suffered from relapse, including six in 17 patients who had not received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation seems to be effective in preventing relapses (only three relapses in 25 patients), but was associated with a very high treatment-related mortality (6 patients). These data indicate a major need for an early identification of ABL-class fusion positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and to establish a properly designed, controlled study aimed at investigating the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the appropriate chemotherapy backbone and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NTC00430118, NCT00613457, NCT01117441).

4.
Clin Genet ; 96(1): 85-90, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044419

RESUMO

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS), a rare condition that affects smooth muscle cells, is caused by biallelic null alleles in MYH11. We report on a girl with MMIHS in addition to growth hormone deficiency, central hypothyroidism and a tonically dilated pupil with accommodation deficit. Sanger sequencing and arrayCGH uncovered the novel heterozygous missense variant c.379C>T in MYH11 and a heterozygous 1.3 Mb deletion in 16q13.11 encompassing MYH11, respectively. Her mother carries the deletion, whereas her father is heterozygous for the c.379C>T p.(Pro127Ser) change. Proline 127 is crucial for the formation of the Adenosine triphosphate binding pocket of the MYH11 motor domain and molecular modeling indicated that p.Pro127Ser alters nucleotide binding properties. Thus, the unusual and complex clinical presentation of the patient results from compound heterozygosity for a 16p13.11 microdeletion including the entire MYH11 gene and a loss-of-function missense variant on the remaining MYH11 allele. In conclusion, we recommend genetic testing both for MYH11 sequence alterations and copy number imbalances in individuals with MMIHS and smooth muscle cell-associated abnormalities in additional organs, that is, multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1383-1389, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062505

RESUMO

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is caused by heterozygous germline variants in PTEN. Here, we report two unrelated patients with juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and hyperpigmented skin macules. Both patients were clinically suspected for the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), a PHTS subentity. By array-CGH analysis, we identified an interstitial 10q23.1q23.3 deletion in a buccal mucosa sample of Patient 1 that encompassed PTEN, BMPR1A, and KLLN, among others. In contrast, neither sequencing nor array-CGH analysis identified a pathogenic variant in PTEN or BMPR1A in a blood sample of Patient 2. However, in a surgical specimen of the thyroid gland high-level mosaicism for a 10q23.2q23.3 deletion was observed. Additionally, the pathogenic PTEN variant c.956_959delCTTT p.(Thr319LysfsTer24) was detected in his thyroid tissue. The frame shift variant was neither detected in the patient's blood nor in his buccal mucosa sample. Low-level mosaicism for the microdeletion was identified in a buccal swap sample, and reanalysis of the blood sample suggested marginal-level mosaicism for deletion. The 10q23.2q23.3 deletion mosaicism was also identified in a subsequently resected colonic polyp. Thus, in both cases, the diagnosis of a 10q23 deletion syndrome, which clinically presented as BRRS, was established. Overall, the study expands the BRRS spectrum and highlights the relevance of considering mosaicism in PHTS. We conclude that in all patients with a clear clinical suspicion of PHTS, in which genetic analyses of DNA from blood and buccal swap samples fail to identify causative genetic variants, genetic analyses of additional tissues are recommended.

6.
Blood ; 133(16): 1766-1777, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755419

RESUMO

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acquired genetic aberrations carry prognostic implications and guide therapeutic decisions. Clinical algorithms have been improved by the incorporation of novel aberrations. Here, we report the presence and functional characterization of mutations in the transcription factor NFE2 in patients with AML and in a patient with myelosarcoma. We previously described NFE2 mutations in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and demonstrated that expression of mutant NFE2 in mice causes a myeloproliferative phenotype. Now, we show that, during follow-up, 34% of these mice transform to leukemia presenting with or without concomitant myelosarcomas, or develop isolated myelosarcomas. These myelosarcomas and leukemias acquired AML-specific alterations, including the murine equivalent of trisomy 8, loss of the AML commonly deleted region on chromosome 5q, and mutations in the tumor suppressor Trp53 Our data show that mutations in NFE2 predispose to the acquisition of secondary changes promoting the development of myelosarcoma and/or AML.

7.
Stem Cell Res ; 34: 101351, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611016

RESUMO

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in the elderly, and cortical neurons differentiated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can recapitulate disease phenotypes such as tau phosphorylation or amyloid beta (Aß) deposition. Here we describe the generation of an iPSC cohort consisting of 2 sporadic AD cases and 3 controls, derived from dermal fibroblasts. All lines were karyotypically normal, showed expression of stem cell markers and efficiently differentiated into cells of all three germ layers.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426508

RESUMO

NGS-based multiple gene panel resequencing in combination with a high resolution CGH-array was used to identify genetic risk factors for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in 237 high risk patients who were previously tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. All patients were screened for pathogenic variants in 94 different cancer predisposing genes. We identified 32 pathogenic variants in 14 different genes (ATM, BLM, BRCA1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCG, FANCM, FH, HRAS, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD51C and NBN) in 30 patients (12.7%). Two pathogenic BRCA1 variants that were previously undetected due to less comprehensive and sensitive methods were found. Five pathogenic variants are novel, three of which occur in genes yet unrelated to hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (FANCG, FH and HRAS). In our cohort we discovered a remarkably high frequency of truncating variants in FANCM (2.1%), which has recently been suggested as a susceptibility gene for hereditary breast cancer. Two patients of our cohort carried two different pathogenic variants each and ten other patients in whom a pathogenic variant was confirmed also harbored a variant of unknown significance in a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. We were able to identify pathogenic variants predisposing for tumor formation in 12.3% of BRCA1/2 negative breast and/or ovarian cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(3): 561-569, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel structural variant, a large duplication involving exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene in four independent families, and to provide diagnostically valuable information including the position of the breakpoints as well as clues to its clinical significance. METHODS: The duplication of exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene was initially detected by routine laboratory testing including MLPA analysis and next generation sequencing. For detailed characterization we performed array-comparative genome hybridization analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, next generation mapping, and long-distance PCR for break-point sequencing. RESULTS: Our data revealed a tandem duplication on chromosome 17 that encompassed 357 kb and included exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene and the genes NBR2, NBR1, TMEM106A, LOC100130581, ARL4D, MIR2117 up to parts of the DHX8 gene. This structural variant appeared as a tandem duplication with breakpoints in intron 19 of the BRCA1 gene and in intron 3 of the DHX8 gene (HGVS:chr17(hg19):g.41210776_41568516dup). Segregation analysis indicated that this structural rearrangement is phased in trans with a known pathogenic exon deletion of the BRCA1 gene in one family. CONCLUSIONS: The copy number variation initially recognized as duplication of exon 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene by MLPA analysis is a structural variation with breakpoints in the BRCA1 and DHX8 genes. Although currently to be classified as a variant of unknown significance, our family data indicates that this duplication may be a benign variation or at least of markedly reduced penetrance since it occurs in trans with another known fully pathogenic variant in the BRCA1 gene.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1773-1783, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089820

RESUMO

ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme beta-galactoside-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans forms, among others, the sialyl Lewis a (sLea) epitope on proteins. Functionally deleterious variants in this gene were previously identified in patients with either non-syndromic or syndromic intellectual disability such as West syndrome, an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathic syndrome associated with developmental arrest or regression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms causing West syndrome by lack of ST3GAL3 function. For this purpose we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from fibroblasts obtained from a patient with West syndrome, carrying a variant in exon 12 (c.958G>C, p.(Ala320Pro)) of ST3GAL3, and a healthy sibling, using lentiviral reprogramming. iPSCs and cortical neurons derived thereof were analysed by lectin blots, mRNA sequencing, adherence assays, and FACS. While no significant difference was observed at stem cell or fibroblast level between patient and control cells, patient-derived cortical neurons displayed an altered lectin blot staining pattern, enhanced adherence to a poly-L-ornithine/laminin-coated surface and decreased levels of neurons expressing T-box transcription factor brain 1. Our results suggest that changes in the sialylation pattern on the surface of specific neuronal cell types affect adhesive interactions during development, which in turn may cause subtle changes in tissue composition that could result in the occurrence of epilepsy and might impair neural development to an extent that is detrimental to the development and maintenance of normal cognitive functions.

11.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 87, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent tumor entity in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Up to 80% of individuals with a Li-Fraumeni-like phenotype do not harbor detectable causative germline TP53 variants. Yet, no systematic panel analyses for a wide range of cancer predisposition genes have been conducted on cohorts of women with breast cancer fulfilling Li-Fraumeni(-like) clinical diagnostic criteria. METHODS: To specifically help explain the diagnostic gap of TP53 wild-type Li-Fraumeni(-like) breast cancer cases, we performed array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and panel-based sequencing of 94 cancer predisposition genes on 83 breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who had previously had negative test results for causative BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 germline variants. RESULTS: We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in ten patients and in nine genes, including four copy number aberrations and nine single-nucleotide variants or small indels. Three patients presented as double-mutation carriers involving two different genes each. In five patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort), we detected causative pathogenic variants in established hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes (i.e., PALB2, CHEK2, ATM). Five further patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort) were found to harbor pathogenic variants in genes lacking a firm association with breast cancer susceptibility to date (i.e., Fanconi pathway genes, RECQ family genes, CDKN2A/p14ARF, and RUNX1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study details the mutational spectrum in breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and indicates the need for intensified research on monoallelic variants in Fanconi pathway and RECQ family genes. Notably, this study further reveals a large portion of still unexplained Li-Fraumeni(-like) cases, warranting comprehensive investigation of recently described candidate genes as well as noncoding regions of the TP53 gene in patients with Li-Fraumeni(-like) syndrome lacking TP53 variants in coding regions.

13.
J Pathol ; 245(3): 373-383, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708279

RESUMO

Metaplastic breast carcinoma comprises a heterogeneous group of tumours with poorly understood pathogenesis. A subset of metaplastic breast cancers show myoepithelial differentiation and constitute a morphological spectrum with ill-defined borders from fibromatosis-like spindle cell carcinoma to myoepithelial carcinoma. In a series of 34 metaplastic breast cancers with spindle cell and myoepithelial differentiation, we found recurrent genetic aberrations, which set them apart from other metaplastic breast cancers and suggest a unique pathogenesis. The majority of cases (28 of 34 patients; 82.4%) showed distinct chromosomal loss in the 9p21.3 region, including CDKN2A and CDKN2B. Biallelic loss of the CDKN2A/B region was found in 50% of deleted cases. Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN2A (p16) was missing in all samples affected by 9p21.3 loss. Other genomic alterations frequently occurring in triple-negative and metaplastic breast cancer were absent or found in only a minority of cases. Gains of whole chromosome 5 and chromosomal region 5p were observed in nine cases, and were associated with recurrences (p < 0.001). In 64.3% of cases, 9p21.3 loss was accompanied by concurrent PIK3CA mutation. Both genomic abnormalities were also detectable in adenomyoepitheliomas (4/12), which are considered to represent the precursor lesion of myoepithelial metaplastic breast cancer. In adenomyoepithelioma, PIK3CA mutation was present in both luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells, whereas p16 loss was found only in the latter. We conclude that 9p21.3 (CDKN2A) loss and PIK3CA mutation characterize a subgroup of metaplastic breast cancers with myoepithelial and spindle cell differentiation. Myoepithelial cells in adenomyoepithelioma may show identical aberrations. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1449-1454, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696793

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by constitutive haploinsufficiency of the ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) being the result of either loss-of-function gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions. The syndrome is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype comprising a distinct facial gestalt and variable neurological involvement. ANKRD11 is frequently affected by loss of heterozygosity in cancer. It influences the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear receptors and tumor suppressive function of tumor protein TP53. ANKRD11 thus serves as a candidate tumor suppressor gene and it has been speculated that its haploinsufficiency may lead to an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome patients. While no systematic data are available, we report here on the second KBG syndrome patient who developed a malignancy. At 17 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided paratesticular extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genetic investigations identified a somatic truncating gene variant in SMARCB1, which was not present in the germline, and a constitutional de novo 16q24.3 microdeletion leading to a loss of the entire ANKRD11 locus. Thus, KBG syndrome was diagnosed, which was in line with the clinical phenotype of the patient. At present, no specific measures for cancer surveillance can be recommended for KBG syndrome patients. However, a systematic follow-up and inclusion of KBG syndrome patients in registries (e.g., those currently established for cancer prone syndromes) will provide empiric data to support or deny an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome in the future.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(12): 1240-1249, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29498923

RESUMO

Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22.33/Yp11.31 (PAR1 region; CRLF2, CSF2RA, and IL3RA), and ERG; replication of findings involved 417 patients from the same trial. Results IKZF1 deletions that co-occurred with deletions in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, PAX5, or PAR1 in the absence of ERG deletion conferred the worst outcome and, consequently, were grouped as IKZF1plus. The IKZF1plus group comprised 6% of patients with BCP ALL, with a 5-year event-free survival of 53 ± 6% compared with 79 ± 5% in patients with IKZF1 deletion who did not fulfill the IKZF1plus definition and 87 ± 1% in patients who lacked an IKZF1 deletion ( P ≤ .001). Respective 5-year cumulative relapse incidence rates were 44 ± 6%, 11 ± 4%, and 10 ± 1% ( P ≤ .001). Results were confirmed in the replication cohort, and multivariable analyses demonstrated independence of IKZF1plus. The IKZF1plus prognostic effect differed dramatically in analyses stratified by minimal residual disease (MRD) levels after induction treatment: 5-year event-free survival for MRD standard-risk IKZF1plus patients was 94 ± 5% versus 40 ± 10% in MRD intermediate- and 30 ± 14% in high-risk IKZF1plus patients ( P ≤ .001). Corresponding 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse rates were 6 ± 6%, 60 ± 10%, and 60 ± 17% ( P ≤ .001). Conclusion IKZF1plus describes a new MRD-dependent very-poor prognostic profile in BCP ALL. Because current AIEOP-BFM treatment is largely ineffective for MRD-positive IKZF1plus patients, new experimental treatment approaches will be evaluated in our upcoming trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2017.

16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501611

RESUMO

We report here on the first family with short stature and Silver-Russell-like phenotype due to a microdeletion in 12q14.3. The Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system was used for the clinical diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). The three affected first-degree relatives (index patient, mother and brother) presented with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, feeding difficulties, a prominent forehead and a failure to thrive, but did not show relative macrocephaly. In addition, our index patient showed dysmorphic facial features, periodically increased sweating, and scoliosis. Learning problems and cardiac arrhythmia presented as additional features of her brother. Using high-resolution array-CGH, heterozygosity for a 1.67 Mb deletion in 12q14.3 was detected in the index patient. The heterozygous loss was confirmed by MLPA in the index patient and the other two affected family members. The deletion includes the genes HMGA2, LLPH, TMBIM4, IRAK3, HELB, GRIP1, and the pseudogene RPSAP52. We conclude from these results and from the data of other patients reported in the literature that haploinsufficiency of HMGA2 leads to the short stature in this family.

19.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 3(3): 191-202, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770103

RESUMO

Recently, a new variant of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC) with solid-papillary-like growth pattern has been described. We present a case of ILBC with solid-papillary-like growth pattern in the main tumour mass and classical invasive lobular growth pattern in adjacent satellite foci. The two tumour components were subjected to comprehensive molecular analyses. Both components were ER/PR-positive, HER2-negative, and showed a complete loss of E-cadherin and beta-catenin protein expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression profiling classified the main tumour and a satellite focus as luminal-B and luminal-A subtypes, respectively. Whole-genome copy number profiles were highly similar in both tumour components. Shared copy number alterations (CNAs) included gains of chromosome 1q21.1-q43 and losses of chromosome 16q11.2-q24.3, the locus of the CDH1/E-cadherin tumour suppressor gene. CNAs detected only in the main tumour included a gain of chromosome 20q12-q13.33 and a loss of chromosome 1p36.33-p34.3, which has recently been associated with the solid variant of ILBC. Next generation sequencing revealed an identical, truncating CDH1 mutation (p.G169fs*5) in both tumour components confirming a common clonal ancestry. In conclusion, we confirm the recently described variant of ILBC with solid-papillary-like growth pattern and provide evidence that it evolves from classical ILBC by subclonal evolution.

20.
Genes Cancer ; 8(1-2): 472-483, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435519

RESUMO

GT198, located 470 kb downstream of BRCA1, encodes for the nuclear PSMC3-interacting protein, which functions as co-activator of steroid hormone-mediated gene expression, and is involved in RAD51 and DMC1-mediated homologous recombination during DNA repair of double-strand breaks. Recently, germline variants in GT198 have been identified in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients, mainly in cases with early-onset. We screened a cohort of 166 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative HBOC patients, of which 56 developed early-onset breast cancer before the age of 36 years, for GT198 variants. We identified 7 novel or rare GT198 variants in 8 out of 166 index patients: c.-115G>A (rs191843707); c.-70T>A (rs752276800); c.-37A>T (rs199620968); c.-24C>G (rs200359709); c.519G>A p.(Trp173*); c.537+51G>C (rs375509656); c.*24G>A. Three out of 7 identified variants (c.-115G>A, c.519G>A and c.*24G>A) with putative pathogenic impact were found in HBOC patients with breast cancer onset at ≤ 36 years. The nonsense mutation c.519G>A p.(Trp173*) was located within the DNA binding domain of GT198 and is predicted to induce nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Functional analyses of c.-115G>A, and c.*24A>G indicated an influence of these variants on gene expression. This is the second study that gives evidence for an association between pathogenic GT198 germline variants and early-onset breast cancer in HBOC.

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