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1.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 234: 110216, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636544

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CIE) in dogs involves dysregulated innate immune responses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a pattern recognition receptor, plays a role in chronic inflammation. Abrogation of proinflammatory RAGE signaling by ligand binding (e.g., S100/calgranulins) to soluble RAGE (sRAGE) might also be a novel therapeutic avenue. Serum sRAGE levels are decreased in canine CIE, but gastrointestinal tissue RAGE expression has not been investigated in dogs. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the gastrointestinal mucosal RAGE expression in dogs with CIE. Further, the potential binding of RAGE to canine S100/calgranulin ligands was investigated. Epithelial RAGE expression was quantified in gastrointestinal (gastric, duodenal, ileal, and colonic) biopsies from 12 dogs with CIE and 9 healthy control dogs using confocal laser scanning microscopy. RAGE expression was compared between both groups of dogs and was tested for an association with patient characteristics, clinical variables, histologic lesion severity, and biomarkers of extra-gastrointestinal disease, systemic or gastrointestinal inflammation, function, or protein loss. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RAGE:S100/calgranulin binding was assessed by immunoassay and electrophoretic techniques. RAGE expression was detected in all 59 biopsies from diseased and healthy control dogs evaluated. Epithelial RAGE expression in the duodenum and colon was significantly higher in dogs with CIE than in healthy controls (p < 0.04). Compared to healthy controls, RAGE expression in dogs with CIE also tended to be higher in the ileum but lower in the stomach. A slight (statistically not significant) shift towards more basal intestinal epithelial RAGE expression was detected in CIE dogs. Serum sRAGE was proportional to epithelial RAGE expression in the duodenum (p < 0.04), and RAGE expression in the colon inversely correlated with biomarkers of protein loss in serum (both p < 0.04). Several histologic morphologic and inflammatory lesion criteria and markers of inflammation (serum C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin concentration) were related to epithelial RAGE expression in the duodenum, ileum, and/or colon. in vitro canine RAGE:S100A12 binding appeared more pronounced than RAGE:S100A8/A9 binding. This study showed a dysregulation of epithelial RAGE expression along the gastrointestinal tract in dogs with CIE. Compensatory regulations in the sRAGE/RAGE axis are an alternative explanation for these findings. The results suggest that RAGE signaling plays a role in dogs with CIE, but higher anti-inflammatory decoy receptor sRAGE levels paralleled RAGE overexpression. Canine S100/calgranulins were demonstrated to be ligands for RAGE.

2.
J Small Anim Pract ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for urinary bacterial growth in dogs with confirmed congenital portosystemic shunts on which a quantitative urine culture was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six dogs were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Medical records were reviewed from 1997 through 2019. Variables of interest included age, sex and sexual status, clinical signs for a urinary tract infection, blood urea concentration, urinalysis abnormalities, ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary tract, and previous treatment. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median age of the dogs was one year (range: 0.2-11.0 years). Urinary tract ultrasound abnormalities (cystic calculi and cystic debris) were reported in 50 dogs (75.7%). Abnormalities on urinalysis included pyuria in nine dogs (13.6%), bacteriuria in 13 dogs (19.7%), and haematuria in 26 dogs (39.4%). The median urine specific gravity was 1.021 (range: 1.004-1.052). Sixteen dogs (24.2%) had a positive quantitative urine culture. Based on multivariable analysis, bacteriuria (Odds ratio, 116; 95% CI, 9.6-1393; P = < 0.001) was the only variable significantly associated with a significantly increased odds for a positive quantitative urine culture. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical and subclinical bacteriuria can occur in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts. In this group of dogs, bacteriuria was a risk factor for urinary bacterial growth.

3.
Vet J ; 263: 105520, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928489

RESUMO

There is limited information regarding the value of constitutive components of the ACTH stimulation test (ACTHST) and low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) including serum baseline cortisol (BC), difference between post-ACTH stimulation cortisol (PC) and BC (ΔACTHC), cortisol concentration 4h after dexamethasone administration (4HC), difference between 4HC and BC (Δ4C), and the difference between cortisol concentration 8h after dexamethasone administration and 4HC (Δ8C). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if these components can predict hyperadrenocorticism, pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), or functional adrenocortical tumor (FAT) in dogs. Cortisol concentrations were normalized, as fold change (FC), to the PC reference interval upper limit. A total of 1267 dogs were included, with hyperadrenocorticism diagnosed in 537 (PDH, n=356; FAT, n=28; undetermined, n=153) and excluded in 730. The area under the receiver operating curves for BC, ΔACTHC, 4HC, Δ4C, and Δ8C to predict hyperadrenocorticism were 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.79), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89-0.93), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.87), 0.55 (95% CI, 0.50-0.60), and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62-0.72), respectively. A diagnostic limit of ≥0.78 FC for ΔACTHC had excellent sensitivity (1.00; 95% CI, 0.74-1.00), but poor specificity (0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71), to predict FAT in dogs with a positive ACTHST. A diagnostic limit of ≥-0.26 FC for Δ4C had excellent sensitivity (1.00; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00), but poor specificity (0.21; 95% CI, 0.18-0.26), to predict FAT in dogs with a positive LDDST. In hyperadrenocorticoid dogs that have positive ACTHST or LDDST results, ΔACTHC or Δ4C, respectively, could be used to exclude FAT.

4.
Vet J ; 253: 105379, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685140

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease in dogs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat OA; however, many dogs do not obtain adequate pain relief with an NSAID alone. This pilot study evaluated the systemic anti-inflammatory and mobility enhancing effects of an eggshell membrane-based nutritional supplement in dogs with OA-associated pain and mobility impairment. Twenty-seven dogs with OA-associated pain were enrolled into a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, proof of principle pilot study and received either placebo or an eggshell membrane-based nutritional supplement over a 12-week period. Inflammatory biomarkers (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, S100A12, and N-methylhistamine) were measured at Day 0 and Day 84. Owner questionnaires (CBPI and LOAD) were completed at Day 0, Day 42, and Day 84. Differences between groups over time were calculated. Twenty-two dogs completed the pilot study. Inflammatory biomarker IL-2 decreased in the supplement group, compared to the placebo group. Although small, the difference was statistically significant at an alpha of 0.1 (P=0.069). LOAD scores were numerically lower in the supplement group, but not significantly different from the placebo group at Day 0. Day 84 LOAD scores were significantly lower in the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P=0.034). CBPI results did not show the same pattern. The changes in biomarkers and LOAD scores were small, and do not provide definitive evidence of positive effects. However, these pilot results provide a rationale for performing a larger placebo-controlled study of the potential effects of the eggshell membrane-based nutritional supplement.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Casca de Ovo , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Masculino , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539540

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease. Although aminosidine can be an effective treatment, current therapeutic recommendations do not advocate its use, mainly due to concerns regarding the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of this drug. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine-allopurinol combination and compare it with that of meglumine antimonate-allopurinol combination in non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis. Forty dogs with leishmaniosis were randomly assigned to be treated with either aminosidine at 15 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group A) or with meglumine antimonate at 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group B). In addition to either drug, dogs in both groups were administered allopurinol at 10 mg/kg per os twice daily for 2 months. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and cystatin-c concentrations and complete urinalysis, including protein-to-creatinine ratio, at baseline and after 14, 28, and 60 days from the beginning of the treatment. At the same time points, vestibular and auditory functions were evaluated through neurological examination and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings of wave I, wave V, inter-wave I-V latencies, and minimum hearing thresholds. None of the dogs developed clinicopathological evidence of kidney disease during the study. Serum creatinine concentration increased >0.3 mg/dl over baseline in 2 dogs in group A and in 5 dogs in group B. Parameters of kidney function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and the only difference between the two groups was the lower concentration of serum creatinine in group A. None of the dogs developed peripheral vestibular syndrome or hearing impairment. At the end of the study, parameters of auditory function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and there were no differences between the two groups. The results of this study show that the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine, when administered to non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 28 days along with allopurinol, is minimal and does not differ from that of meglumine antimonate.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Paromomicina/efeitos adversos , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/efeitos adversos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Exame Neurológico/veterinária , Paromomicina/administração & dosagem , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 215: 109904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420068

RESUMO

During immune activation, CD25 is expressed by T cells, and its soluble form (sCD25) is released into the extracellular matrix and the bloodstream. In humans, serum sCD25 concentrations are used as a surrogate marker for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and transplant rejection. However, a canine-specific assay for the measurement of sCD25 in dog serum has not previously been described. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and analytically validate a radioimmunoassay to measure sCD25 in canine serum, to establish a reference interval for canine sCD25, and to test the clinical utility of this assay with serum samples for dogs with various diseases. A competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed and analytically validated. Analytical validation consisted of lower limit of detection (LLOD), dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, and intra- and inter-assay variability using pooled surplus canine serum samples. A reference interval was established in healthy dogs and serum samples from dogs with various types of neoplasia, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease and serum samples with an increased C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) were analyzed to test the clinical utility of the assay. LLOD was calculated to be 0.5 ng/mL. The mean (±SD) observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) for serial dilutions was 101.7 ±â€¯14.0%, and the mean (± SD) O/E for spiking recovery was 93.2 ±â€¯4.2%. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for intra-assay variability were ≤12.5% (mean ±â€¯SD: 7.5 ±â€¯4.2%), and inter-assay CVs were ≤15.7% (mean ±â€¯SD: 11 ±â€¯4.4%). A reference interval (RI) for canine sCD25 of 1.2-4.2 ng/mL was established from a population of 112 clinically healthy dogs. Dogs with neoplasia and dogs with suspected small intestinal disease had decreased concentrations of serum sCD25 when compared to healthy dogs (p < 0.0001, respectively). However, the majority of clinical samples used in this study were within the reference interval. Median concentrations of serum sCD25 were 1.9 ng/mL for healthy dogs. Dogs with cancer, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease, as well as sera with an increased serum CRP concentration, had median serum sCD25 concentrations of 1.6 ng/mL, 2.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL, 1.5 ng/mL, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Thus, the RIA described here is linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible for measuring sCD25 in canine serum. However, this assay shows little clinical utility of sCD25 as a biomarker for dogs with inflammatory, autoimmune, and/or neoplastic conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Vet J ; 247: 61-64, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971353

RESUMO

Calprotectin is a useful biomarker of inflammation in dogs. However, the biological variation of serum canine calprotectin is unknown. Indices of biological variation were determined in serial serum samples (n=147) from 11 healthy dogs (males/females: 4/7, median age: 5 years): analytical (3.0%), intra-individual (29.9%), and inter-individual variation (33.2%), reciprocal index of individuality (1.1), and index of heterogeneity (4.9). Serum calprotectin concentrations measured by ELISA and by the previous radioimmunoassay were highly correlated, but a constant and proportional bias exists between both assays. A de novo ELISA-reference interval (RI) for serum calprotectin concentration was established (0.6-11.8mg/L). Moderate changes in serum calprotectin (minimum critical difference: 6.4mg/L) between sequential measurements are needed to be considered relevant, and a population-based RI may or may not be appropriate for serum calprotectin.


Assuntos
Cães/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Animais , Variação Biológica Individual , Cães/imunologia , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino
8.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 2): 473-482, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855258

RESUMO

Three experiments are reviewed, performed (in 2014-2016) at ID18 of ESRF to measure the influence of acceleration on time dilation by measuring the relative shift between the absorption lines of two states of the same rotating absorber with accelerations anti-parallel and parallel to the incident beam. Statistically significant data for rotation frequencies up to 510 Hz in both directions of rotation were collected. For each run with high rotation, a stable statistically significant `vibration-free' relative shift between the absorption lines of the two states was measured. This may indicate the influence of acceleration on time dilation. However, the measured relative shift was also affected by the use of a slit necessary to focus the beam to the axis of rotation to a focal spot of sub-micrometre size. The introduction of the slit broke the symmetry in the absorption lines due to the nuclear lighthouse effect and affected the measured relative shift, preventing to claim conclusively the influence of acceleration on time dilation. Assuming that this loss of symmetry is of first order, the zero value of the relative shift, corrected for this loss, falls always within the experimental error limits, as predicted by Einstein's clock hypothesis. The requirements and an indispensable plan for a conclusive experiment, once the improved technology becomes available, is presented. This will be useful to future experimentalists wishing to pursue this experiment or a related rotor experiment involving a Mössbauer absorber and a synchrotron Mössbauer source.

9.
Vet J ; 243: 8-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606444

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of parenteral (PE) versus oral (PO) cobalamin supplementation on serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HCY) concentrations in dogs with hypocobalaminaemia. Thirty-six dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations below 285ng/L (reference interval (RI): 244-959ng/L) were treated with PO (0.25-1.0mg daily) or PE cobalamin (0.25-1.2mg/injection) using a block-randomized schedule. Serum MMA and HCY concentrations were analysed at day 0, 28 and 90 after start of supplementation. There was no significant difference between the PO and PE group regarding serum MMA or HCY concentrations at any time point. Median (range, P comparing baseline and 28 days, P comparing 28days and 90 days) serum MMA concentrations (nmol/L; RI 415-1193) were 932 (566-2468) in the PO and 943 (508-1900) in the PE group at baseline, respectively, 705 (386-1465, P<0.0001) and 696 (377-932, P<0.0001) after 28 days, and 739 (450-1221, P=0.58) and 690 (349-1145, P=0.76) after 90 days. Serum HCY concentrations (median (range), P comparing baseline and 28 days, P comparing 28days and 90 days, µmol/L; RI 5.9-31.9) in the PO and PE groups were 12.2 (3.3-62.2) and 8.4 (3.7-34.8) at baseline, 12.5 (5.0-45.0, P=0.61) and 8.0 (3.8-18.3, P=0.28) after 28 days, and 17.7 (7.3-60.0 P=0.07) and 12.4 (6.3-33.1, P=0.0007) after 90 days, respectively. Oral and parenteral cobalamin supplementation had the same effect on serum MMA concentrations in this group of dogs.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Homocisteína/sangue , Infusões Parenterais/veterinária , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Enteropatias/complicações , Enteropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia
10.
Vet J ; 236: 68-71, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871753

RESUMO

Serum canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1-PI) concentrations were evaluated in dogs with pancreatitis (n=24), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI; n=29), chronic hepatitis (CH; n=11) or proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD-P; n=61) to determine whether systemic proteinase/proteinase-inhibitor balance is altered in these conditions. Dogs with CKD-P had significantly lower cα1-PI concentrations than dogs with pancreatitis, EPI or CH; 16% of dogs with CKD-P had serum cα1-PI concentrations below the reference interval. Serum and urine cα1-PI concentrations were inversely correlated in dogs with CKD-P, but not in dogs with CH. This suggests that renal loss of cα1-PI contributes to decreased serum concentrations in dogs with CKD-P, while hepatic cα1-PI synthesis with CH either is not compromised or is counterbalanced by extrahepatic production.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Hepatite Crônica/veterinária , Pancreatopatias/veterinária , Inibidores de Proteases/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hepatite Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Pancreatopatias/sangue , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue
11.
Vet J ; 232: 27-32, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428088

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation protocols in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations. It was hypothesised that both treatments would increase serum cobalamin concentrations significantly. Fifty-three dogs with chronic enteropathies and serum cobalamin concentrations<285ng/L (reference interval 244-959ng/L) were enrolled. Dogs were randomised to treatment with either daily oral cobalamin tablets (0.25-1.0mg cyanocobalamin daily according to body weight) or parenteral cobalamin (0.4-1.2mg hydroxycobalamin according to body weight). Serum cobalamin concentrations were analysed 28±5days and 90±15days after initiation of supplementation. After 28 days, all dogs had serum cobalamin concentrations within the reference interval or above. In the parenteral group (n=26), median (range) cobalamin concentrations were 228 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 2107 (725-10,009) ng/L after 28days and 877 (188-1267) ng/L after 90 days. In the oral group (n=27), median (range) serum cobalamin concentrations were 245 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 975 (564-2385) ng/L after 28days and 1244 (738-4999) ng/L after 90 days. In both groups, there were significant differences in serum cobalamin concentrations between baseline and 28 days, and between 28days and 90days (P<0.001). In conclusion, both parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation effectively increase serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias/veterinária , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Cães , Injeções/métodos , Injeções/veterinária , Enteropatias/complicações , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Valores de Referência , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Small Anim Pract ; 59(5): 305-310, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity between dogs with intervertebral disc herniation and healthy control dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four client-owned dogs with intervertebral disc herniation, diagnosed by neurologic examination and imaging, and 18 healthy control dogs. Samples of whole blood were collected within 90 minutes of admission. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were measured by a commercial immunoassay and evaluated for association with intervertebral disc herniation, signalment, neurolocalisation and the preadmission administration of glucocorticosteriods or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. RESULTS: Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were statistically increased in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation (P<0·01, n=38). A subgroup of dogs (19/38) with elevated canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations was re-evaluated between 2 and 4 weeks later, and 15 had resolution of clinical signs and values less than 200 µg/L. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations were not significantly correlated with clinical gastrointestinal disease, neurolocalisation or the preadmission administration of corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity concentrations are significantly elevated in dogs with intervertebral disc herniation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Lipase/sangue , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Cães , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/sangue , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/sangue , Lipase/imunologia , Pâncreas/enzimologia
13.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 93(11)2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040443

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified various bacterial groups that are altered in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CE) compared to healthy dogs. The study aim was to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to confirm these findings in a larger number of dogs, and to build a mathematical algorithm to report these microbiota changes as a dysbiosis index (DI). Fecal DNA from 95 healthy dogs and 106 dogs with histologically confirmed CE was analyzed. Samples were grouped into a training set and a validation set. Various mathematical models and combination of qPCR assays were evaluated to find a model with highest discriminatory power. The final qPCR panel consisted of eight bacterial groups: total bacteria, Faecalibacterium, Turicibacter, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Blautia, Fusobacterium and Clostridium hiranonis. The qPCR-based DI was built based on the nearest centroid classifier, and reports the degree of dysbiosis in a single numerical value that measures the closeness in the l2 - norm of the test sample to the mean prototype of each class. A negative DI indicates normobiosis, whereas a positive DI indicates dysbiosis. For a threshold of 0, the DI based on the combined dataset achieved 74% sensitivity and 95% specificity to separate healthy and CE dogs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(5): 1414-1419, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in cats. Advanced CKD is associated with hyporexia and vomiting, which typically are attributed to uremic toxins and gastric hyperacidity. However, gastric pH studies have not been performed in cats with CKD. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine if cats with CKD have decreased gastric pH compared to age-matched, healthy cats. Based on previous work demonstrating an association of hypergastrinemia and CKD, we hypothesized that cats with CKD would have decreased gastric pH compared to healthy, age-matched control cats. ANIMALS: 10 CKD cats; 9 healthy control cats. METHODS: All cats with concurrent disease were excluded on the basis of history, physical examination, CBC, plasma biochemistry profile, urinalysis, urine culture, serum total thyroxine concentration, and serum symmetric dimethylarginine concentration (controls only) obtained within 24 hours of pH monitoring and assessment of serum gastrin concentrations. Serum for gastrin determination was collected, and 12-hour continuous gastric pH monitoring was performed in all cats. Serum gastrin concentration, mean pH, and percentage time that gastric pH was strongly acidic (pH <1 and <2) were compared between groups. RESULTS: No significant differences in serum gastrin concentrations were observed between groups (medians [range]: CKD, 18.7 ng/dL [<10-659.0]; healthy, 54.6 ng/dL [<10-98.0]; P-value = 0.713) or of any pH parameters including mean ± SD gastric pH (CKD, 1.8 ± 0.5; healthy, 1.6 ± 0.3; P-value = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: These findings suggest that cats with CKD may not have gastric hyperacidity compared to healthy cats and, therefore, may not need acid suppression. Thus, further studies to determine if there is a benefit to acid suppression in cats with CKD are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Gastrinas/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Gatos , Feminino , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica/veterinária , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
15.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(4): 1043-1055, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28703447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic diarrhea (CD) is common in dogs, and information on frequency and distribution of primary and secondary causes is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate underlying causes and predictors of outcome in dogs with CD. ANIMALS: One hundred and thirty-six client-owned dogs with CD (≥3 weeks duration). METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records (Small Animal Clinic, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, 09/2009-07/2011). Quantification of final diagnoses and comparison of clinical aspects including disease severity and clinicopathological abnormalities among dogs with clinical remission (either complete [gastrointestinal signs absent] or partial [clinical improvement of gastrointestinal signs and reduced episodes with shortened duration]), and those without recovery. RESULTS: Ninety percent of dogs were diagnosed with a primary enteropathy: inflammatory (71%; of those 66% dietary responsive, 23% idiopathic, 11% antibiotic responsive), infectious (13%), neoplastic (4%), and in one dog each mechanical disease or systemic vasculitis. Secondary causes were diagnosed in 10% of dogs: exocrine pancreatic (6%), endocrine (2%), and in one dog each hepatic, renal, and cardiac disease. In total, 87% of dogs had clinical remission, whereas 13% died or did not respond to treatment: Lack of recovery was frequently recorded for dogs with primary inflammatory (idiopathic) or neoplastic disease and was significantly associated with increased disease severity scores (P = .005), anemia (hematocrit < 40%, P < .001), severe hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin <2.0 g/dL, P = .008), and severe hypocobalaminemia (serum cobalamin concentration <200 pg/mL, P = .006). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Inflammatory enteropathies and particularly those of dietary origin were the most common causes of CD in dogs. Findings support the usefulness of hematocrit, and serum albumin and cobalamin concentration as prognostic markers in dogs with CD.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Animais , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Diarreia/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(4): 1056-1061, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical usefulness of serum 3-BrY concentrations for subclassifying dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD) and steroid-responsive diarrhea (SRD) has not been studied. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with FRD, dogs with SRD, and healthy control dogs. ANIMALS: 38 dogs with FRD, 14 dogs with SRD, and 46 healthy dogs. METHODS: Prospective study. Measurement of 3-BrY concentration in serum samples was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: There was no association of peripheral eosinophilia in dogs with FRD, SRD, and healthy control dogs (P = 0.069). There was no significant correlation between peripheral eosinophil counts and serum 3-BrY concentrations (ρ = -0.15, P = 0.13). Serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with SRD (median [range] = 3.27, 0.9-26.23 µmol/L) were significantly higher than in dogs with FRD (median [range] = 0.99, 0.62-8.82 µmol/L; P = 0.007) or in healthy dogs (median [range] = 0.62, 0.62-1.79 µmol/L; P < 0.001). Also, serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with FRD were significantly higher than in healthy dogs (P = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum 3-BrY concentrations (ρ = 0.17, P = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Measurement of serum 3-BrY concentrations, but not the peripheral eosinophil count, is helpful for detecting dogs with SRD and FRD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tirosina/sangue
17.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 24(Pt 3): 661-666, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452758

RESUMO

New results, additional techniques and know-how acquired, developed and employed in a recent HC-1898 experiment at the Nuclear Resonance Beamline ID18 of ESRF are presented, in the quest to explore the acceleration effect on time dilation. Using the specially modified Synchrotron Mössbauer Source and KB-optics together with a rotating single-line semicircular Mössbauer absorber on the rim of a specially designed rotating disk, the aim was to measure the relative spectral shift between the spectra of two states when the acceleration of the absorber is anti-parallel and parallel to the source. A control system was used for the first time and a method to quantify the effects of non-random vibrations on the spectral shift was developed. For several runs where the effect of these vibrations was negligible, a stable statistically significant non-zero relative shift was observed. This suggests the influence of acceleration on time.

18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(3): 778-783, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grading schemes for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in humans previously have been applied to dogs with chronic hepatitis. Interobserver agreement is a desirable characteristic for any histological scoring scheme. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess interobserver agreement associated with pathologists using a previously published histological scoring scheme to assess hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity in dogs and to compare fibrosis scores assigned to serial sections stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and picrosirius red. ANIMALS: Histological sections of liver from 50 dogs with variable degrees of hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity were selected from institutional tissue archives. METHODS: Six board-certified veterinary anatomic pathologists assigned fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity scores to the histological sections. The multiuser kappa statistic was calculated to assess interobserver agreement. Fibrosis stage assigned to serial sections stained with picrosirius red and H&E was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Multiuser kappa statistics for assessment of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity from H&E-stained sections were 0.35 and 0.16, respectively. There was no difference in median fibrosis scores assigned to serial section stained with H&E and picrosirius red (P = .248). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: There was fair interobserver agreement when pathologists assessed fibrosis and poor agreement when they assessed necroinflammatory activity. This suboptimal agreement must be taken into account by clinicians making decisions based on histology reports of the liver and in the design of studies evaluating these findings. To decrease this variability, ideally >1 pathologist should evaluate each section.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Animais , Cães , Fibrose , Hepatite Animal/patologia , Humanos , Patologia Veterinária/normas , Patologia Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(1): 109-116, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and cobalamin are essential cofactors for homocysteine (HCY) metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia, a multifactorial condition, may reflect B vitamin deficiency and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, thrombosis, and neurodegenerative and chronic gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported in Greyhounds with suspected chronic enteropathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequencies of and the association between hypofolatemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in Greyhounds. ANIMALS: Data and serum samples from 559 Greyhounds. METHODS: Nested case-control study. The frequency of hypofolatemia in Greyhounds was determined by a laboratory database search. The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia (measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and hypocobalaminemia and hypofolatemia was evaluated, and its frequency compared between healthy Greyhounds and Greyhounds with thrombosis or chronic diarrhea. RESULTS: Hypofolatemia was identified in 172 of 423 (41%) Greyhounds and was more common in hypo- than in normocobalaminemic dogs (49% vs. 35%; P = .0064). Hyperhomocysteinemia was detected in 53 of 78 (68%) of Greyhounds, being more common in hypo- than in normofolatemic dogs (88% vs. 59%; P = .0175). All healthy Greyhounds, 21 of 30 (70%) of dogs with chronic diarrhea and 6 of 8 (75%) of those with thrombosis, were hyperhomocysteinemic. Serum HCY concentrations were inversely correlated with serum folate concentration (ρ = -0.28; P = .0386) and were positively associated with serum albumin concentration (ρ = 0.66; P = .0022). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperhomocysteinemia occurs frequently in the Greyhound population. Its association with hypofolatemia suggests decreased intracellular availability of B vitamins, but the functional implications warrant further investigation. Hyperhomocysteinemia in Greyhounds potentially may serve as a spontaneous canine model to further investigate hyperhomocysteinemia in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/veterinária , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/sangue , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(1): 117-123, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27906465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Famotidine is an acid suppressant commonly administered to dogs. Prolonged famotidine use in people results in decreased efficacy, but the effect in dogs is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect of repeated oral administration of famotidine or placebo on intragastric pH and serum gastrin in dogs. We hypothesized that famotidine would have a diminished effect on intragastric pH on day 13 compared to day 1. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult colony Beagles. METHODS: Randomized, 2-factor repeated-measures crossover design. All dogs received oral placebo or 1.0 mg/kg famotidine q12h for 14 consecutive days. Intragastric pH monitoring was used to continuously record intragastric pH on treatment days 1-2 and 12-13. Mean pH as well as mean percentage time (MPT) that intragastric pH was ≥3 or ≥4 were compared between and within groups by analysis of variance. Serum gastrin was measured on days 0, 3, and 12 for each treatment. RESULTS: Continued administration of famotidine resulted in a significant decrease in mean pH, MPT ≥3, and MPT ≥4 (P < .0001) on day 12 and 13. This resulted in a mean decrease in pH by 1.63 on days 12 and 13 compared to days 1 and 2. Furthermore, a mean decrease of MPT ≥3 and MPT ≥4 by 33 and 45% was observed for the same time period, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Continued administration of famotidine results in a diminished effect on intragastric pH in dogs. Caution is advised when recommending long-term, daily oral administration of famotidine to dogs.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Famotidina/farmacologia , Gastrinas/sangue , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/sangue , Antiulcerosos/farmacocinética , Estudos Cross-Over , Cães , Esquema de Medicação , Famotidina/administração & dosagem , Famotidina/sangue , Famotidina/farmacocinética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino
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