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1.
J Comp Pathol ; 193: 25-36, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487620

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis (CH) in dogs is histologically characterized by an inflammatory infiltration of the liver accompanied by hepatocellular apoptosis or necrosis, varying degrees of fibrosis and regeneration. Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of various liver diseases, including CH. This study assessed the immunohistochemical expression of markers of oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE] and malondialdehyde [MDA]) and apoptosis (active caspase-3 [casp-3]) in 35 surplus archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver biopsies from 25 dogs with CH and 10 control dogs that had no significant hepatic changes. Correlations between immunohistochemical markers and necroinflammatory, fibrosis and histological copper scores, and hepatic copper concentrations were also determined. There were no significant differences in 4-HNE expression between the two groups. Control dogs had lower hepatic MDA scores than dogs with CH. MDA scores were positively correlated with copper scores as well as hepatic copper concentrations. There was no significant difference in casp-3-positive hepatocytes between groups. However, a positive correlation between casp-3 immunoreactivity and copper scores, as well as hepatic copper concentrations, was identified. Necroinflammatory and fibrosis scores were positively correlated with immunoreactivity for MDA and casp-3. MDA and casp-3 are expressed in canine liver and both markers are correlated with necroinflammatory scores, fibrosis scores and hepatic copper accumulation. Our results suggest the utility of immunolabelling for MDA and casp-3 for assessment of hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively, in dogs with CH.


Assuntos
Cobre , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Fibrose , Hepatite Crônica/patologia , Hepatite Crônica/veterinária , Estresse Oxidativo
3.
Vet Sci ; 9(2)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202337

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to quantify serum and fecal amino acids (AA) in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and compare to healthy cats. Thirty-five cats with International Renal Interest Society Stage 1-4 CKD and 16 healthy mature adult and senior client-owned cats were included in this prospective cross-sectional study. Sera were analyzed for 25 AA concentrations using an ion exchange chromatography AA analyzer with post column ninhydrin derivatization. Voided fecal samples were analyzed for 22 AA concentrations using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. CKD cats had lower serum concentrations of phenylalanine (mean difference ± standard error of the mean: 12.7 ± 4.3 µM; p = 0.03), threonine (29.6 ± 9.2 µM; p = 0.03), tryptophan (18.4 ± 5.4 µM; p = 0.005), serine (29.8 ± 12.6 µM; p = 0.03), and tyrosine (11.6 ± 3.8 µM; p = 0.01) and higher serum concentrations of aspartic acid (4.7 ± 2.0 µM; p = 0.01), ß-alanine (3.4 ± 1.2 µM; p = 0.01), citrulline (5.7 ± 1.6 µM; p = 0.01), and taurine (109.9 ± 29.6 µM; p = 0.01) when compared to healthy cats. Fecal AA concentrations did not differ between healthy cats and CKD cats. 3-Methylhistidine-to-creatinine did not differ between healthy cats with and without muscle loss. Cats with CKD IRIS Stages 1-4 have a deranged serum amino acid profile compared to healthy cats.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264003, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157741

RESUMO

The intracellular distribution of copper in the liver has been investigated in dogs and humans. However, this has not been reported in cats. This study aimed to assess the intracellular copper distribution in liver specimens from cats with a range of hepatic copper concentrations. Twenty-nine frozen liver specimens from cats were included. Each liver specimen was divided into two pieces for overall copper quantification and tissue fractionation. The copper concentrations in liver specimens and liver fractions were measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Five specimens had copper concentrations < 100 µg/g dry weight, eight had copper concentrations between 100 and 180 µg/g, 14 had copper concentrations between 181 and 700 µg/g, and two had copper concentrations >700 µg/g. Only one specimen had positive copper staining. Regardless of the overall concentrations, copper was mostly found in the cytosolic fraction followed by the nuclear, large granule, and microsomal fractions. Our findings indicate that similarly to other species, intracellular copper is predominantly found in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions in cats. The distribution in cats with copper-loaded conditions, such as primary copper hepatopathy, was not assessed but warrants evaluation.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Fígado/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Fracionamento Celular , Núcleo Celular/química , Citosol/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microssomos Hepáticos/química
5.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 50 Suppl 1: 29-36, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35014071

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a positive acute-phase protein, serum concentrations of which increase nonspecifically in response to inflammatory processes of the dog. As such, it can aid in the identification of inflammatory disease and, maybe more importantly, the objective monitoring of disease progression. In dogs, CRP is frequently used to evaluate dogs with gastrointestinal diseases, such as chronic inflammatory enteropathies (also termed idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease), acute pancreatitis, canine parvovirus infection, hepatic disease, acute abdomen, and protein-losing enteropathy. The diversity of the assays available to measure CRP in dogs is nearly as numerous as the diseases in which serum concentrations of this protein are increased. Assay methodologies include laser nephelometric immunoassays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunoturbidimetric assays, and time-resolved immunofluorometric assays. While many of these assays are acceptable for clinical use in the dog, the same assay and analyzer should be used to measure a patient's CRP concentration longitudinally. By looking at the uses of CRP in human gastroenterology, including reducing the duration of antibiotic therapy, the veterinary profession can gain insight into novel ways in which serum CRP concentration measurements might be applied in veterinary medicine in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Gastroenteropatias , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(3): 1079-1083, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687527

RESUMO

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by a decreased synthesis and secretion of pancreatic enzymes, which results in weight loss, poor hair coat, and diarrhea. The diagnostic test of choice for EPI in domestic cats is feline serum trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI). This paper details four tigers (Panthera tigris) with clinical signs compatible with EPI. On the basis of domestic cat reference ranges, fTLI assays for all four clinically affected tigers were diagnostic for EPI (median 1.0 µg/L; range 0.5-1.2 µg/L). All four tigers had a rapid clinical response to pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Serum from 10 clinically healthy tigers was submitted for the fTLI assay, for comparative purposes. The healthy tigers' fTLI assays were also within range for a diagnosis of EPI in domestic cats (median 3.1 µg/L; range 1.9-4.5 µg/L); however, clinically affected tigers had significantly lower serum fTLI concentrations than healthy tigers (P = 0.0058). Serum cobalamin was below the detection limit in both the affected and healthy tigers (<150 ng/L). Measuring fTLI appears to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of EPI-like syndrome in tigers. As in other species, EPI-like syndrome in tigers may also be associated with cobalamin deficiency.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina , Tigres , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/veterinária , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/veterinária , Valores de Referência , Tripsina
8.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(11): 890-896, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of leukoreduction on N-methylhistamine (NMH; a stable histamine metabolite) concentration in units of canine whole blood during storage and incubation at room temperature (approx 22 °C) to simulate temperature conditions during transfusion. ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult Walker Hounds. PROCEDURES: A standard unit of blood (450 mL) was obtained from each dog twice, with at least 28 days between donations. Blood units collected from 4 dogs during the first donation underwent leukoreduction, whereas the blood units collected from the other 4 dogs did not undergo leukoreduction, prior to storage at 4 °C. The alternate treatment was applied to blood units collected during the second donation. A sample from each unit was obtained for determination of plasma NMH concentration the day of donation (before and after leukoreduction when applicable) and before and after incubation at room temperature for 5 hours on days 14 and 28 of storage. RESULTS: Units that underwent leukoreduction had substantially lower leukocyte and platelet counts than nonleukoreduced units. Plasma NMH concentration increased immediately after leukoreduction but did not change significantly during the subsequent 28 days of storage, nor did it differ between units that did and did not undergo leukoreduction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Leukoreduction and simulated transfusion temperature did not affect the histamine load in units of canine whole blood during the first 28 days of storage. Further research is necessary to determine whether histamine contributes to the development and severity of blood transfusion reactions in dogs.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue , Eritrócitos , Animais , Preservação de Sangue/veterinária , Cães , Leucócitos , Metilistaminas
9.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(6): 2652-2661, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awareness of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in cats has increased since the development of an assay for feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI). Ultrasound findings in cats with EPI have only been reported rarely and described as nonspecific. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe the ultrasonographic findings, clinical signs, and concurrent diseases in cats with EPI. ANIMALS: Twenty-two client-owned cats with EPI. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective descriptive study including cats with serum fTLI concentration ≤8 µg/L and an abdominal ultrasound examination performed within 6 weeks of fTLI measurement. Sonographic measurements of maximal pancreatic thickness and maximal pancreatic duct diameter as well as ratios of pancreatic duct diameter to pancreatic thickness were obtained. Additional sonographic findings, concurrent conditions, and clinical signs were recorded. RESULTS: The most common clinical sign was weight loss (15/22 cats). Chronic enteropathy was the most common concurrent disease (13/22 cats). In 39% of cats, the pancreas had minimal or no sonographic alterations. Pancreatic duct dilatation (>2.5 mm), pancreatic duct tortuosity with variable diameter, or both were seen in 6/13 cats. The pancreatic parenchyma was subjectively thin in 6 cats. A significant relationship was found between subjectively thin pancreatic parenchyma and increased pancreatic duct size : pancreatic thickness ratio (P = .004). Diffuse gastrointestinal dilatation with echogenic content was observed in 8/22 cats. CONCLUSION: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency often causes minimal to no sonographic pancreatic changes. Nonetheless, the findings of thin pancreatic parenchyma, pancreatic duct dilatation, or diffuse small intestinal dilatation with echogenic contents in cats with unexplained weight loss or unformed feces should raise clinical suspicion for EPI.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/veterinária , Fezes , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tripsina
10.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(5): 2187-2195, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and management in dogs with acute pancreatitis have not been described. OBJECTIVE: To determine if serum concentrations of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) can be used as biomarkers for disease progression in hospitalized dogs with acute pancreatitis. ANIMALS: Thirteen hospitalized dogs with acute pancreatitis diagnosed based on clinical signs, serum cPLI concentrations, and imaging findings were enrolled. METHODS: Serum cPLI and CRP concentrations were determined before and then daily during hospital management and 1 week after hospital discharge. Modified canine activity index (MCAI) and canine acute pancreatitis clinical severity index (CAPCSI) scores were calculated daily for each patient while hospitalized. RESULTS: The MCAI scores (P = .03) but not CAPCSI scores (P = .31) were significantly different between dogs that survived to discharge (n = 11) and those that did not (n = 2). Serum cPLI concentration was positively correlated with MCAI (rho = 0.42; P = .01). Serum CRP concentration also was positively correlated with the MCAI (rho = 0.42, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Serum cPLI and possibly CRP could be used as objective biomarkers for clinical changes in hospitalized dogs with acute pancreatitis. Additional studies involving larger numbers of dogs would be warranted to evaluate the broader impact of these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa , Progressão da Doença , Cães , Lipase , Pancreatite/veterinária
11.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(5): 2437-2448, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fecal microbiome of healthy horses may be influenced by signalment, diet, environmental factors, and disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of age, breed, sex, geographic location, season, diet, and colitis caused by antibiotic use (antimicrobial-associated diarrhea [AAD]) and Salmonella infection on fecal microbiota. ANIMALS: Healthy horses (n = 80) were sampled from nonhospital environments across multiple geographical locations in the United States. Horses with AAD (n = 14) were defined as those that developed diarrhea secondary to antimicrobial use. Horses with Salmonella infection (n = 12) were presented with spontaneous onset of colitis and subsequently tested positive on Salmonella quantitative polymerase chain reaction. All horses were >1 year of age and stratified by a dietary scale that included forages (pasture and hay) and concentrates grouped by percentage of fiber and amount. METHODS: Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was performed on fecal DNA. RESULTS: Healthy horses fed higher amounts of grain clustered separately from those fed lower amounts of grain (analysis of similarities [ANOSIM], R = 0.356-0.385, Q = 0.002). Horses with AAD and Salmonella had decreased richness and evenness compared to healthy horses (P < .05). Univariable analysis of the 3 groups identified increases in Bacteroidetes (Q = 0.002) and Protebacteria (Q = 0.001) and decreases in Verrucomicrobia (Q = 0.001) in AAD horses whereas Salmonella horses had less Firmicutes (Q = 0.001) when compared to healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Although the amount of grain in the diet had some impact on the fecal microbiome, colitis had a significantly larger influence. Horses with ADD have a more severe dysbiosis than do horses with Salmonella.


Assuntos
Colite , Doenças dos Cavalos , Microbiota , Infecções por Salmonella , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes , Cavalos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano
12.
Metabolomics ; 17(7): 66, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In humans and companion animals, obesity is accompanied by metabolic derangements. Studies have revealed differences in the composition of the fecal microbiome between obese dogs and those with an ideal body weight. OBJECTIVES: We have previously reported that the fecal microbiome in obese dogs changes after controlled weight reduction, induced by feeding a diet high in fiber and protein. Despite these findings, it is unclear if taxonomic differences infer differences at the functional level between obese dogs and those with an ideal body weight. METHODOLOGY: Untargeted fecal metabolome analysis was performed on dogs with obesity before and after weight loss achieved by feeding a high-fiber-high-protein diet. RESULTS: Fecal metabolome analysis revealed a total of 13 compounds that changed in concentration in obese dogs after weight loss. Of these compounds, metabolites associated with bacterial metabolism decreased after weight loss including purine, L-(-)-methionine, coumestrol, and the alkaloids 1-methylxanthine and trigonelline. Conversely, the polyphenols (-)-epicatechin and matairesinol and the quinoline derivatives 1,5-isoquinolinediol and 2-hydroxiquinoline increased after weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest differences in intestinal microbiome at the functional level after weight loss, but further studies are needed to determine the role of these compounds in the etiology of obesity and weight loss.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta , Cães , Metaboloma , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9198, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911166

RESUMO

Feline chronic enteropathy (CE) is a common gastrointestinal disorder in cats and mainly comprises inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and small cell lymphoma (SCL). Differentiation between IBD and SCL can be diagnostically challenging. We characterized the fecal metabolome of 14 healthy cats and 22 cats with naturally occurring CE (11 cats with IBD and 11 cats with SCL). Principal component analysis and heat map analysis showed distinct clustering between cats with CE and healthy controls. Random forest classification revealed good group prediction for healthy cats and cats with CE, with an overall out-of-bag error rate of 16.7%. Univariate analysis indicated that levels of 84 compounds in cats with CE differed from those in healthy cats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids held discriminatory power in differentiating IBD from SCL. Metabolomic profiles of cats with CE resembled those in people with CE with significant alterations of metabolites related to tryptophan, arachidonic acid, and glutathione pathways.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Linfoma/veterinária , Metaboloma , Animais , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Gato/metabolismo , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/etiologia , Linfoma/metabolismo , Masculino
16.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(4): 1131-1143, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal S100/calgranulin (S100A12 and calprotectin) concentrations are useful markers of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs. In people, fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations are affected by age, obesity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Knowledge about the effects of such factors on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in dogs is currently scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between several factors and fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations in a large cohort of healthy adult dogs. METHODS: Single-spot fecal samples from 181 healthy pet dogs and data derived from a standard questionnaire served to evaluate the effect of age, sex, reproductive status, body weight and body condition, breed type and size, vaccination, endoparasite treatment, diet, environment and travel history on fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations and the fecal calgranulin ratio (fCalR). RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed a significant association of reproductive status (in female dogs) and breed size with fecal S100A12, fecal calprotectin and fCalR. Breed type was linked to fecal S100A12 concentrations and fCalR; recent vaccination (particularly with a vaccine against canine parvovirus) to fCalR. In multivariate models, breed size was linked to fecal S100A12 and calprotectin concentrations, and recent vaccination affected S100A12 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Breed size, recent vaccination and reproductive status in female dogs can affect fecal S100/calgranulin concentrations, and these biomarkers should be interpreted in light of those confounding factors. The utility of reference intervals for fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations might be improved through stratification by sex/reproductive status and breed size. Fecal canine S100/calgranulin concentrations are not confounded by age, body condition, deworming, diet, environment or travel history.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Proteína S100A12/análise , Animais , Feminino , Estilo de Vida
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(2): 703-723, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatitis in cats, although commonly diagnosed, still presents many diagnostic and management challenges. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current literature as it relates to etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pancreatitis in cats and to arrive at clinically relevant suggestions for veterinary clinicians that are based on evidence, and where such evidence is lacking, based on consensus of experts in the field. ANIMALS: None. METHODS: A panel of 8 experts in the field (5 internists, 1 radiologist, 1 clinical pathologist, and 1 anatomic pathologist), with support from a librarian, was formed to assess and summarize evidence in the peer reviewed literature and complement it with consensus clinical recommendations. RESULTS: There was little literature on the etiology and pathogenesis of spontaneous pancreatitis in cats, but there was much in the literature about the disease in humans, along with some experimental evidence in cats and nonfeline species. Most evidence was in the area of diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats, which was summarized carefully. In contrast, there was little evidence on the management of pancreatitis in cats. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Pancreatitis is amenable to antemortem diagnosis by integrating all clinical and diagnostic information available, and recognizing that acute pancreatitis is far easier to diagnose than chronic pancreatitis. Although both forms of pancreatitis can be managed successfully in many cats, management measures are far less clearly defined for chronic pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Consenso , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite/terapia , Pancreatite/veterinária
18.
Vet J ; 269: 105619, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593499

RESUMO

The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum cobalamin concentrations before and after oral cobalamin supplementation in dogs with low serum cobalamin concentrations and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). Eighteen dogs with serum trypsin-like immunoreactivities between <1.0-2.7 µg/L (reference interval, 5.2-35 µg/L) and serum cobalamin concentrations ≤350 ng/L (reference interval, 244-959 ng/L) were enrolled. All dogs were treated with oral cyanocobalamin according to a previously described protocol (0.25-1.0 mg daily, depending on bodyweight). Median (range) serum cobalamin concentrations at inclusion was 188 ng/L (<111-350 ng/L), which increased significantly to 1000 ng/L (794-2385 ng/L; P < 0.001) after cobalamin supplementation for 19-199 days (median, 41 days). Oral cobalamin supplementation is a potential alternative to parenteral supplementation in dogs with EPI.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/veterinária , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/sangue , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária
19.
J Feline Med Surg ; 23(6): 526-533, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess hepatic copper concentrations and zonal distribution in cat liver specimens. METHODS: For this study, 121 archived, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver specimens from cats were used. Tissue sections were stained for copper with rhodanine and scored from 0 (no copper accumulation) to 5 (panlobular copper accumulation). The tissue specimens were then deparaffinized and hepatic copper concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Tissue samples were categorized into four groups based on histopathologic findings: (1) no significant histopathologic hepatic changes (n = 66); (2) hepatic steatosis (n = 18); (3) inflammatory or infectious disease (n = 24); and (4) neoplasia (n = 13). Of the 121 specimens, 13 (11%) stained positive for copper, with three having a score ⩾3. Thirty-seven specimens (31%) had copper concentrations above the reference interval ([RI] <180 µg/g dry weight liver). Copper concentrations in cats with hepatic inflammatory or infectious disease were significantly higher than cats with hepatic steatosis (P = 0.03). Copper-staining score and concentration were positively correlated (rs = 0.46, P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Despite the fact that 31% of specimens had copper concentrations above the RI, only 11% showed positive copper staining and only 2.5% had a score ⩾3. Our findings suggest that hepatic copper concentrations greater than the upper limit of the RI are relatively common in cats. Further studies to determine the factors that influence hepatic copper staining in cats and to establish contemporary RIs for hepatic copper in healthy cats are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Fígado Gorduroso , Rodanina , Animais , Gatos , Cobre , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Fígado
20.
PeerJ ; 8: e9706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fecal microbiota from obese individuals can induce obesity in animal models. In addition, studies in humans, animal models and dogs have revealed that the fecal microbiota of subjects with obesity is different from that of lean subjects and changes after weight loss. However, the impact of weight loss on the fecal microbiota in dogs with obesity has not been fully characterized. METHODS: In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the differences in the fecal microbiota of 20 pet dogs with obesity that underwent a weight loss program. The endpoint of the weight loss program was individually tailored to the ideal body weight of each dog. In addition, we evaluated the qPCR based Dysbiosis Index before and after weight loss. RESULTS: After weight loss, the fecal microbiota structure of dogs with obesity changed significantly (weightedANOSIM; p = 0.016, R = 0.073), showing an increase in bacterial richness (p = 0.007), evenness (p = 0.007) and the number of bacterial species (p = 0.007). The fecal microbiota composition of obese dogs after weight loss was characterized by a decrease in Firmicutes (92.3% to 78.2%, q = 0.001), and increase in Bacteroidetes (1.4% to 10.1%, q = 0.002) and Fusobacteria (1.6% to 6.2%, q = 0.040). The qPCR results revealed an overall decrease in the Dysbiosis Index, driven mostly due to a significant decrease in E. coli (p = 0.030), and increase in Fusobacterium spp. (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: The changes observed in the fecal microbiota of dogs with obesity after weight loss with a weight loss diet rich in fiber and protein were in agreement with previous studies in humans, that reported an increase of bacterial biodiversity and a decrease of the ratio Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes.

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