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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710336

RESUMO

Importance: Ischemia is an important pathophysiological mechanism after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its incidence and spatiotemporal patterns are poorly characterized. Objective: To comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal changes in cerebral physiology after TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center cohort study uses 15oxygen positron emission tomography data obtained in a neurosciences critical care unit from February 1998 through July 2014 and analyzed from April 2018 through August 2019. Patients with TBI requiring intracranial pressure monitoring and control participants were recruited. Exposures: Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2), and oxygen extraction fraction. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ratios (CBF/CMRO2 and CBF/CBV) were calculated. Ischemic brain volume was compared with jugular venous saturation and brain tissue oximetry. Results: A total of 68 patients with TBI and 27 control participants were recruited. Results from 1 patient with TBI and 7 health volunteers were excluded. Sixty-eight patients with TBI (13 female [19%]; median [interquartile range (IQR)] age, 29 [22-47] years) underwent 90 studies at early (day 1 [n = 17]), intermediate (days 2-5 [n = 54]), and late points (days 6-10 [n = 19]) and were compared with 20 control participants (5 female [25%]; median [IQR] age, 43 [31-47] years). The global CBF and CMRO2 findings for patients with TBI were less than the ranges for control participants at all stages (median [IQR]: CBF, 26 [22-30] mL/100 mL/min vs 38 [29-49] mL/100 mL/min; P < .001; CMRO2, 62 [55-71] µmol/100 mL/min vs 131 [101-167] µmol/100 mL/min; P < .001). Early CBF reductions showed a trend of high oxygen extraction fraction (suggesting classical ischemia), but this was inconsistent at later phases. Ischemic brain volume was elevated even in the absence of intracranial hypertension and highest at less than 24 hours after TBI (median [IQR], 36 [10-82] mL), but many patients showed later increases (median [IQR] 6-10 days after TBI, 24 [4-42] mL; across all points: patients, 10 [5-39] mL vs control participants, 1 [0-3] mL; P < 001). Ischemic brain volume was a poor indicator of jugular venous saturation and brain tissue oximetry. Patients' CBF/CMRO2 ratio was higher than controls (median [IQR], 0.42 [0.35-0.49] vs 0.3 [0.28-0.33]; P < .001) and their CBF/CBV ratio lower (median [IQR], 7.1 [6.4-7.9] vs 12.3 [11.0-14.0]; P < .001), suggesting abnormal flow-metabolism coupling and vascular reactivity. Patients' CBV was higher than controls (median [IQR], 3.7 [3.4-4.1] mL/100 mL vs 3.0 [2.7-3.6] mL/100 mL; P < .001); although values were lower in patients with intracranial hypertension, these were still greater than controls (median [IQR], 3.7 [3.2-4.0] vs 3.0 [2.7-3.6] mL/100 mL; P = .002), despite more profound reductions in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (median [IQR], 4.3 [4.1-4.6] kPa vs 4.7 [4.3-4.9] kPa; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Ischemia is common early, detectable up to 10 days after TBI, possible without intracranial hypertension, and inconsistently detected by jugular or brain tissue oximetry. There is substantial between-patient and within-patient pathophysiological heterogeneity; ischemia and hyperemia commonly coexist, possibly reflecting abnormalities in flow-metabolism coupling. Increased CBV may contribute to intracranial hypertension but can coexist with abnormal CBF/CBV ratios. These results emphasize the need to consider cerebrovascular pathophysiological complexity when managing patients with TBI.

2.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175502

RESUMO

The time constant of the cerebral arterial bed ("tau") estimates how fast the blood entering the brain fills the arterial vascular sector. Analogous to an electrical resistor-capacitor circuit, it is expressed as the product of arterial compliance (Ca) and cerebrovascular resistance (CVR). Hypocapnia increases the time constant in healthy volunteers and decreases arterial compliance in head trauma. How the combination of hyocapnia and trauma affects this parameter has yet to be studied. We hypothesized that in TBI patients the intense vasoconstrictive action of hypocapnia would dominate over the decrease in compliance seen after hyperventilation. The predominant vasoconstrictive response would maintain an incoming blood volume in the arterial circulation, thereby lengthening tau. We retrospectively analyzed recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and blood flow velocity (FV) obtained from a cohort of 27 severe TBI patients [(39/30 years (median/IQR), 5 women; admission GCS 6/5 (median/IQR)] studied during a standard clinical CO2 reactivity test. The reactivity test was performed by means of a 50-min increase in ventilation (20% increase in respiratory minute volume). CVR and Ca were estimated from these recordings, and their product calculated to find the time constant. CVR significantly increased [median CVR pre-hypocapnia/during hypocapnia: 1.05/1.35 mmHg/(cm3/s)]. Ca decreased (median Ca pre-hypocapnia/during hypocapnia: 0.130/0.124 arbitrary units) to statistical significance (p = 0.005). The product of these two parameters resulted in a significant prolongation of the time constant (median tau pre-hypocapnia/during hypocapnia: 0.136 s/0.152 s, p ˂ .001). Overall, the increase in CVR dominated over the decrease in compliance, hence tau was longer. We demonstrate a significant increase in the time constant of the cerebral circulation during hypocapnia after severe TBI, and attribute this to an increase in cerebrovascular resistance which outweighs the decrease in cerebral arterial bed compliance.

3.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 25(2): 110-116, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855318

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the aspects of pathophysiology that make it difficult to predict the effects of any attempt to improve brain perfusion and reviews the options to improve brain perfusion according to the needs of an individual patient, focusing on the choice of a suitable threshold for cerebral perfusion pressure. RECENT FINDINGS: Typically, vasopressors or vasodilators that do not directly influence the cerebral vascular bed are used to improve cerebral perfusion. Positive inotropic substances are rarely used, as the relationship between cardiac output and cerebral blood flow is complex and difficult to measure. Combining perfusion pressure monitoring with monitoring of brain metabolism or oxygenation to adapt cerebral perfusion to the needs of an individual patient has been disappointing. Recently, attempts to individualize perfusion pressure based on measurements of cerebrovascular autoregulation have shown promising results in the management of traumatic brain injury and during cardiac surgery. Currently, only preliminary data are available linking optimized cerebral perfusion to improved outcome. SUMMARY: Optimizing cerebral perfusion remains a difficult goal. All our attempts to manipulate brain perfusion are influenced in an unpredictable manner by underlying diseases. Autoregulation-based strategies to individualize cerebral perfusion management warrant further investigation.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 64(2): 643-655, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used to evaluate multiple cognitive domains in elderly individuals. However, it is influenced by demographic characteristics that have yet to be adequately considered. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of age, education, and sex on the MoCA total score and to provide demographically adjusted normative values for a German-speaking population. METHODS: Subjects were recruited from a registry of healthy volunteers. Cognitive health was defined using the Mini-Mental State Examination (score ≥27/30 points) and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (total score ≥85.9 points). Participants were assessed with the German version of the MoCA. Normative values were developed based on regression analysis. Covariates were chosen using the Predicted Residual Sums of Squares approach. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 283 participants (155 women, 128 men; mean (SD) age = 73.8 (5.2) years; education = 13.6 (2.9) years). Thirty-one percent of participants scored below the original cut-off (<26/30 points). The MoCA total score was best predicted by a regression model with age, education, and sex as covariates. Older age, lower education, and male sex were associated with a lower MoCA total score (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We developed a formula to provide demographically adjusted standard scores for the MoCA in a German-speaking population. A comparison with other MoCA normative studies revealed considerable differences with respect to selection of volunteers and methods used to establish normative data.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preexisting cognitive impairment in surgical patients is one of the leading risk factors for adverse cognitive outcomes such as postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We developed a self-administered tablet computer application intended to assess the individual risk for adverse postoperative cognitive outcomes. This cross-sectional study aimed to establish normative data for the tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy volunteers aged 65 years and above were administered the Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery to assess cognitive health. All subjects completed the tablet computer application without assistance. Primary outcome measure was the test performance. Regression models were built for each cognitive domain score with the covariates age, sex, and education in cognitively healthy subjects. Demographically adjusted standard scores (z-scores) were computed for each subtest. RESULTS: A total of 283 participants (155 women, 128 men) were included in the final analysis. Participants' age was 73.8±5.2 years (mean±SD) and their level of education was 13.6±2.9 years. Mini-Mental State Examination score was 29.2±0.9 points, Geriatric Depression Scale score was 0.4±0.7 points, and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery total score was 98.7±5.7 points. Older age was associated with poorer performance in the visual recognition task and in Trail Making Test B (P<0.05 after Bonferroni-Holm adjustments). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides normative data for a novel self-administered tablet computer application that is ultimately designed to measure the individual risk for adverse postoperative cognitive outcomes in elderly patients.

6.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 126: 139-142, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brain arterial critical closing pressure (CrCP) has been studied in several diseases such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), subarachnoid haemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and in various physiological scenarios: intracranial hypertension, decreased cerebral perfusion pressure, hypercapnia, etc. Little or nothing so far has been demonstrated to characterise change in CrCP during mild hypocapnia. METHOD: We retrospectively analysed recordings of intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and blood flow velocity from 27 severe TBI patients (mean 39.5 ± 3.4 years, 6 women) in whom a ventilation increase (20% increase in respiratory minute volume) was performed over 50 min as part of a standard clinical CO2 reactivity test. CrCP was calculated using the Windkessel model of cerebral arterial flow. Arteriolar wall tension (WT) was calculated as a difference between CrCP and ICP. The compartmental compliances arterial (C a ) and cerebrospinal fluid space (C i ) were also evaluated. RESULTS: During hypocapnia, ICP decreased from 17±6.8 to 13.2±6.6 mmHg (p < 0.000001). Wall tension increased from 14.5 ± 9.9 to 21.7±9.1 mmHg (p < 0.0002). CrCP, being a sum of WT + ICP, changed significantly from 31.5 ± 11.9 mmHg to 34.9±11.1 mmHg (p < 0.002), and the closing margin (ABP-CrCP) remained constant at an average value of 60 mmHg. C a decreased significantly during hypocapnia by 30% (p < 0.00001) and C i increased by 26% (p < 0.003). CONCLUSION: During hypocapnia in TBI patients, ICP decreases and WT increases. CrCP increases slightly as the rise in wall tension outweighs the decrease in ICP. The closing margin remained unchanged, suggesting that the risk of hypocapnia-induced ischemia might not be increased.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Hipocapnia/fisiopatologia , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade) , Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Taxa Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Circulation ; 137(12): 1221-1232, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) seems to be a contributor to mortality after noncardiac surgery. Because the vast majority of PMIs are asymptomatic, PMI usually is missed in the absence of systematic screening. METHODS: We performed a prospective diagnostic study enrolling consecutive patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who had a planned postoperative stay of ≥24 hours and were considered at increased cardiovascular risk. All patients received a systematic screening using serial measurements of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in clinical routine. PMI was defined as an absolute high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T increase of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. Furthermore, mortality was compared among patients with PMI not fulfilling additional criteria (ischemic symptoms, new ECG changes, or imaging evidence of loss of viable myocardium) required for the diagnosis of spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those that did. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2015 we included 2018 consecutive patients undergoing 2546 surgeries. Patients had a median age of 74 years and 42% were women. PMI occurred after 397 of 2546 surgeries (16%; 95% confidence interval, 14%-17%) and was accompanied by typical chest pain in 24 of 397 patients (6%) and any ischemic symptoms in 72 of 397 (18%). Crude 30-day mortality was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7-12.0) in patients with PMI versus 1.5% (95% CI, 0.9-2.0) in patients without PMI (P<0.001). Multivariable regression analysis showed an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.5-4.8) for 30-day mortality. The difference was retained at 1 year with mortality rates of 22.5% (95% CI, 17.6-27.4) versus 9.3% (95% CI, 7.9-10.7). Thirty-day mortality was comparable among patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction (280/397, 71%) versus those with at least 1 additional criterion (10.4%; 95% CI, 6.7-15.7, versus 8.7%; 95% CI, 4.2-16.7; P=0.684). CONCLUSIONS: PMI is a common complication after noncardiac surgery and, despite early detection during routine clinical screening, is associated with substantial short- and long-term mortality. Mortality seems comparable in patients with PMI not fulfilling any other of the additional criteria required for spontaneous acute myocardial infarction versus those patients who do. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02573532.

9.
J Vasc Surg ; 66(6): 1826-1835.e1, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Predicting cardiac events is essential to provide patients with the best medical care and to assess the risk-benefit ratio of surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (Lee) and the Vascular Study Group of New England Cardiac Risk Index (VSG) scores for the prediction of major cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing arterial surgery and to determine whether the inclusion of additional risk factors improved their accuracy. METHODS: The study prospectively enrolled 954 consecutive patients undergoing arterial vascular surgery, and the Lee and VSG scores were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves for each cardiac risk score were constructed and the areas under the curve (AUCs) compared. Two logistic regression models were done to determine new variables related to the occurrence of major cardiac events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest). RESULTS: Cardiac events occurred in 120 (12.6%) patients. Both scores underestimated the rate of cardiac events across all risk strata. The VSG score had AUC of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.68), which was higher than the AUC of the Lee score (0.58; 95% CI, 0.52-0.63; P = .03). Addition of preoperative anemia significantly improved the accuracy of the Lee score to an AUC of 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58-0.67; P = .002) but not that of the VSG score. CONCLUSIONS: The Lee and VSG scores have low accuracy and underestimate the risk of major perioperative cardiac events in unselected patients undergoing vascular surgery. The Lee score's accuracy can be increased by adding preoperative anemia. Underestimation of major cardiac complications may lead to incorrect risk-benefit assessments regarding the planned operation.


Assuntos
Artérias/cirurgia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Crit Care Med ; 45(9): 1464-1471, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28816837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In severe traumatic brain injury, cerebral perfusion pressure management based on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity index has the potential to provide a personalized treatment target to improve patient outcomes. So far, the methods have focused on identifying "one" autoregulation-guided cerebral perfusion pressure target-called "cerebral perfusion pressure optimal". We investigated whether a cerebral perfusion pressure autoregulation range-which uses a continuous estimation of the "lower" and "upper" cerebral perfusion pressure limits of cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation (assessed with pressure reactivity index)-has prognostic value. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: The neurocritical care unit at a tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Data from 729 severe traumatic brain injury patients admitted between 1996 and 2016 were used. Treatment was guided by controlling intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure according to a local protocol. INTERVENTIONS: None. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cerebral perfusion pressure-pressure reactivity index curves were fitted automatically using a previously published curve-fitting heuristic from the relationship between pressure reactivity index and cerebral perfusion pressure. The cerebral perfusion pressure values at which this "U-shaped curve" crossed the fixed threshold from intact to impaired pressure reactivity (pressure reactivity index = 0.3) were denoted automatically the "lower" and "upper" cerebral perfusion pressure limits of reactivity, respectively. The percentage of time with cerebral perfusion pressure below (%cerebral perfusion pressure < lower limit of reactivity), above (%cerebral perfusion pressure > upper limit of reactivity), or within these reactivity limits (%cerebral perfusion pressure within limits of reactivity) was calculated for each patient and compared across dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scores. After adjusting for age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, and mean intracranial pressure, percentage of time with cerebral perfusion pressure less than lower limit of reactivity was associated with unfavorable outcome (odds ratio %cerebral perfusion pressure < lower limit of reactivity, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06; p < 0.001) and mortality (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Individualized autoregulation-guided cerebral perfusion pressure management may be a plausible alternative to fixed cerebral perfusion pressure threshold management in severe traumatic brain injury patients. Prospective randomized research will help define which autoregulation-guided method is beneficial, safe, and most practical.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
11.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e015783, 2017 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Delirium is a neurobehavioural disturbance that frequently develops particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU) population. It was first described more than half a century ago, where it was already discovered as a state that might come along with serious complications such as prolonged ICU and hospital stay, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. However, in most cases, there is still lack of proof for causal relationship. Its presence frequently remains unrecognised due to suggested predominance of the hypoactive form. Furthermore, in the general ICU population, it has been shown that the duration of delirium is associated with worse long-term cognitive function. Due to the multifactorial origin of delirium, we have several but no incontestable treatment options. Nonetheless, delirium bears a high burden for patient, family members and the medical care team.The Basel ProDex Study targets improvement of hyperactive and mixed delirium therapy in critically ill patients. We will focus on reducing the duration and severity of delirium by implementing dexmedetomidine into the treatment plan. Dexmedetomidine compared with other sedatives shows fewer side effects representing a better risk profile for delirium treatment in general. This could further contribute to higher patient safety.The aim of the BaProDex Trial is to assess the superiority of dexmedetomidine to propofol for treatment of hyperactive and mixed delirium in the ICU. We hypothesise that dexmedetomidine, compared with propofol administered at night, shortens both the duration and severity of delirium. METHODS/DESIGN: The Basel ProDex Study is an investigator-initiated, one-institutional, two-centre randomised controlled clinical trial for the treatment of delirium with dexmedetomidine versus propofol in 316 critically ill patients suffering from hyperactive and mixed delirium. The primary outcome measure is delirium duration in hours. Secondary outcomes include delirium-free days at day 28, death at day 28, delirium severity, amount of ventilator days, amount of rescue sedation with haloperidol, length of ICU and hospital stay, and pharmaceutical economic analysis of the treatments. Sample size was estimated to be able to show the superiority of dexmedetomidine compared with propofol regarding the duration of delirium in hours. The trial will be externally monitored according to good clinical practice (GCP) requirements. There are no interim analyses planned for this trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted in compliance with the protocol, the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki, the International Conference on Harmonization- Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP) or Europäische Norm International Organization for Standardization (ISO EN 14155; as far as applicable) as well as all national legal and regulatory requirements. Only the study team will have access to trial specific data. Anonymisation will be achieved by a unique patient identification code. Trial data will be archived for a minimum of 10 years after study termination. We plan to publish the data in a major peer-reviewed clinical journal. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02807467 PROTOCOL VERSION: Clinical Study Protocol Version 2, 16.08.2016.


Assuntos
Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Delírio/mortalidade , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sono , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(6): 1966-1973, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for long duration and overall burden of POD after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: One-year, single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in 2013. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were screened for POD using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of POD. Secondary outcome measures were the duration of POD and the area under the curve determined using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score over time. Independent predictors of POD were estimated in multivariable logistic regression models. Hospital length of stay, medications, and outcome data also were analyzed. Among the 656 patients included in the cohort, 618 were analyzed. The overall incidence of POD was 39%. Older patient age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) 1.06 [1.04-1.09] for an increase of 1 year, p < 0.001); low preoperative serum albumin (1.08 [1.03-1.13] for a decrease of 1 g/L, p < 0.001); a history of atrial fibrillation (2.30 [1.30-4.09], p = 0.004); perioperative stroke (6.27 [1.54-43.64], p = 0.008); ascending aortic replacement surgery (2.99 [1.50-6.05], p = 0.002); longer duration of procedure (1.37 [1.16-1.63] for an increase of 1 hour, p < 0.001); and increased postoperative C-reactive protein concentration (2.16 [1.49-3.16] for a 2-fold increase, p < 0.001) were associated with higher odds of POD. Among patients affected by POD, older age, perioperative stroke, longer procedure time, and increased postoperative C-reactive protein were consistently predictive of longer duration of POD and greater area under the curve. CONCLUSIONS: Known risk factors for the development of POD after cardiac surgery also are predictive of prolonged duration and high overall burden of POD.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Delírio/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Anesth Analg ; 124(3): 934-942, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence links postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) to surgery and anesthesia. POCD is recognized as an important neuropsychological adverse outcome in surgical patients, particularly the elderly. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether POCD is associated with impaired intraoperative cerebral autoregulation and oxygenation, and increased levels of biomarkers of brain injury. METHODS: Study subjects were patients ≥65 years of age scheduled for major noncardiac surgery. Cognitive function was assessed before and 1 week after surgery. POCD was diagnosed if a decline of >1 standard deviation of z-scores was present in ≥2 variables of the test battery. The incidence of POCD 1 week after surgery was modeled as a multivariable function of the index of autoregulation (MxA) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI), adjusting for baseline neuropsychological assessment battery (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological Assessment Battery [CERAD-NAB]) total score and the maximum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. The biomarkers of brain injury neuron-specific enolase and S100ß protein, age, and level of education were included in secondary multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 82 patients who completed the study, 38 (46%) presented with POCD 1 week after surgery. In the multivariable regression analysis, higher intraoperative MxA (odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.39 [1.01-1.90] for an increase of 0.1 units, P = .08 after Bonferroni adjustment), signifying less effective autoregulation, was not associated with higher odds of POCD. The univariable logistic regression model for MxA yielded an association with POCD (OR [95% CI], 1.44 [1.06-1.95], P = .020). Tissue oxygenation index (1.12 [0.41-3.01] for an increase of 10%, P = 1.0 after Bonferroni adjustment) and baseline CERAD-NAB total score (0.80 [0.45-1.42] for an increase of 10 points, P = .45) did not affect the odds of POCD. POCD was associated with elevated CRP on postoperative day 2 (median [interquartile range]; 175 [81-294] vs 112 [62-142] mg/L, P = .033); however, the maximum CRP value (OR [95% CI], 1.35 [0.97-1.87] for a 2-fold increase, P = .07) had no distinct effect on POCD. CONCLUSIONS: Impairment of intraoperative cerebral blood flow autoregulation is not predictive of early POCD in elderly patients, although secondary analyses indicate that an association probably exists.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Idoso , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 16(1): 118, 2016 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27884107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is frequently observed in elderly patients after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear. The aim of our investigation is to identify potential associations between brain volume change and POCD in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study approved by the regional ethics board. We intend to compare specific brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricle, total grey matter volume, regional cortical thickness) on magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functions determined by a neuropsychological assessment battery in 70 study participants aged ≥65 years before and 3 and 12 months after major noncardiac surgery. Thirty volunteers will be included as matched nonsurgical controls. The primary endpoint of the study is the change in hippocampal volume over time in patients with and without POCD. The secondary endpoint is the correlation between the change in cerebral volume and cognitive function. We will follow the STROBE guidelines for reporting the results of observational studies. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that surgery under general anesthesia is associated with a loss of cerebral grey matter, and that the degree of postoperative cognitive dysfunction correlates with the extent of atrophy in areas of the brain that are relevant for cognitive functions. The validation of reproducible anatomical biomarkers, such as the specific brain volumes examined in our cohort, may serve to evaluate the effect of preventive strategies and treatment interventions for POCD in follow-up studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02045004 . Registered 22 January 2014. Kofam.ch SNCTP000001751. Registered 21 April 2016 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 122: 205-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27165907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is commonly impaired in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was to investigate correlations between cerebral autoregulation and CO2 reactivity in patients with TBI during transient mild hypocapnia. METHODS: Patients with TBI who were on mechanical ventilation were hyperventilated for approximately 60 min. Indices of autoregulation, based on a model of the relationship between arterial blood pressure and blood flow velocity (FV) (ARIabp) and, separately, between cerebral perfusion pressure and FV (ARIcpp), were calculated. Mean flow index (Mx) was also calculated. RESULTS: We investigated 31 consecutive patients. At baseline, median PaCO2 was 5.09 kPa (range 4.30-5.67 kPa); during hyperventilation, median PaCO2 was 4.38 kPa (range 3.72-4.96 kPa). ARI was associated with Mx (ARIabp vs. Mx: r = -0.39, p = 0.04; ARIcpp vs Mx: r = -0.67, p < 0.001). CO2 reactivity showed significant correlation with ARIcpp (r = 0.41, p = 0.04) and Mx (r = -0.37, p = 0.04). ARI after hyperventilation was significantly higher than ARI at baseline (ARIcpp: p = 0.02; ARIabp: p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral autoregulation seemed to be well linked to CO2 reactivity during transient hyperventilation. ARIcpp had a stronger correlation with CO2 reactivity than ARIabp. ARI indicated improvement of autoregulation during hyperventilation. Cerebral autoregulation indices (ARI, Mx) were associated with each other.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Hipocapnia/fisiopatologia , Pressão Intracraniana/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocapnia/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
17.
Trials ; 17: 155, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27004531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The two most commonly used uterotonic drugs in caesarean section are oxytocin and carbetocin, a synthetic oxytocin analogue. Carbetocin has a longer half-life when compared to oxytocin, resulting in a reduced use of additional uterotonics. Oxytocin is known to cause fewer cardiovascular side effects when administered as a short-infusion compared to as an intravenous bolus. Based on these findings, we aim at comparing carbetocin 100 mcg given as a slow intravenous bolus with carbetocin 100 mcg applied as a short-infusion in 100 ml 0.9 % sodium chloride in women undergoing a planned or unplanned caesarean delivery. We hypothesise uterine contraction not to be inferior to a bolus application (primary efficacy endpoint) and greater haemodynamic stability to be achieved after a short-infusion than after a bolus administration, as measured by heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure (primary safety endpoint). METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled, investigator-initiated, non-inferiority trial taking place at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Uterine tone is quantified by manual palpation by the obstetrician using a linear analogue scale from 0 to 100 at 2, 3, 5 and 10 minutes after cord clamping. We will evaluate whether the lower limit of the confidence interval for the difference of the maximal uterine tone within the first 5 minutes after cord clamping between both groups does not include the pre-specified non-inferiority limit of -10. Both haemodynamic secondary endpoints will be analysed using a linear regression model, adjusting for the baseline value and the dosage of vasoactive drug given between cord clamping and 1 minute thereafter, in order to investigate superiority of a short-infusion as compared to a bolus application. We will follow the extension of CONSORT guidelines for reporting the results of non-inferiority trials. DISCUSSION: Haemodynamic stability and adequate uterine tone are important outcomes in caesarean sections. The results of this trial may be used to optimise these factors and thereby increase patient safety due to a reduction in cardiovascular side effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02221531 on 19 August 2014 and www.kofam.ch SNCTP000001197 on 15 November 2014.


Assuntos
Cesárea/métodos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/análogos & derivados , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 30(3): 255-64, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26285741

RESUMO

Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P < 0.001). Effective autoregulation was found in a blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200).


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Éteres Metílicos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacocinética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Éteres Metílicos/farmacocinética , Estudos Prospectivos , Sevoflurano , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
19.
F1000Res ; 5: 2521, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27928498

RESUMO

We report the case of a 39-year-old male with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing emergency craniotomy for a cerebral abscess. Maintenance of intraoperative hemodynamic stability and adequate tissue oxygenation during anesthesia may be challenging in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. In this case, we decided to perform the surgery as an awake craniotomy after interdisciplinary consensus. We discuss general aspects of anesthetic management during awake craniotomy and specific concerns in the perioperative care of patients with congenital heart disease.

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